Publications by authors named "Bertil Uggla"

25 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Quantitative T2* imaging of iron overload in a non-dedicated center - Normal variation, repeatability and reader variation.

Eur J Radiol Open 2021 24;8:100357. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Sweden.

Background: Patients with transfusion dependent anemia are at risk of complications from iron overload. Quantitative T2* magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the best non-invasive method to assess iron deposition in the liver and heart and to guide chelation therapy.

Purpose: To investigate the image quality and inter-observer variations in T2* measurements of the myocardium and the liver, and to obtain the lower limit of cardiac and hepatic quantitative T2* values in patients without suspicion of iron overload.

Material And Methods: Thirty-eight patients referred for cardiac MRI were prospectively included in the study. Three patients were referred with, and 35 without suspicion of iron overload. Quantitative T2* parametric maps were obtained on a 1.5 T MRI system in the cardiac short axis and liver axial view. Two readers independently assessed the image quality and the representative and the lowest T2* value in the myocardium and the liver.

Results: The normal range of representative T2* values in the myocardium and liver was 24-45 ms and 14-37 ms, respectively. None of the 35 participants (0 %, 95 % confidence interval 0-11 %) in the normal reference group demonstrated representative T2* values below previously reported lower limits in the myocardium (20 ms) or the liver (8 ms). Focal myocardial areas with T2* values near the lower normal range, 19-20 ms, were seen in two patients. The readers generally reported good image quality.

Conclusion: T2* imaging for assessing iron overload can be performed in a non-dedicated center with sufficient image quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejro.2021.100357DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8167145PMC
May 2021

Clinical and genomic characterization of patients diagnosed with the provisional entity acute myeloid leukemia with BCR-ABL1, a Swedish population-based study.

Genes Chromosomes Cancer 2021 Jun 22;60(6):426-433. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Department of Hematology, Oncology and Radiation Physics, Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with t(9;22)(q34;q11), also known as AML with BCR-ABL1, is a rare, provisional entity in the WHO 2016 classification and is considered a high-risk disease according to the European LeukemiaNet 2017 risk stratification. We here present a retrospective, population-based study of this disease entity from the Swedish Acute Leukemia Registry. By strict clinical inclusion criteria we aimed to identify genetic markers further distinguishing AML with t(9;22) as a separate entity. Twenty-five patients were identified and next-generation sequencing using a 54-gene panel was performed in 21 cases. Interestingly, no mutations were found in NPM1, FLT3, or DNMT3A, three frequently mutated genes in AML. Instead, RUNX1 was the most commonly mutated gene, with aberrations present in 38% of the cases compared to around 10% in de novo AML. Additional mutations were identified in genes involved in RNA splicing (SRSF2, SF3B1) and chromatin regulation (ASXL1, STAG2, BCOR, BCORL1). Less frequently, mutations were found in IDH2, NRAS, TET2, and TP53. The mutational landscape exhibited a similar pattern as recently described in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in myeloid blast crisis (BC). Despite the concomitant presence of BCR-ABL1 and RUNX1 mutations in our cohort, both features of high-risk AML, the RUNX1-mutated cases showed a superior overall survival compared to RUNX1 wildtype cases. Our results suggest that the molecular characteristics of AML with t(9;22)/BCR-ABL1 and CML in myeloid BC are similar and do not support a distinction of the two disease entities based on their underlying molecular alterations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gcc.22936DOI Listing
June 2021

Carfilzomib-induced hemolysis is noticeably common but rarely shows features of thrombotic microangiopathy: A retrospective study.

Eur J Haematol 2020 Jun 15;104(6):588-593. Epub 2020 Mar 15.

Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.

Objective: Hemolysis is a sporadically reported but potentially serious side effect of the proteasome inhibitor carfilzomib. We aimed to investigate the frequency of hemolysis in an unselected cohort.

Methods: We performed a retrospective, single-center study of the incidence of hemolysis in patients treated with carfilzomib, based mainly on consecutive haptoglobin levels. The patients were diagnosed with myeloma (n = 20), AL amyloidosis (n = 3), and light-chain deposition disease (n = 1). Carfilzomib treatment was applied after a median of 3 (range: 1-7) therapy lines.

Results: Haptoglobin levels were normal/increased before, generally suppressed during, and normalized after treatment with carfilzomib. Very low haptoglobin (<0.1 g/L) implying the presence of hemolysis was observed in 16 of 24 (67%) patients during carfilzomib therapy. Hemolysis was mild in 11 of 16 (69%) affected patients, whereas 5 of 16 (31%) required transfusion. Severe hemolysis was explained by thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) in one patient who died of the complication. Mechanisms were unclear in the remaining 15 patients.

Conclusions: Hemolysis was surprisingly common but mostly mild during carfilzomib treatment. However, the possibility of TMA should be kept in mind in this setting. Hypothetically, non-TMA hemolysis could be attributed to the accumulation of globin chains due to the suppression of eukaryotic translation initiation inhibition by carfilzomib.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejh.13401DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7318150PMC
June 2020

High Graft-versus-Host Disease-Free, Relapse/Rejection-Free Survival and Similar Outcome of Related and Unrelated Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation for Aplastic Anemia: A Nationwide Swedish Cohort Study.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2019 10 4;25(10):1970-1974. Epub 2019 Jun 4.

Section of Hematology and Coagulation, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden; Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) as primary treatment for aplastic anemia (AA) is being increasingly used. Yet, age, stem cell source, and donor type are important outcome factors. We have recently performed a nationwide cohort study of all patients with AA in Sweden diagnosed from 2000 to 2011 and now present outcome data on SCT patients. In total, 68 patients underwent SCT, and 63% of them had failed immunosuppressive therapy. We found that, with a median follow-up of 109 months (range, 35 to 192 months), 5-year overall survival (OS) for all patients was 86.8%, whereas graft-versus-host disease-free, relapse/rejection-free survival (GRFS) at 5 years was 69.1%. There was no survival impact regarding the donor type or stem cell source. Patients aged ≥40 years had a higher transplant-related mortality (29.4% versus 7.8%; P = .023), which translated into a lower 5-year OS: 70.6% versus 92.2% (P = .022) and a trend of lower GRFS (52.9% versus 74.5%; P = .069). In conclusion, we found in this real-world setting that both OS and GRFS were high, but SCT for patients with AA aged ≥40 years is problematic, and clinical trials addressing this issue are warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2019.05.032DOI Listing
October 2019

Low response rate to ATG-based immunosuppressive therapy in very severe aplastic anaemia - A Swedish nationwide cohort study.

Eur J Haematol 2018 Jun 10;100(6):613-620. Epub 2018 Apr 10.

Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Objectives: Antithymocyte globulin (ATG)-based immunosuppression remains a cornerstone in aplastic anaemia (AA) treatment. However, most ATG studies are not population-based and knowledge about real-world results concerning response and outcome could offer important information for treating physicians.

Methods: We have recently performed a nationwide retrospective cohort study on all AA patients diagnosed in Sweden in 2000-2011 and now present treatment and outcome data on patients receiving first-line ATG. In total, 158 patients showed a 47.0% response rate which was similar in all age groups (range 41.5%-51.7%) with no difference regarding ATG formulation. The response was significantly associated with severity grade-especially at time of treatment initiation: very severe (VSAA) 22.7%; severe (SAA) 54.5% (P < .001); and non-severe 88.5% (P < .001). A logistic regression-based predictive model indicated that VSAA patients with an absolute reticulocyte count <25 × 10 /L had only a 19% probability of response. In a multivariable analysis, age and VSAA at the time of treatment were the independent factors for inferior survival.

Conclusions: Real-world VSAA patients respond poorly to ATG which indicates the need for a different treatment approach. Our findings suggest that age alone should not be a discriminating factor for administering ATG treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejh.13057DOI Listing
June 2018

Incidence and outcome of acquired aplastic anemia: real-world data from patients diagnosed in Sweden from 2000-2011.

Haematologica 2017 10 27;102(10):1683-1690. Epub 2017 Jul 27.

South Älvsborg Hospital Borås, Sweden.

A plastic anemia is a rare life-threatening disease. However, since the introduction of immunosuppressive therapy and allogeneic stem cell transplantation, the outcome has improved considerably, and the 5-year survival is reported to be 70-80% in selected patient cohorts. Yet, contemporary population-based data on incidence and survival are lacking. We performed a national retrospective study to determine the incidence, treatment, and survival of patients with aplastic anemia diagnosed in Sweden from 2000-2011. Patients were included via the National Patient Registry, and diagnosed according to the Camitta criteria. In total, 257 confirmed cases were identified, with an overall incidence of 2.35 (95% CI: 2.06-2.64) cases per million inhabitants per year. Median age was 60 years (range: 2-92), and median follow up was 76 (0-193) months. Primary treatments included immunosuppressive therapy (63%), allogenic stem cell transplantation (10%), or single-agent cyclosporine/no specific therapy (27%). The 5-year survival was 90.7% in patients aged 0-18 years, 90.5% in patients aged 19-39 years, 70.7% in patients aged 40-59 years, and 38.1% in patients aged ≥60 years. Multivariate analysis showed that age (both 40-59 and ≥60 age groups), very severe aplastic anemia and single-agent cyclosporine/no specific therapy were independent risk factors for inferior survival. In conclusion, younger aplastic anemia patients experience a very good long-term survival, while that of patients ≥60 years in particular remains poor. Apparently, the challenge today is to improve the management of older aplastic anemia patients, and prospective studies to address this medical need are warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2017.169862DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5622852PMC
October 2017

Incidence and prognostic significance of isolated trisomies in adult acute myeloid leukemia: A population-based study from the Swedish AML registry.

Eur J Haematol 2017 May 9;98(5):493-500. Epub 2017 Mar 9.

Department of Clinical Genetics, University and Regional Laboratories Region Skåne, Lund, Sweden.

Objectives And Methods: To ascertain the incidence/clinical implications of isolated autosomal trisomies in adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML), all such cases were retrieved from the Swedish AML Registry.

Results: Of the 3179 cytogenetically informative AMLs diagnosed January 1997-May 2015, 246 (7.7%) had isolated trisomies. The frequency increased by age (2.4% at age 18-60 years vs. 23% at >60 years; P<.0001); the median age was 69 years. The five most common were +8 (4.0%), +13 (0.9%), +11 (0.8%), +21 (0.7%), and +4 (0.5%). Age and gender, types of AML and treatment, and complete remission and early death rates did not differ between the single trisomy and the intermediate risk (IR) groups or among cases with isolated gains of chromosomes 4, 8, 11, 13, or 21. The overall survival (OS) was similar in the single trisomy (median 1.6 years) and IR groups (1.7 years; P=.251). The OS differed among the most frequent isolated trisomies; the median OS was 2.5 years for +4, 1.9 years for +21, 1.5 years for +8, 1.1 years for +11, and 0.8 years for +13 (P=.013).

Conclusion: AML with single trisomies, with the exception of +13, should be grouped as IR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejh.12861DOI Listing
May 2017

Prognostic significance of high hyperdiploid and triploid/tetraploid adult acute myeloid leukemia.

Am J Hematol 2015 Sep 22;90(9):800-5. Epub 2015 Jul 22.

Department of Clinical Genetics, University and Regional Laboratories Region Skåne, Lund, Sweden.

To ascertain the clinical implications of high hyperdiploid (HH; 49-65 chromosomes) and triploid/tetraploid (TT; >65 chromosomes) adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML), all such cases were retrieved from the Swedish AML Registry. Of the 3,654 cytogenetically informative cases diagnosed between January 1997 and May 2014, 68 (1.9%) were HH (n = 50)/TT (n = 18). Patients with HH/TT were older than those with intermediate risk (IR) AML (median 71 years vs. 67 years; P = 0.042) and less often had de novo AML (63% vs. 79%; P = 0.004); no such differences were observed between HH/TT and complex karyotype (CK) AML. The overall survival (OS) was similar between patients with HH/TT and CK AML (median 0.9 years vs. 0.6 years; P = 0.082), whereas OS was significantly longer (median 1.6 years; P = 0.028) for IR AML. The OS was shorter for cases with HH than with TT (median 0.6 years vs. 1.4 years; P = 0.032) and for HH/TT AMLs with adverse abnormalities (median 0.8 years vs. 1.1 years; P = 0.044). In conclusion, HH/TT AML is associated with a poor outcome, but chromosome numbers >65 and absence of adverse aberrations seem to translate into a more favorable prognosis. Thus, HH/TT AMLs are clinically heterogeneous and should not automatically be grouped as high risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.24091DOI Listing
September 2015

Whole blood viscosity in plasma cell dyscrasias.

Clin Biochem 2015 Feb 16;48(3):122-4. Epub 2014 Dec 16.

Department of Medical Biosciences/Clinical Chemistry, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.

Objectives: Plasma or serum hyperviscosity in plasma cell dyscrasias (PCD) has been described as a risk factor for circulatory disturbances. Whole blood viscosity (WBV) would theoretically be a better biomarker but has not been studied in PCD.

Design And Methods: Plasma viscosity (PV) and WBV were measured in 89 subjects with PCD and in 60 healthy blood donors by free oscillation rheometry. A complete blood count was obtained using an automated hematology analyzer. Plasma proteins were quantitated by immunoturbidimetry.

Results: The reference intervals for men & women were 1.16-1.36 & 1.16-1.38 mPa for PV, and 4.9-6.3 & 4.4-6.2 mPa for WBV, respectively. Of the PCD patients, 71% had PV above the reference limit and 40% were above the WBV limit. Multivariate analysis showed that WBV was independently related to hematocrit, PV, concentration of the monoclonal protein (M-protein), plasma fibrinogen concentration and albumin concentration. This model accounted for 76% of the variance in WBV. When the same model was applied to PV, only the concentration of the M-protein was significantly related and the model accounted only for 20% of the variance in PV.

Conclusion: PV cannot be used as a surrogate marker for WBV in PCD patients. Whole blood viscosity should replace plasma viscosity in patients with PCD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2014.11.006DOI Listing
February 2015

Characterization and prognostic features of secondary acute myeloid leukemia in a population-based setting: a report from the Swedish Acute Leukemia Registry.

Am J Hematol 2015 Mar 16;90(3):208-14. Epub 2015 Jan 16.

Department of Medicine and Regional Tumor Registry, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden.

Patients with secondary acute myeloid leukemia (AML) often escape inclusion in clinical trials and thus, population-based studies are crucial for its accurate characterization. In this first large population-based study on secondary AML, we studied AML with an antecedent hematological disease (AHD-AML) or therapy-related AML (t-AML) in the population-based Swedish Acute Leukemia Registry. The study included 3,363 adult patients of which 2,474 (73.6%) had de novo AML, 630 (18.7%) AHD-AML, and 259 (7.7%) t-AML. Secondary AML differed significantly compared to de novo AML with respect to age, gender, and cytogenetic risk. Complete remission (CR) rates were significantly lower but early death rates similar in secondary AML. In a multivariable analysis, AHD-AML (HR 1.51; 95% CI 1.26-1.79) and t-AML (1.72; 1.38-2.15) were independent risk factors for poor survival. The negative impact of AHD-AML and t-AML on survival was highly age dependent with a considerable impact in younger patients, but without independent prognostic value in the elderly. Although patients with secondary leukemia did poorly with intensive treatment, early death rates and survival were significantly worse with palliative treatment. We conclude that secondary AML in a population-based setting has a striking impact on survival in younger AML patients, whereas it lacks prognostic value among the elderly patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.23908DOI Listing
March 2015

Failure matters: unsuccessful cytogenetics and unperformed cytogenetics are associated with a poor prognosis in a population-based series of acute myeloid leukaemia.

Eur J Haematol 2015 May 3;94(5):419-23. Epub 2014 Oct 3.

Department of Hematology and Coagulation, Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden; Stem Cell Center, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

Unsuccessful cytogenetics (UC) in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) treated on different SWOG trials was recently reported to be associated with increased age and dismal outcome. To ascertain whether this holds true also in unselected patients with AML, we retrieved all cytogenetic reports in cases from the population-based Swedish AML Registry. Between 1997 and 2006, 1737 patients below 80 yr of age without myelosarcoma or acute promyelocytic leukaemia received intensive treatment. The frequencies of UC and unperformed cytogenetics (UPC) were 2.1% and 20%, respectively. The early death rates differed between the cytogenetic subgroups (P = 0.006) with the highest rates in patients with UC (14%) and UPC (12%) followed by high-risk (HR) AML, intermediate risk (IR) and standard risk (SR) cases successfully karyotyped (8.6%, 5.9%, and 5.8%, respectively). The complete remission rate was lower in UC and UPC and HR compared with the other risk groups (P < 0.001). The overall five-year survival rates were 25% for UC and 22% for UPC, whereas the corresponding frequencies for SR, IR and HR AML patients without UC and UPC were 64%, 31% and 15%, respectively. In conclusion, lack of cytogenetic data translates into a poor prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejh.12446DOI Listing
May 2015

Autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation for aggressive multiple sclerosis: the Swedish experience.

J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2014 Oct 19;85(10):1116-21. Epub 2014 Feb 19.

Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden Department of Neurology, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.

Background: Autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a viable option for treatment of aggressive multiple sclerosis (MS). No randomised controlled trial has been performed, and thus, experiences from systematic and sustained follow-up of treated patients constitute important information about safety and efficacy. In this observational study, we describe the characteristics and outcome of the Swedish patients treated with HSCT for MS.

Methods: Neurologists from the major hospitals in Sweden filled out a follow-up form with prospectively collected data. Fifty-two patients were identified in total; 48 were included in the study and evaluated for safety and side effects; 41 patients had at least 1 year of follow-up and were further analysed for clinical and radiological outcome. In this cohort, 34 patients (83%) had relapsing-remitting MS, and mean follow-up time was 47 months.

Results: At 5 years, relapse-free survival was 87%; MRI event-free survival 85%; expanded disability status scale (EDSS) score progression-free survival 77%; and disease-free survival (no relapses, no new MRI lesions and no EDSS progression) 68%. Presence of gadolinium-enhancing lesions prior to HSCT was associated with a favourable outcome (disease-free survival 79% vs 46%, p=0.028). There was no mortality. The most common long-term side effects were herpes zoster reactivation (15%) and thyroid disease (8.4%).

Conclusions: HSCT is a very effective treatment of inflammatory active MS and can be performed with a high degree of safety at experienced centres.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jnnp-2013-307207DOI Listing
October 2014

Cladribine prolongs progression-free survival and time to second treatment compared to fludarabine and high-dose chlorambucil in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

Leuk Lymphoma 2014 Dec 16;55(12):2769-77. Epub 2014 Apr 16.

Department of Haematology, Royal North Shore Hospital , Sydney , Australia.

We conducted a randomized phase III trial to compare the efficacy and safety of two purine analogs, cladribine and fludarabine, with high-dose chlorambucil, in patients with previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Between 1997 and 2004, 223 patients with CLL were randomly assigned to cladribine, fludarabine or chlorambucil, for six cycles of therapy with frequent health-related quality of life assessments. There was no statistical difference for the primary endpoint of overall response with cladribine (70%), fludarabine (67%) and chlorambucil (59%), or complete remission (12%, 7% and 8%), respectively. However, the median progression-free survival (25, 10, 9 months) and median time to second treatment (40, 22, 21 months) were superior with cladribine. There was no significant difference in overall survival (96, 82 and 91 months), nor in toxicity or HRQoL assessments. Monotherapy with cladribine gives superior PFS and longer response duration than fludarabine and chlorambucil as first-line treatment of CLL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/10428194.2014.893306DOI Listing
December 2014

Targeting p53 in vivo: a first-in-human study with p53-targeting compound APR-246 in refractory hematologic malignancies and prostate cancer.

J Clin Oncol 2012 Oct 10;30(29):3633-9. Epub 2012 Sep 10.

Department of Hematology, M54, Karolinska University Hospital, 141 86 Stockholm, Sweden.

Purpose: APR-246 (PRIMA-1MET) is a novel drug that restores transcriptional activity of unfolded wild-type or mutant p53. The main aims of this first-in-human trial were to determine maximum-tolerated dose (MTD), safety, dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs), and pharmacokinetics (PK) of APR-246.

Patients And Methods: APR-246 was administered as a 2-hour intravenous infusion once per day for 4 consecutive days in 22 patients with hematologic malignancies and prostate cancer. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML; n = 7) and prostate cancer (n = 7) were the most frequent diagnoses. Starting dose was 2 mg/kg with dose escalations up to 90 mg/kg.

Results: MTD was defined as 60 mg/kg. The drug was well tolerated, and the most common adverse effects were fatigue, dizziness, headache, and confusion. DLTs were increased ALT/AST (n = 1), dizziness, confusion, and sensory disturbances (n = 2). PK showed little interindividual variation and were neither dose nor time dependent; terminal half-life was 4 to 5 hours. Tumor cells showed cell cycle arrest, increased apoptosis, and upregulation of p53 target genes in several patients. Global gene expression analysis revealed changes in genes regulating proliferation and cell death. One patient with AML who had a p53 core domain mutation showed a reduction of blast percentage from 46% to 26% in the bone marrow, and one patient with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with a p53 splice site mutation showed a minor response.

Conclusion: We conclude that APR-246 is safe at predicted therapeutic plasma levels, shows a favorable pharmacokinetic profile, and can induce p53-dependent biologic effects in tumor cells in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2011.40.7783DOI Listing
October 2012

Prognostic DNA methylation patterns in cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia are predefined by stem cell chromatin marks.

Blood 2011 Nov 29;118(20):5573-82. Epub 2011 Sep 29.

Department of Internal Medicine/Hematology, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden.

Cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia (CN-AML) compose between 40% and 50% of all adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cases. In this clinically diverse group, molecular aberrations, such as FLT3-ITD, NPM1, and CEBPA mutations, recently have added to the prognostic accuracy. Aberrant DNA methylation is a hallmark of cancer, including AML. We investigated in total 118 CN-AML samples in a test and a validation cohort for genome-wide promoter DNA methylation with Illumina Methylation Bead arrays and compared them with normal myeloid precursors and global gene expression. IDH and NPM1 mutations were associated with different methylation patterns (P = .0004 and .04, respectively). Genome-wide methylation levels were elevated in IDH-mutated samples (P = .006). We observed a negative impact of DNA methylation on transcription. Genes targeted by Polycomb group (PcG) proteins and genes associated with bivalent histone marks in stem cells showed increased aberrant methylation in AML (P < .0001). Furthermore, high methylation levels of PcG target genes were independently associated with better progression-free survival (odds ratio = 0.47, P = .01) and overall survival (odds ratio = 0.36, P = .001). In summary, genome-wide methylation patterns show preferential methylation of PcG targets with prognostic impact in CN-AML.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2011-01-332353DOI Listing
November 2011

CRIM1 is expressed at higher levels in drug-resistant than in drug-sensitive myeloid leukemia HL60 cells.

Anticancer Res 2010 Oct;30(10):4157-61

School of Health and Medical Sciences, Orebro University Hospital, Orebro, Sweden.

Aim: The aim of this study was to explore possible differences in the mRNA expression levels of CRIM1, SMAD5, BMP4 and BMP7 in sensitive (S) and multidrug-resistant (R0.5) myeloid leukemia HL60 cells.

Materials And Methods: HL60S and HL60R0.5 cells were exposed to daunorubicin (DNR) or cytarabine (Ara-C).

Results: Baseline levels of CRIM1 were found to be 15-fold higher in HL60R0.5 than in HL60S. Sixteen hours of exposure to DNR resulted in a 5.6-fold increase in CRIM1 levels in HL60S. Exposure to either DNR or Ara-C resulted in modest increases in CRIM1 levels in HL60R0.5. Similarly, baseline levels of SMAD5 and BMP4 were higher in HL60R0.5 than in HL60S cells. Analysis of the drug SMAD5-resistance marker permeability-glycoprotein (Pgp) revealed that CRIM1 and Pgp exhibit a covariance pattern of expression.

Conclusion: This study demonstrated that CRIM1 is expressed at high levels in resistant leukemia cells, indicating that CRIM1 may play a role in drug-resistance.
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October 2010

Rapid induction of P-glycoprotein mRNA and protein expression by cytarabine in HL-60 cells.

Anticancer Res 2009 Oct;29(10):4071-6

School of Health and Medical Sciences, Orebro University, Orebro, Sweden.

Background: Overexpression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) and glutathione-S-transferase pi (GSTpi) is associated with drug resistance in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The short-term effects of drug exposure on their expression levels were investigated.

Materials And Methods: HL-60 cells and drug-resistant sublines were cultured with or without daunorubicin (DNR) and cytarabine (Ara-C). At several time-points the expression levels of P-gp, BCRP and GSTpi were determined.

Results: After exposure to Ara-C, P-gp mRNA rapidly increased in all the cell lines. P-gp protein was detected in the sensitive cells after 8 h exposure to Ara-C. GSTpi mRNA increased in the resistant cells, but no change in BCRP mRNA was observed. Exposure to DNR revealed rapidly increased P-gp and GSTpi mRNA in the resistant cells.

Conclusion: Ara-C rapidly increases P-gp mRNA and protein expression in sensitive and resistant cells, and GSTpi mRNA in resistant cells, in vitro. This may be of clinical importance during AML induction chemotherapy.
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October 2009

Low p14ARF expression in de novo acute myeloid leukemia with normal karyotype is associated with poor survival.

Leuk Lymphoma 2009 Sep;50(9):1512-8

Department of Medicine and Haematology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.

The p14ARF protein activates the p53 tumor suppressor by binding to and inhibiting its negative regulator HDM-2. We have studied the prognostic impact of p14ARF in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Leukemic cells from 57 adult patients with normal karyotype de novo AML were analyzed for p14ARF mRNA expression level using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We also tested the effect of conventional anti-leukemic drugs and the mutant p53-targeting small molecule PRIMA-1 in vitro. Patients whose cells expressed more p14ARF mRNA than the 75th percentile (0.26) had significantly better survival compared with those expressing lower levels, 61 vs. 30% 3-year survival (p = 0.046). The difference remained significant also when NPM1/FLT3 status was considered. The mean effects of all the tested conventional anti-leukemic drugs were greater in leukemic cell samples expressing p14ARF mRNA >or= 0.26, but the differences were not statistically significant. In contrast, PRIMA-1 had a significantly greater effect on leukemic cell samples with low levels of p14ARF mRNA. We conclude that low levels of p14ARF mRNA in leukemic cells from patients with normal karyotype AML is associated with poor prognosis. Treatment with drugs targeting p53 may be a future possibility to improve outcome for these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428190903111914DOI Listing
September 2009

Topoisomerase IIalpha mRNA and protein expression vs. in vitro drug resistance and clinical outcome in acute leukaemia.

Int J Oncol 2007 Jul;31(1):153-60

Department of Medicine, Orebro University Hospital, 701 85 Orebro, Sweden.

The objective of this study was to correlate the expression of topoisomerase (topo) IIalpha to in vitro drug sensitivity and to the clinical outcome in patients with acute leukaemia. Leukaemic cells were isolated from bone marrow or blood from 94 patients. Topo IIalpha mRNA (n=58) and protein (n=60) expression was determined by real-time RT-PCR and flow cytometry, respectively. In both groups, chemosensitivity testing by a bioluminescence ATP assay was performed to a variable extent for both topo IIalpha poisons and non-topo IIalpha targeting drugs. Topo IIalpha mRNA expression varied with relative values ranging from 0.03 to 14.20 (median 1.10). The median value for topo IIalpha protein-positive cells was 23% (range 0-99%). Cell samples from patients with a high (>median value) percentage of topo IIalpha-positive cells were significantly more sensitive to the topo IIalpha active drugs etoposide and daunorubicin, and showed a borderline value for idarubicin (p=0.08), while there was no difference for non-topo IIalpha targeting drugs. However, we did not find any significant differences in mRNA expression or the percentage of topo IIalpha-positive cells in patients who achieved complete remission after at most two induction courses compared with those who did not, nor did we find any difference in survival when patients with high mRNA expression/percentage of topo IIalpha-positive cells were compared with patients with low values. We conclude that expression of topo IIalpha, determined as percentage of topo IIalpha-positive cells, in leukaemic cells correlates to chemosensitivity in vitro against topoisomerase poisons but that it does not predict clinical outcome in acute leukaemia.
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July 2007

Antithymocyte globulin and cyclosporine A as combination therapy for low-risk non-sideroblastic myelodysplastic syndromes.

Haematologica 2006 May;91(5):667-70

Karolinska Institutet, Department of Medicine, Karolinska University, Hospital Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden.

The present study evaluated the combination of antithymocyte globulin (ATG) and cyclosporine A (CsA) in patients with low-risk myelodysplastic syndromes. Twenty patients (17 with refractory anemia and 3 with refractory anemia with excess blasts) received treatment with rabbit-ATG plus CsA. The overall response rate was 30% (6/20); three of the six responders had a complete response. The responses lasted 2-58 months, with two patients still being in complete remission at 42 and 58 months. Short-lasting cytogenetic remissions were achieved in two patients. ATG was poorly tolerated in patients over 70 years of age. Four out of 20 patients progressed to acute myeloid leukemia within a year. We conclude that immunosuppressive treatment may be a therapeutic option for selected patients with myelodysplastic syndrome.
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May 2006

BCRP mRNA expression v. clinical outcome in 40 adult AML patients.

Leuk Res 2005 Feb;29(2):141-6

Department of Medicine, Orebro University Hospital, 701 85 Orebro, Sweden.

Efflux pumps are considered being mechanisms behind drug resistance in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). A recently described efflux pump, breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), can be expressed in AML, but its clinical importance is uncertain. In this study BCRP mRNA expression was determined in samples from 40 AML patients by real-time RT-PCR. The expression varied from negative to 76 times that of control cells. There was no difference in BCRP mRNA expression between patients responding to induction treatment and non-responders. However, in the group of responders, the 14 patients with the highest expression had significantly shorter overall survival (mean 38 months, SEM 15 months) than the 14 patients with the lowest (74 months, SEM 16 months) (P = 0.047). This suggests a possible role of BCRP in drug resistance in AML.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.leukres.2004.06.004DOI Listing
February 2005

Acquired hemophilia masked by warfarin therapy: report on two cases.

Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis 2003 Dec;14(8):769-72

Department of Medicine, Orebro University Hospital, Orebro, Sweden.

Spontaneous appearance of acquired anticoagulants is a rare phenomenon. We present two cases, where such antibodies against factor VIII were masked by warfarin therapy. The two patients were anticoagulated with warfarin due to mechanical heart valve and recurrent thromboembolic events, respectively. Different therapies against the inhibitor of factor VIII were used in the two cases. One patient received corticosteroids and high-dose gammaglobulin with temporary effect and was then effectively treated with cyclophosphamide. The other patient was successfully treated with cyclosporine. The special problems of keeping the balance between thrombosis and bleeding in this group of patients with need of anticoagulation due to mechanical heart valves or other thrombogenic factors are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00001721-200312000-00014DOI Listing
December 2003