Publications by authors named "Bettina Kalt"

3 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

HMG-CoA reductase promotes protein prenylation and therefore is indispensible for T-cell survival.

Cell Death Dis 2017 05 25;8(5):e2824. Epub 2017 May 25.

Institute for Molecular Medicine, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Obere Zahlbacher Str. 67, Mainz 55131, Germany.

Statins are a well-established family of drugs that lower cholesterol levels via the competitive inhibition of the enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR). In addition, the pleiotropic anti-inflammatory effects of statins on T cells make them attractive as therapeutic drugs in T-cell-driven autoimmune disorders. Since statins do not exclusively target HMGCR and thus might have varying effects on different cell types, we generated a new mouse strain allowing for the tissue-specific deletion of HMGCR. Deletion of HMGCR expression in T cells led to a severe decrease in their numbers with the remaining cells displaying an activated phenotype, with an increased proportion of regulatory T cells (T) in particular. However, deletion of HMGCR specifically in T resulted in severe autoimmunity, suggesting that this enzyme is also essential for the maintenance of T. We were able to prevent the death of HMGCR-deficient lymphocytes by the addition of either the direct metabolite of HMGCR, namely mevalonate, or the downstream metabolite geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate, which is essential for protein prenylation. However, the addition of cholesterol, which is the final product of the mevalonate pathway, did not inhibit cell death, indicating that protein prenylation rather than the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway is indispensible for T-cell survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/cddis.2017.221DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5520735PMC
May 2017

EBI2 Is Highly Expressed in Multiple Sclerosis Lesions and Promotes Early CNS Migration of Encephalitogenic CD4 T Cells.

Cell Rep 2017 01;18(5):1270-1284

Institute for Molecular Medicine, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, 55131 Mainz, Germany. Electronic address:

Arrival of encephalitogenic T cells at inflammatory foci represents a critical step in development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the animal model for multiple sclerosis. EBI2 and its ligand, 7α,25-OHC, direct immune cell localization in secondary lymphoid organs. CH25H and CYP7B1 hydroxylate cholesterol to 7α,25-OHC. During EAE, we found increased expression of CH25H by microglia and CYP7B1 by CNS-infiltrating immune cells elevating the ligand concentration in the CNS. Two critical pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-23 (IL-23) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), maintained expression of EBI2 in differentiating Th17 cells. In line with this, EBI2 enhanced early migration of encephalitogenic T cells into the CNS in a transfer EAE model. Nonetheless, EBI2 was dispensable in active EAE. Human Th17 cells do also express EBI2, and EBI2 expressing cells are abundant within multiple sclerosis (MS) white matter lesions. These findings implicate EBI2 as a mediator of CNS autoimmunity and describe mechanistically its contribution to the migration of autoreactive T cells into inflamed organs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2017.01.020DOI Listing
January 2017

The tumor suppressor CYLD controls the function of murine regulatory T cells.

J Immunol 2012 Nov 12;189(10):4770-6. Epub 2012 Oct 12.

Institute for Molecular Medicine, Johannes Gutenberg-University of Mainz, 55131 Mainz, Germany.

CYLD was originally identified as a tumor suppressor gene mutated in familial cylindromatosis, an autosomal dominant predisposition to multiple benign neoplasms of the skin known as cylindromas. The CYLD protein is a deubiquitinating enzyme that acts as a negative regulator of NF-κB and JNK signaling through its interaction with NEMO and TNFR-associated factor 2. We have previously described a novel mouse strain that expresses solely and excessively a naturally occurring splice variant of CYLD (CYLD(ex7/8)). In this study, we demonstrate that CYLD plays a critical role in Treg development and function. T cells of CYLD(ex7/8) mice had a hyperactive phenotype manifested by increased production of inflammatory cytokines and constitutive activation of the NF-κB pathway. Furthermore, the amount of Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells in these mice was markedly enhanced in thymus and peripheral organs. Importantly, these regulatory T cells displayed decreased expression levels of CD25 and CTLA-4 associated with impaired suppressive capacity. Hence, our data emphasize an essential role of CYLD in maintaining T cell homeostasis as well as normal T regulatory cell function, thereby controlling abnormal T cell responses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1201993DOI Listing
November 2012