Publications by authors named "Betty Chinda"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Functional MRI evaluation of the effect of carotid artery stenting: a case study demonstrating cognitive improvement.

Acta Radiol Open 2021 Feb 10;10(2):2058460120988822. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Health Sciences and Innovation, Surrey Memorial Hospital, Fraser Health Authority, British Columbia, Canada.

Background: The narrowing of the carotid arteries with plaque formation represents a major risk factor for ischemic stroke and cognitive impairments. Carotid angioplasty and stenting is a standard clinical treatment to reduce stroke risk. The cognitive effect of carotid angioplasty and stenting remains largely unknown.

Purpose: This study aims to provide direct evidence of possible effects of carotid angioplasty and stenting on cognition, using task-phase functional magnetic resonance imaging.

Material And Methods: This study received harmonized institutional ethics board approval (Grant number REB ID =H18-02495/FHREB 2018-058). Two patients had MRI scans pre-carotid angioplasty and stenting and two-month post-carotid angioplasty and stenting. Case 1 had severe (>95%) flow-limiting stenosis in the right carotid artery. Case 2 had 70% non-flow limiting stenosis in the left carotid artery. At each scan, patients completed two functional magnetic resonance imaging sessions while performing a working memory task. Accuracy, reaction time, and brain activation were analyzed for each patient for possible pre-post carotid angioplasty and stenting changes.

Results: Case 1 showed increased activation in the right (treated-side) frontal and temporal lobes post-carotid angioplasty and stenting; associated with improvements in accuracy (from 58% to 74%) and task completion rate (from 17% to 72%). Case 2 completed the tasks pre- and post-carotid angioplasty and stenting with >90% accuracy, while decreased functional magnetic resonance imaging activation in the contralateral (untreated) hemisphere and mildly increased activation in the left (treated -side) anterior circulation territory were observed post-carotid angioplasty and stenting.

Conclusion: These cases provided the first task-phase functional magnetic resonance imaging data demonstrating that carotid angioplasty and stenting improved cognitive function in the re-perfused vascular territory. The finding supports the role of carotid angioplasty and stenting in improving cognitive performance beyond reducing stroke risk.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source Listing
February 2021

A fast and fully-automated deep-learning approach for accurate hemorrhage segmentation and volume quantification in non-contrast whole-head CT.

Sci Rep 2020 11 9;10(1):19389. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

Department of Biomedical Physiology and Kinesiology, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, Canada.

This project aimed to develop and evaluate a fast and fully-automated deep-learning method applying convolutional neural networks with deep supervision (CNN-DS) for accurate hematoma segmentation and volume quantification in computed tomography (CT) scans. Non-contrast whole-head CT scans of 55 patients with hemorrhagic stroke were used. Individual scans were standardized to 64 axial slices of 128 × 128 voxels. Each voxel was annotated independently by experienced raters, generating a binary label of hematoma versus normal brain tissue based on majority voting. The dataset was split randomly into training (n = 45) and testing (n = 10) subsets. A CNN-DS model was built applying the training data and examined using the testing data. Performance of the CNN-DS solution was compared with three previously established methods. The CNN-DS achieved a Dice coefficient score of 0.84 ± 0.06 and recall of 0.83 ± 0.07, higher than patch-wise U-Net (< 0.76). CNN-DS average running time of 0.74 ± 0.07 s was faster than PItcHPERFeCT (> 1412 s) and slice-based U-Net (> 12 s). Comparable interrater agreement rates were observed between "method-human" vs. "human-human" (Cohen's kappa coefficients > 0.82). The fully automated CNN-DS approach demonstrated expert-level accuracy in fast segmentation and quantification of hematoma, substantially improving over previous methods. Further research is warranted to test the CNN-DS solution as a software tool in clinical settings for effective stroke management.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source Listing
November 2020

A Computerized Frailty Assessment Tool at Points-of-Care: Development of a Standalone Electronic Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment/Frailty Index (eFI-CGA).

Front Public Health 2020 31;8:89. Epub 2020 Mar 31.

Health Sciences and Innovation, Surrey Memorial Hospital, Surrey, BC, Canada.

Frailty is characterized by loss of biological reserves and is associated with an increased risk of adverse health outcomes. Frailty can be operationalized using a Frailty Index (FI) based on the accumulation of health deficits; items under health evaluation in the well-established Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA) have been used to generate an FI-CGA. Traditionally, constructing the FI-CGA has relied on paper-based recording and manual data processing. As this can be time-consuming and error-prone, it limits widespread uptake of this proven type of frailty assessment. Here, we report the development of an electronic tool, the eFI-CGA, for use on personal computers by frontline healthcare providers, to collect CGA data and automate FI-CFA calculation. The ultimate goal is to support early identification and management of frailty at points-of-care, and make uptake in Electronic Medical Records (EMR) feasible and transparent. An electronic CGA (eCGA) form was implemented to operate on Microsoft's WinForms platform and coded using C# programming language. Users complete the eCGA form, from which items under the CGA evaluation are automatically retrieved and processed to output an eFI-CGA score. A user-friendly interface and secured data saving methods were implemented. The software was debugged and tested using systematically designed simulation data, addressing different logic, syntax, and application errors, and then tested with clinical assessment. The user manual and manual scoring were used as ground truth to compare eFI-CGA input and automated eFI score calculations. Frontline health-provider user feedback was incorporated to improve the end-user experience. The Standalone eFI-CGA software tool was developed and optimized for use on personal computers. The user interface adapted the design of paper-based CGA form to facilitate familiarity for clinical users. Compared to known scores, the software tool generated eFI-CGA scores with 100% accuracy to four decimal places. The eFI-CGA allowed secure data storage and retrieval of multiple types, including user input, completed eCGA form, coded items, and calculated eFI-CGA scores. It also permitted recording of actions requiring clinical follow-up, facilitating care planning. Application bugs were identified and resolved at various stages of the implementation, resulting in efficient system performance. Accurate, robust, and reliable computerized frailty assessments are needed to promote effective frailty assessment and management, as a key tool in health care systems facing up to frailty. Our research has enabled the delivery of the standalone eFI-CGA software technology to empower effective frailty assessment and management by various healthcare providers at points-of-care, facilitating integrated care of older adults.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source Listing
March 2020

Automation of CT-based haemorrhagic stroke assessment for improved clinical outcomes: study protocol and design.

BMJ Open 2018 04 19;8(4):e020260. Epub 2018 Apr 19.

Health Sciences and Innovation, Fraser Health Authority, Surrey, British Columbia, Canada.

Introduction: Haemorrhagic stroke is of significant healthcare concern due to its association with high mortality and lasting impact on the survivors' quality of life. Treatment decisions and clinical outcomes depend strongly on the size, spread and location of the haematoma. Non-contrast CT (NCCT) is the primary neuroimaging modality for haematoma assessment in haemorrhagic stroke diagnosis. Current procedures do not allow convenient NCCT-based haemorrhage volume calculation in clinical settings, while research-based approaches are yet to be tested for clinical utility; there is a demonstrated need for developing effective solutions. The project under review investigates the development of an automatic NCCT-based haematoma computation tool in support of accurate quantification of haematoma volumes.

Methods And Analysis: Several existing research methods for haematoma volume estimation are studied. Selected methods are tested using NCCT images of patients diagnosed with acute haemorrhagic stroke. For inter-rater and intrarater reliability evaluation, different raters will analyse haemorrhage volumes independently. The efficiency with respect to time of haematoma volume assessments will be examined to compare with the results from routine clinical evaluations and planimetry assessment that are known to be more accurate. The project will target the development of an enhanced solution by adapting existing methods and integrating machine learning algorithms. NCCT-based information of brain haemorrhage (eg, size, volume, location) and other relevant information (eg, age, sex, risk factor, comorbidities) will be used in relation to clinical outcomes with future project development. Validity and reliability of the solution will be examined for potential clinical utility.

Ethics And Dissemination: The project including procedures for deidentification of NCCT data has been ethically approved. The study involves secondary use of existing data and does not require new consent of participation. The team consists of clinical neuroimaging scientists, computing scientists and clinical professionals in neurology and neuroradiology and includes patient representatives. Research outputs will be disseminated following knowledge translation plans towards improving stroke patient care. Significant findings will be published in scientific journals. Anticipated deliverables include computer solutions for improved clinical assessment of haematoma using NCCT.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source Listing
April 2018