Publications by authors named "Betty Nsangi"

5 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Outcomes of empiric treatment for pediatric tuberculosis, Kampala, Uganda, 2010-2015.

BMC Public Health 2019 Apr 29;19(1):446. Epub 2019 Apr 29.

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, University of California, 1001 Potrero Ave, SFGH 5, San Francisco, CA, 94110, USA.

Background: Childhood tuberculosis (TB) diagnoses often lack microbiologic confirmation and require empiric treatment. Barriers to empiric treatment include concern for poor outcomes and adverse effects. We thus determined the outcomes of empiric TB treatment from a retrospective cohort of children at a national referral hospital in Kampala, Uganda from 2010 to 2015.

Methods: Children were diagnosed clinically and followed through treatment. Demographics, clinical data, outcome and any adverse events were extracted from patient charts. A favorable outcome was defined as a child completing treatment with clinical improvement. We performed logistic regression to assess factors associated with loss to follow up and death.

Results: Of 516 children, median age was 36 months (IQR 15-73), 55% (95% CI 51-60%) were male, and HIV prevalence was 6% (95% CI 4-9%). The majority (n = 422, 82, 95% CI 78-85%) had a favorable outcome, with no adverse events that required treatment discontinuation. The most common unfavorable outcomes were loss to follow-up (57/94, 61%) and death (35/94, 37%; overall mortality 7%). In regression analysis, loss to follow up was associated with age 10-14 years (OR 2.38, 95% CI 1.15-4.93, p = 0.02), HIV positivity (OR 3.35, 95% CI 1.41-7.92, p = 0.01), hospitalization (OR 4.14, 95% CI 2.08-8.25, p < 0.001), and living outside of Kampala (OR 2.64, 95% CI 1.47-4.71, p = 0.001). Death was associated with hospitalization (OR 4.57, 95% CI 2.0-10.46, p < 0.001), severe malnutrition (OR 2.98, 95% CI 1.07-8.27, p = 0.04), baseline hepatomegaly (OR 4.11, 95% CI 2.09-8.09, p < 0.001), and living outside of Kampala (OR 2.41, 95% CI 1.17-4.96, p = 0.02).

Conclusions: Empiric treatment of child TB was effective and safe, but treatment success remained below the 90% target. Addressing co-morbidities and improving retention in care may reduce unfavorable outcomes.
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April 2019

Seasonality of childhood tuberculosis cases in Kampala, Uganda, 2010-2015.

PLoS One 2019 9;14(4):e0214555. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Division of Pulmonology and Critical Care Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, United States of America.

Background: Seasonality in tuberculosis (TB) has been described, especially in children. However, few studies have assessed seasonality of TB in the equatorial region, and none in children.

Objectives: To assess for seasonality of childhood TB cases in Kampala, Uganda, and determine the role of temperature, rainfall patterns, and influenza cases on TB diagnoses.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed demographic and clinical data of children (under 15 years) diagnosed with TB at a pediatric TB clinic in Kampala, Uganda from 2010 to 2015. We performed decomposition analysis of the monthly case time series to assess seasonality. We compared monthly mean plots and performed Poisson regression to assess any association between TB diagnoses and temperature, rainfall, and influenza.

Results: Of the 713 childhood TB cases diagnosed at the clinic, 609 (85%) were clinically diagnosed and 492 (69%) were pulmonary cases. There were minimal monthly variations in TB cases, with a trough in December and peaks in July and October, but there was no significant seasonality. Temperature variations did not show a clear pattern with TB diagnoses. Rainfall alternated with TB diagnoses in the first half of the year, but then overlapped in the second half and was significantly associated with TB diagnoses. Influenza cases were significantly related to TB diagnoses with (β = 0.05, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.09, p = 0.01) or without (β = 0.06, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.1, p = 0.01) rainfall, and had particular overlap with pulmonary TB cases.

Conclusions: Seasonal variations in childhood TB diagnoses were non-significant. Temperature did not have a clear pattern with TB diagnoses, but rainfall and influenza cases correlated with the primarily clinically diagnosed childhood TB cases.
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December 2019

Whole-Exome Sequencing Reveals Uncaptured Variation and Distinct Ancestry in the Southern African Population of Botswana.

Am J Hum Genet 2018 05 26;102(5):731-743. Epub 2018 Apr 26.

Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA; USDA/ARS/Children's Nutrition Research Center, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA. Electronic address:

Large-scale, population-based genomic studies have provided a context for modern medical genetics. Among such studies, however, African populations have remained relatively underrepresented. The breadth of genetic diversity across the African continent argues for an exploration of local genomic context to facilitate burgeoning disease mapping studies in Africa. We sought to characterize genetic variation and to assess population substructure within a cohort of HIV-positive children from Botswana-a Southern African country that is regionally underrepresented in genomic databases. Using whole-exome sequencing data from 164 Batswana and comparisons with 150 similarly sequenced HIV-positive Ugandan children, we found that 13%-25% of variation observed among Batswana was not captured by public databases. Uncaptured variants were significantly enriched (p = 2.2 × 10) for coding variants with minor allele frequencies between 1% and 5% and included predicted-damaging non-synonymous variants. Among variants found in public databases, corresponding allele frequencies varied widely, with Botswana having significantly higher allele frequencies among rare (<1%) pathogenic and damaging variants. Batswana clustered with other Southern African populations, but distinctly from 1000 Genomes African populations, and had limited evidence for admixture with extra-continental ancestries. We also observed a surprising lack of genetic substructure in Botswana, despite multiple tribal ethnicities and language groups, alongside a higher degree of relatedness than purported founder populations from the 1000 Genomes project. Our observations reveal a complex, but distinct, ancestral history and genomic architecture among Batswana and suggest that disease mapping within similar Southern African populations will require a deeper repository of genetic variation and allelic dependencies than presently exists.
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May 2018

Availability of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention Services in Secondary Schools in Kabarole District, Uganda.

J Public Health Afr 2015 Aug 17;6(2):454. Epub 2015 Aug 17.

Baylor College of Medicine Children's Foundation , Uganda.

The aim of this study was to assess the level of availability of HIV prevention strategies in secondary schools in Kabarole district, Uganda in order to inform the design of interventions to strengthen HIV Prevention and psychosocial support. Quantitative and qualitative research methods were used in eight secondary schools in Kabarole district to establish available HIV prevention and psychosocial support services. Questionnaires were administered to 355 students 12-24 years old. In addition, 20 Key Informant interviews were held with education service providers. Quantitative data was analyzed using Epi-data and qualitative data were analyzed by thematic content analysis. Seven of the eight schools had at least one HIV prevention strategy. Two teachers in each of the five schools had been trained in HIV prevention. No school had a nurse trained in HIV prevention, care and support. Education service providers had limited knowledge of HIV prevention support and care of students living with HIV. We found out that students had knowledge on how one can acquire HIV. HIV prevention services reported by students in schools included: talks from teachers and guests (19%), drama with HIV prevention related messages (16%), peer education clubs (15%), workshops and seminars on HIV (8%), sensitization about HIV/AIDS (7%), guidance and counseling (6%), talking compounds- (5%), abstinence talks (6%), keeping students busy in sports (4%), straight talk (4%). Sixty three percent reported receiving HIV reading materials from various sources. Preventing HIV infection among students in schools is still demanding with limited interventions for students. Efforts to support school interventions should focus on including HIV Prevention in the school curriculum, working with peer educators as well as education service providers who spend much of the time with the students while at school.
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August 2015