Publications by authors named "Betsy S Pierce"

10 Publications

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Design and optimization of a series of 4-(3-azabicyclo[3.1.0]hexan-3-yl)pyrimidin-2-amines: Dual inhibitors of TYK2 and JAK1.

Bioorg Med Chem 2020 05 31;28(10):115481. Epub 2020 Mar 31.

Medicine Design, Pfizer Inc, Eastern Point Road, Groton, CT 06340, United States.

Herein, we disclose a new series of TYK2/ JAK1 inhibitors based upon a 3.1.0 azabicyclic substituted pyrimidine scaffold. We illustrate the use of structure-based drug design for the initial design and subsequent optimization of this series of compounds. One advanced example 19 met program objectives for potency, selectivity and ADME, and demonstrated oral activity in the adjuvant-induced arthritis rat model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmc.2020.115481DOI Listing
May 2020

Dual Inhibition of TYK2 and JAK1 for the Treatment of Autoimmune Diseases: Discovery of (( S)-2,2-Difluorocyclopropyl)((1 R,5 S)-3-(2-((1-methyl-1 H-pyrazol-4-yl)amino)pyrimidin-4-yl)-3,8-diazabicyclo[3.2.1]octan-8-yl)methanone (PF-06700841).

J Med Chem 2018 10 16;61(19):8597-8612. Epub 2018 Aug 16.

Medicine Design, Pfizer Inc., 1 Portland Street , Cambridge , Massachusetts 02139 , United States.

Cytokine signaling is an important characteristic of autoimmune diseases. Many pro-inflammatory cytokines signal through the Janus kinase (JAK)/Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway. JAK1 is important for the γ-common chain cytokines, interleukin (IL)-6, and type-I interferon (IFN) family, while TYK2 in addition to type-I IFN signaling also plays a role in IL-23 and IL-12 signaling. Intervention with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) or JAK1 inhibitors has demonstrated efficacy in Phase III psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and rheumatoid arthritis studies, leading to multiple drug approvals. We hypothesized that a dual JAK1/TYK2 inhibitor will provide additional efficacy, while managing risk by optimizing selectivity against JAK2 driven hematopoietic changes. Our program began with a conformationally constrained piperazinyl-pyrimidine Type 1 ATP site inhibitor, subsequent work led to the discovery of PF-06700841 (compound 23), which is in Phase II clinical development (NCT02969018, NCT02958865, NCT03395184, and NCT02974868).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.8b00917DOI Listing
October 2018

Microfluidic-Enabled Intracellular Delivery of Membrane Impermeable Inhibitors to Study Target Engagement in Human Primary Cells.

ACS Chem Biol 2017 12 13;12(12):2970-2974. Epub 2017 Nov 13.

SQZ Biotechnologies , 134 Coolidge Avenue, Watertown, Massachusetts 02472, United States.

Biochemical screening is a major source of lead generation for novel targets. However, during the process of small molecule lead optimization, compounds with excellent biochemical activity may show poor cellular potency, making structure-activity relationships difficult to decipher. This may be due to low membrane permeability of the molecule, resulting in insufficient intracellular drug concentration. The Cell Squeeze platform increases permeability regardless of compound structure by mechanically disrupting the membrane, which can overcome permeability limitations and bridge the gap between biochemical and cellular studies. In this study, we show that poorly permeable Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors are delivered into primary cells using Cell Squeeze, inhibiting up to 90% of the JAK pathway, while incubation of JAK inhibitors with or without electroporation had no significant effect. We believe this robust intracellular delivery approach could enable more effective lead optimization and deepen our understanding of target engagement by small molecules and functional probes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acschembio.7b00683DOI Listing
December 2017

Discovery of Clinical Candidate 1-{[(2S,3S,4S)-3-Ethyl-4-fluoro-5-oxopyrrolidin-2-yl]methoxy}-7-methoxyisoquinoline-6-carboxamide (PF-06650833), a Potent, Selective Inhibitor of Interleukin-1 Receptor Associated Kinase 4 (IRAK4), by Fragment-Based Drug Design.

J Med Chem 2017 07 14;60(13):5521-5542. Epub 2017 Jun 14.

Worldwide Medicinal Chemistry, Pfizer Inc. , 1070 Science Center Drive, San Diego, California 92121, United States.

Through fragment-based drug design focused on engaging the active site of IRAK4 and leveraging three-dimensional topology in a ligand-efficient manner, a micromolar hit identified from a screen of a Pfizer fragment library was optimized to afford IRAK4 inhibitors with nanomolar potency in cellular assays. The medicinal chemistry effort featured the judicious placement of lipophilicity, informed by co-crystal structures with IRAK4 and optimization of ADME properties to deliver clinical candidate PF-06650833 (compound 40). This compound displays a 5-unit increase in lipophilic efficiency from the fragment hit, excellent kinase selectivity, and pharmacokinetic properties suitable for oral administration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.7b00231DOI Listing
July 2017

Maximizing lipophilic efficiency: the use of Free-Wilson analysis in the design of inhibitors of acetyl-CoA carboxylase.

J Med Chem 2012 Jan 11;55(2):935-42. Epub 2012 Jan 11.

Pfizer Worldwide Research and Development, Eastern Point Road, Groton, Connecticut 06340, United States.

This paper describes the design and synthesis of a novel series of dual inhibitors of acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 and 2 (ACC1 and ACC2). Key findings include the discovery of an initial lead that was modestly potent and subsequent medicinal chemistry optimization with a focus on lipophilic efficiency (LipE) to balance overall druglike properties. Free-Wilson methodology provided a clear breakdown of the contributions of specific structural elements to the overall LipE, a rationale for prioritization of virtual compounds for synthesis, and a highly successful prediction of the LipE of the resulting analogues. Further preclinical assays, including in vivo malonyl-CoA reduction in both rat liver (ACC1) and rat muscle (ACC2), identified an advanced analogue that progressed to regulatory toxicity studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jm201503uDOI Listing
January 2012

A benzothiophene inhibitor of mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 inhibits tumor necrosis factor alpha production and has oral anti-inflammatory efficacy in acute and chronic models of inflammation.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2010 Jun 17;333(3):797-807. Epub 2010 Mar 17.

Department of Discovery Biology, Inflammation Research Unit, Pfizer Global Research and Development, Chesterfield, Missouri, USA.

Activation of the p38 kinase pathway in immune cells leads to the transcriptional and translational regulation of proinflammatory cytokines. Mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MK2), a direct downstream substrate of p38 kinase, regulates lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) production through modulating the stability and translation of these mRNAs. Developing small-molecule inhibitors of MK2 may yield anti-inflammatory efficacy with a different safety profile relative to p38 kinase inhibitors. This article describes the pharmacologic properties of a benzothiophene MK2 inhibitor, PF-3644022 [(10R)-10-methyl-3-(6-methylpyridin-3-yl)-9,10,11,12-tetrahydro-8H-[1,4]diazepino[5',6':4,5]thieno[3,2-f]quinolin-8-one]. PF-3644022 is a potent freely reversible ATP-competitive compound that inhibits MK2 activity (K(i) = 3 nM) with good selectivity when profiled against 200 human kinases. In the human U937 monocytic cell line or peripheral blood mononuclear cells, PF-3644022 potently inhibits TNFalpha production with similar activity (IC(50) = 160 nM). PF-3644022 blocks TNFalpha and IL-6 production in LPS-stimulated human whole blood with IC(50) values of 1.6 and 10.3 microM, respectively. Inhibition of TNFalpha in U937 cells and blood correlates closely with inhibition of phospho-heat shock protein 27, a target biomarker of MK2 activity. PF-3644022 displays good pharmacokinetic parameters in rats and is orally efficacious in both the rat acute LPS-induced TNFalpha model and the chronic streptococcal cell wall-induced arthritis model. Dose-dependent inhibition of TNFalpha production in the acute model and inhibition of paw swelling in the chronic model is observed with ED(50) values of 6.9 and 20 mg/kg, respectively. PF-3644022 efficacy in the chronic inflammation model is strongly correlated with maintaining a C(min) higher than the EC(50) measured in the rat LPS-induced TNFalpha model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/jpet.110.166173DOI Listing
June 2010

Structure-based drug design enables conversion of a DFG-in binding CSF-1R kinase inhibitor to a DFG-out binding mode.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2010 Mar 21;20(5):1543-7. Epub 2010 Jan 21.

Pfizer Global Research & Development, St. Louis Laboratories, 700 Chesterfield Parkway West, Chesterfield, MO 63017, United States.

The work described herein demonstrates the utility of structure-based drug design (SBDD) in shifting the binding mode of an HTS hit from a DFG-in to a DFG-out binding mode resulting in a class of novel potent CSF-1R kinase inhibitors suitable for lead development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2010.01.078DOI Listing
March 2010

Benzothiophene inhibitors of MK2. Part 1: structure-activity relationships, assessments of selectivity and cellular potency.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2009 Aug 8;19(16):4878-81. Epub 2009 Feb 8.

Pfizer Global Research and Development, St Louis Laboratories, Chesterfield, MO 63017, USA.

Identification of potent benzothiophene inhibitors of mitogen activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MK2), structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies, selectivity assessments against CDK2, cellular potency and mechanism of action are presented. Crystallographic data provide a rationale for the observed MK2 potency as well as selectivity over CDK2 for this class of inhibitors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2009.02.015DOI Listing
August 2009

Benzothiophene inhibitors of MK2. Part 2: improvements in kinase selectivity and cell potency.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2009 Aug 8;19(16):4882-4. Epub 2009 Feb 8.

Pfizer Global Research and Development, St Louis Laboratories, Chesterfield, MO 63017, USA.

Optimization of kinase selectivity for a set of benzothiophene MK2 inhibitors provided analogs with potencies of less than 500 nM in a cell based assay. The selectivity of the inhibitors can be rationalized by examination of X-ray crystal structures of inhibitors bound to MK2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2009.02.017DOI Listing
August 2009

3-Aminopyrazole inhibitors of CDK2/cyclin A as antitumor agents. 1. Lead finding.

J Med Chem 2004 Jun;47(13):3367-80

Chemistry Department, Pharmacia Italia, Viale Pasteur 10, 20014 Nerviano (MI), Italy.

Abnormal proliferation mediated by disruption of the normal cell cycle mechanisms is a hallmark of virtually all cancer cells. Compounds targeting complexes between cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK) and cyclins, such as CDK2/cyclin A and CDK2/cyclin E, and inhibiting their kinase activity are regarded as promising antitumor agents to complement the existing therapies. From a high-throughput screening effort, we identified a new class of CDK2/cyclin A/E inhibitors. The hit-to-lead expansion of this class is described. X-ray crystallographic data of early compounds in this series, as well as in vitro testing funneled for rapidly achieving in vivo efficacy, led to a nanomolar inhibitor of CDK2/cyclin A (N-(5-cyclopropyl-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)-2-(2-naphthyl)acetamide (41), PNU-292137, IC50 = 37 nM) with in vivo antitumor activity (TGI > 50%) in a mouse xenograft model at a dose devoid of toxic effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jm031145uDOI Listing
June 2004