Publications by authors named "Beth Ghavidel"

3 Publications

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Learning-Based Stopping Power Mapping on Dual-Energy CT for Proton Radiation Therapy.

Int J Part Ther 2021 12;7(3):46-60. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Department of Radiation Oncology and Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Purpose: Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) has been used to derive relative stopping power (RSP) maps by obtaining the energy dependence of photon interactions. The DECT-derived RSP maps could potentially be compromised by image noise levels and the severity of artifacts when using physics-based mapping techniques. This work presents a noise-robust learning-based method to predict RSP maps from DECT for proton radiation therapy.

Materials And Methods: The proposed method uses a residual attention cycle-consistent generative adversarial network to bring DECT-to-RSP mapping close to a 1-to-1 mapping by introducing an inverse RSP-to-DECT mapping. To evaluate the proposed method, we retrospectively investigated 20 head-and-neck cancer patients with DECT scans in proton radiation therapy simulation. Ground truth RSP values were assigned by calculation based on chemical compositions and acted as learning targets in the training process for DECT datasets; they were evaluated against results from the proposed method using a leave-one-out cross-validation strategy.

Results: The predicted RSP maps showed an average normalized mean square error of 2.83% across the whole body volume and an average mean error less than 3% in all volumes of interest. With additional simulated noise added in DECT datasets, the proposed method still maintained a comparable performance, while the physics-based stoichiometric method suffered degraded inaccuracy from increased noise level. The average differences from ground truth in dose volume histogram metrics for clinical target volumes were less than 0.2 Gy for D and D with no statistical significance. Maximum difference in dose volume histogram metrics of organs at risk was around 1 Gy on average.

Conclusion: These results strongly indicate the high accuracy of RSP maps predicted by our machine-learning-based method and show its potential feasibility for proton treatment planning and dose calculation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14338/IJPT-D-20-00020.1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7886267PMC
February 2021

Cone-beam CT-derived relative stopping power map generation via deep learning for proton radiotherapy.

Med Phys 2020 Sep 27;47(9):4416-4427. Epub 2020 Jul 27.

Department of Radiation Oncology and Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, 30322, USA.

Purpose: In intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT), protons are used to deliver highly conformal dose distributions, targeting tumors, and sparing organs-at-risk. However, due to uncertainties in both patient setup and relative stopping power (RSP) calculation, margins are added to the treatment volume during treatment planning, leading to higher doses to normal tissues. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images are taken daily before treatment; however, the poor image quality of CBCT limits the use of these images for online dose calculation. In this work, we use a deep-learning-based method to predict RSP maps from daily CBCT images, allowing for online dose calculation in a step toward adaptive radiation therapy.

Methods: Twenty-three head-and-neck cancer patients were simulated using a Siemens TwinBeam dual-energy CT (DECT) scanner. Mixed-energy scans (equivalent to a 120 kVp single-energy CT scan) were converted to RSP maps for treatment planning. Cone-beam computed tomography images were taken on the first day of treatment, and the planning RSP maps were registered to these images. A deep learning network based on a cycle-GAN architecture, relying on a compound loss function designed for structural and contrast preservation, was then trained to create an RSP map from a CBCT image. Leave-one-out and holdout cross validations were used for evaluation, and mean absolute error (MAE), mean error (ME), peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), and structural similarity (SSIM) were used to quantify the differences between the CT-based and CBCT-based RSP maps. The proposed method was compared to a deformable image registration-based method which was taken as the ground truth and two other deep learning methods. For one patient who underwent resimulation, the new planning RSP maps and CBCT images were used for further evaluation and validation.

Results: The CBCT-based RSP generation method was evaluated on 23 head-and-neck cancer patients. From leave-one-out testing, the MAE between CT-based and CBCT-based RSP was 0.06 ± 0.01 and the ME was -0.01 ± 0.01. The proposed method statistically outperformed the comparison DL methods in terms of MAE and ME when compared to the planning CT. In terms of dose comparison, the mean gamma passing rate at 3%/3 mm was 94% when three-dimensional (3D) gamma index was calculated per plan and 96% when gamma index was calculated per field.

Conclusions: The proposed method provides sufficiently accurate RSP map generation from CBCT images, allowing for evaluation of daily dose based on CBCT and possibly allowing for CBCT-guided adaptive treatment planning for IMPT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mp.14347DOI Listing
September 2020

Optimal virtual monoenergetic image in "TwinBeam" dual-energy CT for organs-at-risk delineation based on contrast-noise-ratio in head-and-neck radiotherapy.

J Appl Clin Med Phys 2019 Feb 28;20(2):121-128. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Department of Radiation Oncology and Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, 30322, USA.

Purpose: Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) using TwinBeam CT (TBCT) is a new option for radiation oncology simulators. TBCT scanning provides virtual monoenergetic images which are attractive in treatment planning since lower energies offer better contrast for soft tissues, and higher energies reduce noise. A protocol is needed to achieve optimal performance of this feature. In this study, we investigated the TBCT scan schema with the head-and-neck radiotherapy workflow at our clinic and selected the optimal energy with best contrast-noise-ratio (CNR) in organs-at-risks (OARs) delineation for head-and-neck treatment planning.

Methods And Materials: We synthesized monochromatic images from 40 keV to 190 keV at 5 keV increments from data acquired by TBCT. We collected the Hounsfield unit (HU) numbers of OARs (brainstem, mandible, spinal cord, and parotid glands), the HU numbers of marginal regions outside OARs, and the noise levels for each monochromatic image. We then calculated the CNR for the different OARs at each energy level to generate a serial of spectral curves for each OAR. Based on these spectral curves of CNR, the mono-energy corresponding to the max CNR was identified for each OAR of each patient.

Results: Computed tomography scans of ten patients by TBCT were used to test the optimal monoenergetic image for the CNR of OAR. Based on the maximized CNR, the optimal energy values were 78.5 ± 5.3 keV for the brainstem, 78.0 ± 4.2 keV for the mandible, 78.5 ± 5.7 keV for the parotid glands, and 78.5 ± 5.3 keV for the spinal cord. Overall, the optimal energy for the maximum CNR of these OARs in head-and-neck cancer patients was 80 keV.

Conclusion: We have proposed a clinically feasible protocol that selects the optimal energy level of the virtual monoenergetic image in TBCT for OAR delineation based on the CNR in head-and-neck OAR. This protocol can be applied in TBCT simulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/acm2.12539DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6370994PMC
February 2019