Publications by authors named "Berth Danermark"

32 Publications

Similarities and Differences in Health, Social Trust, and Financial Situation in People With Usher Syndrome, a Bio-Psychosocial Perspective.

Front Psychol 2020 28;11:1760. Epub 2020 Aug 28.

Swedish Institute for Disability Research, wÖrebro University, Örebro, Sweden.

Purpose: The primary aim was to describe the similarities and differences among the general health, physical health, psychological health, social trust, and financial situations of people with Usher syndrome (USH) types 1, 2, and 3. A second aim was to explore whether age, gender, clinical diagnosis, visual field, visual acuity, and degree of hearing impairment were associated with the general health, physical health, psychological health, social trust, and financial situations of people with USH.

Methods: In this study, 162 people with USH living in Sweden were included, and all three types of the disease were represented. Data concerning vision, hearing, and genetics were retrieved from the Swedish Usher database. Group comparison using frequencies, χ-tests and Kruskal-Wallis tests for group comparison were used. To examine the effect of independent variables on poor health outcomes, a logistic regression analysis was conducted.

Results: Problems with poor health, social trust, and finances were found for all three types; however, more similarities than differences were found. The results of the regression model were ambiguous; it is not clear which independent measures contributed the most to poor outcomes. People with USH3 tended to report the most problems regarding the dependent outcome measures.

Conclusion: The observations of the associations between the independent variables and poor health, social trust and finances made in the present study are important to bear in mind in a rehabilitation setting; however, they do not fully explain how people with USH actually feel or rate their health. More research is needed to confirm the knowledge that exists within the clinical setting and the life stories told by the people with USH to merge existing knowledge into a rehabilitation setting based on evidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.01760DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7485379PMC
August 2020

Patterns in the social representation of "hearing loss" across countries: how do demographic factors influence this representation?

Int J Audiol 2018 12;57(12):925-932

h The Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Örebro University , Örebro , Sweden.

This study aims to understand patterns in the social representation of hearing loss reported by adults across different countries and explore the impact of different demographic factors on response patterns. The study used a cross-sectional survey design. Data were collected using a free association task and analysed using qualitative content analysis, cluster analysis and chi-square analysis. The study sample included 404 adults (18 years and over) in the general population from four countries (India, Iran, Portugal and UK). The cluster analysis included 380 responses out of 404 (94.06%) and resulted in five clusters. The clusters were named: (1) individual aspects; (2) aetiology; (3) the surrounding society; (4) limitations and (5) exposed. Various demographic factors (age, occupation type, education and country) showed an association with different clusters, although country of origin seemed to be associated with most clusters. The study results suggest that how hearing loss is represented in adults in general population varies and is mainly related to country of origin. These findings strengthen the argument about cross-cultural differences in perception of hearing loss, which calls for a need to make necessary accommodations while developing public health strategies about hearing loss.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14992027.2018.1516894DOI Listing
December 2018

Health, work, social trust, and financial situation in persons with Usher syndrome type 1.

Work 2018 ;60(2):209-220

Audiological Research Centre, Örebro University Hospital, Sweden.

Background: Research has demonstrated that persons with Usher syndrome type 1 (USH1) have significantly poorer physical and psychological health compared to a reference group.

Purpose: To explore the relation between work, health, social trust, and financial situation in USH1 compared to a reference group.

Material: Sixty-six persons (18-65 y) from the Swedish Usher database received a questionnaire and 47 were included, 23 working and 24 non-working. The reference group comprised 3,049 working and 198 non-working persons.

Methods: The Swedish Health on Equal Terms questionnaire was used and statistical analysis with multiple logistic regression was conducted.

Results: The USH1 non-work group had a higher Odds ratio (95% CI) in poor psychological and physical health, social trust, and financial situation compared to the USH1 work group and reference groups. Age, gender, hearing, and vision impairment did not explain the differences. The relation between the USH1 work and non-work groups showed the same pattern as the reference groups, but the magnitude of problems was significantly higher.

Conclusions: Both disability and unemployment increased the risk of poor health, social trust and financial situation in persons with USH1, but having an employment seemed to counteract the risks related to disability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/WOR-182731DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6027944PMC
January 2019

Examination of Previously Published Data to Identify Patterns in the Social Representation of 'Hearing Aids' Across Countries.

J Audiol Otol 2018 Apr 26;22(2):96-104. Epub 2018 Feb 26.

The Department of Health and Welfare Studies, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.

Background And Objectives: Societal factors seem to exercise a strong influence on hearing aid uptake, use, and satisfaction. In particular, knowledge, perception, and attitude of people will have bearing towards their and others health behavior and decisions. The current study aimed at understanding the perception of hearing aids by adults belonging to the general population in different countries.

Subjects And Methods: The study employed a crosssectional design. A sample of 404 adults from India, Iran, Portugal, and the United Kingdom were recruited by relying on a convenience sampling. Previously published data was re-analyzed but it was applied for different approach. Free association task was used to collect the data. They were asked to provide up to five words or phrases that come to mind when thinking about "hearing aids." The data was initially analyzed based on qualitative content analysis. This was followed by quantitative cluster analysis and chi square analysis.

Results: The content analysis suggested 39 main categories of responses related to hearing aids. The cluster analysis resulted in five main clusters, namely: 1) positive attitude, 2) external factors, 3) hearing aid use and satisfaction, 4) etiology, and 5) benefits and limitations of technology. A few demographic factors (i.e., education, occupation type, country) showed association with different clusters, although country of origin seemed to be associated with most clusters.

Conclusions: The study provides us with unique insights into the perception of hearing aids by the general public, and additionally, the way demographic variables may influence these perceptions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7874/jao.2017.00318DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5894490PMC
April 2018

Positive, Neutral, and Negative Connotations Associated with Social Representation of 'Hearing Loss' and 'Hearing Aids'.

J Audiol Otol 2015 Dec 18;19(3):132-7. Epub 2015 Dec 18.

The Department of Social Work, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.

Background And Objectives: In our previous studies we explored the social representation of hearing loss and hearing aids. In this study we aimed at exploring if the positive, neutral and negative connotations associated with the social representation of 'hearing loss' and 'hearing aids' for the same categories vary across countries. In addition, we also looked at if there is an association between connotations and demographic variables.

Subjects And Methods: A total of 404 individuals from four countries were asked to indicate the words and phrases that comes to mind when they think about 'hearing loss' and 'hearing aids'. They also indicated if the words and phrases they reported had positive, neutral or negative association, which were analyzed and reported in this paper.

Results: There are considerable differences among the countries in terms of positive, neutral and negative associations report for each category in relation to hearing loss and hearing aids. However, there is limited connection between demographic variables and connotations reported in different countries.

Conclusions: These results suggesting that the social representation about the phenomenon hearing loss and hearing aids are relatively stable within respondents of each country.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7874/jao.2015.19.3.132DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4704554PMC
December 2015

Social representation of "hearing loss": cross-cultural exploratory study in India, Iran, Portugal, and the UK.

Clin Interv Aging 2015 19;10:1857-72. Epub 2015 Nov 19.

Department of Health and Welfare Studies, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.

Background: Hearing loss is one of the most common chronic conditions in older adults. In audiology literature, several studies have examined the attitudes and behavior of people with hearing loss; however, not much is known about the manner in which society in general views and perceives hearing loss. This exploratory study was aimed at understanding the social representation of hearing loss (among the general public) in the countries of India, Iran, Portugal, and the UK. We also compared these social representations.

Materials And Methods: The study involved a cross-sectional design, and participants were recruited using the snowball sampling method. A total of 404 people from four countries participated in the study. Data were collected using a free-association task where participants were asked to produce up to five words or phrases that came to mind while thinking about hearing loss. In addition, they were also asked to indicate if each word they presented had positive, neutral, or negative associations in their view. Data were analyzed using various qualitative and quantitative methods.

Results: The most frequently occurring categories were: assessment and management; causes of hearing loss; communication difficulties; disability; hearing ability or disability; hearing instruments; negative mental state; the attitudes of others; and sound and acoustics of the environment. Some categories were reported with similar frequency in most countries (eg, causes of hearing loss, communication difficulties, and negative mental state), whereas others differed among countries. Participants in India reported significantly more positive and fewer negative associations when compared to participants from Iran, Portugal, and the UK. However, there was no statistical difference among neutral responses reported among these countries. Also, more differences were noted among these countries than similarities.

Conclusion: These findings provide useful insights into the public perception of hearing loss that may prove useful in public education and counseling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CIA.S91076DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4655910PMC
July 2016

Social representation of hearing aids: cross-cultural study in India, Iran, Portugal, and the United Kingdom.

Clin Interv Aging 2015 6;10:1601-15. Epub 2015 Oct 6.

The Department of Health and Welfare Studies, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.

Background: The current study was aimed at understanding the social representation of hearing aids in India, Iran, Portugal, and the United Kingdom. We also compared these results to explore the cross-cultural differences and similarities among these countries.

Methods: The study involved a cross-sectional design, and the data were collected from four different countries using the snowball sampling method. Data were analyzed using a content analysis to identify the most-similar categories of responses reported, a co-occurrences analysis to see which of these categories are reported commonly, and a chi-square analysis to study if there was any association between positive, neutral, and negative connotations among participants in different countries.

Results: The current study revealed four different social representations of hearing aids from India, Iran, Portugal, and the United Kingdom, and also a global index.

Conclusion: The study results provide very useful insights into how hearing aids are represented in the society. These findings may have important implications for public education and also for manufacturers from the viewpoint of designing and marketing hearing aids in different countries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CIA.S86108DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4603629PMC
June 2016

Exploring the influence of culture on hearing help-seeking and hearing-aid uptake.

Int J Audiol 2015 Jul 11;54(7):435-43. Epub 2015 Mar 11.

* Department of Hearing and Speech Science, Xinhua College, Sun Yat-Sen University , Guangzhou , China.

Objective: The purpose of this paper was to highlight the importance of cultural influence in understanding hearing-help seeking and hearing-aid uptake.

Design: Information on audiological services in different countries and 'theories related to cross-culture' is presented, followed by a general discussion.

Study Sample: Twenty-seven relevant literature reviews on hearing impairment, cross-cultural studies, and the health psychology model and others as secondary resources.

Results: Despite the adverse consequences of hearing impairment and the significant potential benefits of audiological rehabilitation, only a small number of those with hearing impairment seek professional help and take up appropriate rehabilitation. Therefore, hearing help-seeking and hearing-aid uptake has recently become the hot topic for clinicians and researchers. Previous research has identified many contributing factors for hearing help-seeking with self-reported hearing disability being one of the main factors. Although significant differences in help-seeking and hearing-aid adoption rates have been reported across countries in population studies, limited literature on the influence of cross-cultural factors in this area calls for an immediate need for research.

Conclusions: This paper highlights the importance of psychological models and cross-cultural research in the area of hearing help-seeking and hearing-aid uptake, and consequently some directions for future research are proposed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/14992027.2015.1005848DOI Listing
July 2015

The ICF core sets for hearing loss project: functioning and disability from the patient perspective.

Int J Audiol 2014 Nov;53(11):777-86

* Audiological Research Centre, Örebro University Hospital, School of Health and Medical Sciences / Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Örebro University , Örebro , Sweden.

Objective: To explore areas of functioning, disability, and environmental factors of adults with hearing loss (HL) by using the ICF classification as a tool to determine and document each element.

Design: A qualitative study applying mainly focus-group methodology was applied.

Study Sample: Thirty-six Dutch and South African adults (≥ 18 years of age) with HL (20-95 dB HL) who used oral communication as first communication. Summative content analysis was performed on the transcripts by linkage to appropriate ICF categories.

Results: 143 ICF categories were identified, most of which belonged to the Activities & Participation (d) component, closely followed by the Environmental factors component. Participants specifically mentioned categories related to oral communication and interaction. Assistive technology (such as hearing aids), noise, and support by and attitudes of others in the environment of the participants were considered highly influential for functioning and disability.

Conclusions: The present study illustrates the complex and encompassing nature of aspects involved in functioning and disability of adults with HL. Findings highlight the necessity of using a multidimensional tool, such as the ICF, to map functioning and disability with hearing loss, allowing consideration and evaluation of aspects that are both internal and external.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/14992027.2014.938370DOI Listing
November 2014

Importance of "process evaluation" in audiological rehabilitation: examples from studies on hearing impairment.

Int J Otolaryngol 2014 3;2014:168684. Epub 2014 Sep 3.

Linnaeus Centre HEAD, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Department of Behavioral Science and Learning, Linköping University, 58183 Linköping, Sweden ; Eriksholm Research Centre, Oticon A/S, 20 Rørtangvej, 3070 Snekkersten, Denmark.

The main focus of this paper is to discuss the importance of "evaluating the process of change" (i.e., process evaluation) in people with disability by studying their lived experiences. Detailed discussion is made about "why and how to investigate the process of change in people with disability?" and some specific examples are provided from studies on patient journey of persons with hearing impairment (PHI) and their communication partners (CPs). In addition, methodological aspects in process evaluation are discussed in relation to various metatheoretical perspectives. The discussion has been supplemented with relevant literature. The healthcare practice and disability research in general are dominated by the use of outcome measures. Even though the values of outcome measures are not questioned, there seems to be a little focus on understanding the process of change over time in relation to health and disability. We suggest that the process evaluation has an additional temporal dimension and has applications in both clinical practice and research in relation to health and disability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/168684DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4167944PMC
October 2014

The ICF core sets for hearing loss project: International expert survey on functioning and disability of adults with hearing loss using the international classification of functioning, disability, and health (ICF).

Int J Audiol 2014 Aug 22;53(8):497-506. Epub 2014 Apr 22.

* Audiological Research Centre, Örebro University Hospital, School of Health and Medical Sciences/Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Örebro University , Örebro , Sweden.

Objective: To identify relevant aspects of functioning, disability, and contextual factors for adults with hearing loss (HL) from hearing health professional perspective summarized using the ICF classification as reference tool.

Design: Internet-based cross-sectional survey using open-ended questions. Responses were analysed using a simplified content analysis approach to link concept to ICF categories according to linking rules.

Study Sample: Hearing health professionals (experts) recruited through e-mail distribution lists of professional organizations and personal networks of ICF core set for hearing loss steering committee members. Stratified sampling according to profession and world region enhanced the international and professional representation.

Results: Sixty-three experts constituted the stratified sample used in the analysis. A total of 1726 meaningful concepts were identified in this study, resulting in 209 distinctive ICF categories, with 106 mentioned by 5% or more of respondents. Most categories in the activities & participation component related to communication, while the most frequent environmental factors related to the physical environment such as hearing aids or noise. Mental functions, such as confidence or emotional functions were also frequently highlighted.

Conclusions: More than half (53.3%) of the entire ICF classification categories were included in the expert survey results. This emphasizes the importance of a multidimensional tool, such as the ICF, for assessing persons with hearing loss.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/14992027.2014.900196DOI Listing
August 2014

The ICF Core Sets for hearing loss: researcher perspective, Part II: Linking outcome measures to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF).

Int J Audiol 2014 Feb 13;53(2):77-87. Epub 2013 Dec 13.

* Audiological Research Centre, Örebro University Hospital, School of Health and Medical Sciences/Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Örebro University , Örebro , Sweden.

Objective: To link outcome measures used in audiological research to the ICF classification and thereby describe audiological research from the ICF perspective.

Design: Through a peer-reviewed or a joint linking procedure, link outcome measures to the ICF classification system using standardized ICF linking rules. Additional linking rules were developed in combination with the established rules to overcome difficulties when connecting audiological data to ICF. Absolute and relative frequencies of ICF categories were reported.

Study Sample: The identified outcome measures from the previous study (Part I) constituted the empirical material.

Results: In total, 285 ICF categories were identified. The most prevalent categories were related to listening, hearing functions, auditory perceptions, emotions and the physical environment, such as noise and hearing aids. Categories related to communication showed lower relative frequencies, as did categories related to the social and attitudinal environment.

Conclusions: Based on the linked outcome measures, communication as a research topic is subordinated to other research topics. The same conclusion can be drawn for research targeting the social and attitudinal environment of adults with HL. Difficulties in the linking procedure were highlighted and discussed, and suggestions for future revisions of the ICF from the audiological perspective were described.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/14992027.2013.858279DOI Listing
February 2014

The ICF Core Sets for hearing loss--researcher perspective. Part I: Systematic review of outcome measures identified in audiological research.

Int J Audiol 2014 Feb 9;53(2):65-76. Epub 2013 Dec 9.

* Audiological Research Centre, Örebro University Hospital, School of Health and Medical Sciences/Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Örebro University , Örebro , Sweden.

Objective: To review the literature in order to identify outcome measures used in research on adults with hearing loss (HL) as part of the ICF Core Sets development project, and to describe study and population characteristics of the reviewed studies.

Design: A systematic review methodology was applied using multiple databases. A comprehensive search was conducted and two search pools were created, pool I and pool II.

Study Sample: The study population included adults (≥ 18 years of age) with HL and oral language as the primary mode of communication.

Results: 122 studies were included. Outcome measures were distinguished by 'instrument type', and 10 types were identified. In total, 246 (pool I) and 122 (pool II) different measures were identified, and only approximately 20% were extracted twice or more. Most measures were related to speech recognition. Fifty-one different questionnaires were identified. Many studies used small sample sizes, and the sex of participants was not revealed in several studies.

Conclusion: The low prevalence of identified measures reflects a lack of consensus regarding the optimal outcome measures to use in audiology. Reflections and discussions are made in relation to small sample sizes and the lack of sex differentiation/descriptions within the included articles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/14992027.2013.851799DOI Listing
February 2014

The creation of a comprehensive and a brief core set for hearing loss using the international classification of functioning, disability and health.

Am J Audiol 2013 Dec;22(2):323-8

Purpose: In May 2001, to integrate biological, psychological, and social aspects of human functioning, the World Health Assembly endorsed the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). The aim of this article is to describe the creation of Comprehensive and Brief ICF Core Sets for Hearing Loss. The core sets consist of the most relevant ICF categories for hearing loss.

Method And Results: Four preparatory studies were carried out and presented at a consensus conference, resulting in a Comprehensive ICF Core Set for Hearing Loss, consisting of 117 ICF categories, and a Brief ICF Core Set for Hearing Loss, consisting of 27 categories (of the 117).

Conclusion: The Comprehensive ICF Core Set for Hearing Loss can be a user-friendly tool for conducting comprehensive, multidisciplinary assessments. The Brief ICF Core Set can be used for many purposes, such as research and population studies. However, its most common use is by individuals seeking to provide a brief description and assessment of functioning of a person with hearing loss.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1044/1059-0889(2013/12-0052)DOI Listing
December 2013

Can people with disabilities gain from education? Similarities and differences between occupational attainment among persons with and without disabilities.

Work 2014 ;49(2):193-204

Department of Social Work and Psychology, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.

Background: More knowledge is needed of occupational attainment of persons with disabilities, i.e., the relationship between their educational level and their profession, and factors of importance for this relationship.

Objective: To compare occupational attainment among persons with and without a disability.

Method: 3396 informants with disabilities and 19,004 non-disabled informants participated (control group) in a survey study by Statistics Sweden.The informants with disabilities were divided into six groups.

Results: Occupational attainment did not differ between the disability groups, neither between persons with and without a disability. Follow-up analysis showed that men with disabilities with primary or secondary school had an occupation above their educational level to a significantly larger extent than women with disabilities. This pattern was even clearer in comparison with the control group. Persons without disabilities, with secondary or higher education, were more successful in the labor market than persons with disabilities. Occupational attainment increased with age in both groups.

Conclusions: Young women with disabilities who only have primary or secondary education run a higher risk of having a job that is below their educational level than men at the same educational level. This indicates discriminating mechanisms in the society related to gender and ability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/WOR-131718DOI Listing
September 2016

Professionals' perceptions of and views about vocational rehabilitation for people with psychiatric disabilities.

Work 2013 ;44(4):471-80

Swedish Institute for Disability Research (SIDR), Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.

Objective: One of the challenges agencies and professionals face is to enable people on sick leave to be successful in their vocational rehabilitation. The objective of this study was to explore and analyze some professionals' perceptions of and views about vocational rehabilitation among people with psychiatric disabilities.

Participants: Eight professionals from four different agencies (social services, the employment service, the social insurance office, and a psychiatric outpatient setting) working in the area of vocational rehabilitation for people with psychiatric disabilities.

Methods: Eight in-depth interviews were conducted. The data collected was analyzed using qualitative content analysis together with an interpretive approach.

Results: The results suggested the respondents were in consensus regarding that which they considered to facilitate or enable successful vocational rehabilitation. Intensive support over a long period of time and a holistic view that takes into account the habits and routines of daily life outside of work as well as the social and psychological aspects of individuals during their rehabilitation processes were considered to be just as crucial to the vocational rehabilitation process as training in the workplace.

Conclusions: These professionals dealt with a complex vocational rehabilitation system; they felt that their organizations' directives and inability to collaborate successfully with other authorities restricted their scope of action and hindered their exercise of good practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/WOR-131518DOI Listing
November 2014

Hearing and vision: Health in Sweden: The National Public Health Report 2012. Chapter 17.

Scand J Public Health 2012 Dec;40(9 Suppl):287-92

School of Health and Medical Science, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1403494812459621DOI Listing
December 2012

Disability and supported employment: impact on employment, income, and allowances.

Int J Rehabil Res 2012 Sep;35(3):263-9

The Swedish Institute for Disability Research, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.

In this article, we examine supported employment and its impact on the level of employment, disposable income, and sum of allowances, targeting a group of individuals with disabilities. We have particularly focused on individuals with psychiatric disabilities. Supported employment is a vocational rehabilitation service with an empowerment approach that has competitive employment as an expressed goal. Data collected from two Swedish organizations, providing services based on supported employment, have been used. Two groups have been considered: one group focusing on individuals who have received vocational rehabilitation, according to the supported employment approach, and the other group focusing on individuals who declined supported employment (control group). The groups have been examined according to a 'before-and-after the intervention' design. Outcome measures have been retrospectively analyzed. The results indicate that the individuals who received supported employment were hired faster, earned a higher disposable income, and at the same time, had lower individual allowances. The same pattern as that for the overall population emerged for individuals with psychiatric disorders. Vocational rehabilitation based on the principles of supported employment may be very effective for individuals to gain employment, a better disposable income, and a substantial cutback in allowances. The intervention should be tailored according to individual needs rather than organizational rules.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MRR.0b013e3283544d3cDOI Listing
September 2012

Vocational rehabilitation, interagency collaboration and social representations.

Work 2012 ;42(4):507-17

The Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.

Objective: The aim of this study is to describe and analyse two important dimensions of vocational rehabilitation for disadvantaged groups and persons with disabilities: interagency collaboration and social representations.

Participants: Four focus group discussions were conducted. The participants were 20 officials of various agencies who had taken part in collaboration projects in vocational rehabilitation.

Methods: Qualitative content analysis was used for the analysis. The material was categorised and central themes identified.

Results: Three themes emerged: 'Collaboration Process', 'Other Agencies' and 'Object for Collaboration'. The results indicate that interagency collaboration is very important in vocational rehabilitation, but that there are a number of obstacles to smooth collaboration. The professionals of the different agencies shared social representations to a great extent. Working with people with psychiatric disorders is especially challenging, and conflicts tended to arise between the projects and the home organisations.

Conclusions: Recognition of others' knowledge and respectfulness toward other professions facilitated vocational rehabilitation and the interagency collaboration process. The agencies' lack of flexibility increased the risk of conflicts as attempts were made to integrate the new working methods developed within the projects into the ordinary activities of the agencies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/WOR-2012-1382DOI Listing
October 2012

Cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia co-morbid with hearing impairment: a randomized controlled trial.

J Clin Psychol Med Settings 2012 Jun;19(2):224-34

School of Law, Psychology, and Social Work, Örebro University, SE-701 82, Örebro, Sweden.

The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT-I) for insomnia on patients with insomnia co-morbid with hearing impairment. A randomized controlled design was used with a 3-month follow-up. Thirty-two patients with insomnia co-morbid with hearing impairment were randomized to either CBT-I or a waitlist condition (WLC). The primary outcome was insomnia severity. Secondary outcomes were sleep diary parameters, dysfunction, anxiety, and depression. Compared to WLC, CBT-I resulted in lower insomnia severity at post-treatment and at follow-up (d = 1.18-1.56). Relative to WLC, CBT-I also led, at both assessment points, to reduced total wake time (d = 1.39) and increased sleep restoration (d = 1.03-1.07) and sleep quality (d = 0.91-1.16). Both groups increased their total sleep time, but no significant group difference emerged. Compared to WLC, CBT-I resulted in higher function (d = 0.81-0.96) and lower anxiety (d = 1.29-1.30) at both assessment points. Neither CBT-I nor WLC led to improvement on depression. Based on the Insomnia Severity Index, more CBT-I (53-77%) than WLC participants (0-7%) were treatment responders. Also, more CBT-I (24%) than WLC participants (0%) remitted. In patients with insomnia co-morbid with hearing impairment, CBT-I was effective in decreasing insomnia severity, subjective sleep parameters, dysfunction, and anxiety. These findings are in line with previous results on the effects of CBT-I in other medical conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10880-011-9275-yDOI Listing
June 2012

Quality of life, psychosocial consequences, and audiological rehabilitation after sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

Int J Audiol 2011 Feb;50(2):139-44

ENT-clinic, Central Hospital, Karlstad, Sweden.

Objective: Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSHL) is characterized by a rapid loss of hearing, most often of cochlear origin. Very little attention has been paid in the literature to quality of life (QoL), psychosocial consequences and audiological rehabilitation after SSHL.

Design: We studied how level of hearing loss, hearing recovery, tinnitus and vertigo affect QoL after SSHL and the psychosocial consequences of SSHL in terms of sick leave. Furthermore, the audiological rehabilitation given to patients in connection with SSHL and the benefit of the rehabilitation were studied.

Study Sample: Three hundred and sixty-nine (369) patients with SSHL were analysed in the present study.

Results: Annoying tinnitus and remaining vertigo after SSHL were the strongest predictors of negative effects on QoL.

Conclusions: The study indicates that patients with SSHL require extended audiological rehabilitation including a multi-disciplinary rehabilitation approach (medical, social and psychological) to cope with the complex issues that can arise after SSHL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/14992027.2010.533705DOI Listing
February 2011

The position of the deaf in the Swedish labor market.

Am Ann Deaf 2010 ;155(1):68-77

The Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Orebro University.

The position of deaf people in the Swedish labor market is described and analyzed. A population of 2,144 people born from 1941 to 1980 who attended special education programs for the deaf was compared to 100,000 randomly chosen individuals from the total Swedish population born during the same period. Data on these individuals consisted of registered information from 2005. It was found that the labor market position of the deaf population was not as good as that of the reference population. It was also found that differences in sex, age, immigration background, level of educational attainment, and region of residence did not affect the difference between the two populations in regard to labor market position. Instead, deafness itself appeared to be a crucial factor. The study also indicated difficulties in finding long-term solutions to the deaf population's problems finding employment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/aad.0.0130DOI Listing
June 2010

International classification of functioning, disability, and health core sets for hearing loss: a discussion paper and invitation.

Int J Audiol 2010 Apr;49(4):256-62

The Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Orebro University, Orebro, Sweden.

The World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) has adopted a multifactorial understanding of functioning and disability, merging a biomedical paradigm with a social paradigm into a wider understanding of human functioning. Altogether there are more than 1400 ICF-categories describing different aspects of human functioning and there is a need to developing short lists of ICF categories to facilitate use of the classification scheme in clinical practice. To our knowledge, there is currently no such standard measuring instrument to facilitate a common validated way of assessing the effects of hearing loss on the lives of adults. The aim of the project is the development of an internationally accepted, evidence-based, reliable, comprehensive and valid ICF Core Sets for Hearing Loss. The processes involved in this project are described in detail and the authors invite stakeholders, clinical experts and persons with hearing loss to actively participate in the development process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/14992020903410110DOI Listing
April 2010

Towards a working life? Experiences in a rehabilitation process for people with psychiatric disabilities.

Scand J Occup Ther 2010 ;17(2):149-61

The Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Orebro University, Orebro, Sweden.

The aim of this study was to reveal the meaning some people with psychiatric disabilities assigned to important personal experiences in relation to an ongoing rehabilitation process. The data comprises open-ended interviews of eight participants. A hermeneutic approach together with a content analysis was used to analyse the data. The results indicated the importance of not relying on simplified prognoses early in a rehabilitation process when assessing rehabilitation measures and/or work capacity. The phenomenon of rehabilitation seemed to be very complex, diverse, and changed over time depending on different circumstances that arose during the rehabilitation process. These circumstances arose on individual, contextual as well as structural levels and all had an impact on the outcomes. The results also indicated that it seemed to be possible to achieve success, change attitudes, and create a positive image of a future related to a working life if the support was perceived as relevant and the activities undertaken were perceived as contributing to achievement of the individual's goals. Regardless of which path the informants later chose these factors were seen to support an empowerment process and active participation in their own rehabilitation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/11038120902906303DOI Listing
October 2010

Long-term ophthalmic health care in Usher syndrome type I from an ICF perspective.

Disabil Rehabil 2009 ;31(15):1283-92

Swedish Institute of Disability Research, School of Health and Medical Science, Orebro University, Orebro, Sweden.

Purpose: The aim was to explore ophthalmic health care in female patients with Usher Syndrome type I (USH I) over 20 years and to evaluate the relationship between the ophthalmic health care and the health state of the patients from a health perspective.

Methods: A retrospective study of records from ophthalmology departments (OD) and low vision clinics (LVC) from 1985 to 2004. Assessment of the reports was performed based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Findings were analysed by manifest content analysis with ICF as a framework and using four themes: health care system, procedure examinations, patient's functioning and disability and procedure actions.

Results: The records of nine female patients (aged 25-39 years, 1985) with USH I were selected from the national database of USH. A great number of notes were collected (OD 344 and LVC 566). Procedure examinations were exclusively oriented towards body structure and function. All patients showed aggravated visual impairment over and above the hearing and vestibular impairment. Procedure actions were oriented towards environmental factors. No correlation was found between procedures performed and patient's experience of disability.

Conclusions: The high degree of resource allocation was not correlated to the patients' impairment. The study indicates that the ophthalmic health care was characterised by inefficiency. This conclusion is very serious because patients very likely face severe disability and emotional difficulties. ICF is ought to be incorporated in ophthalmic health care strategy to improve the health care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09638280802519669DOI Listing
October 2009

Toward an equal level of educational attainment between deaf and hearing people in Sweden?

J Deaf Stud Deaf Educ 2009 16;14(3):312-23. Epub 2009 Feb 16.

The Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Orebro University, Orebro, Sweden.

Various educational reforms in Sweden have resulted in a formally equivalent educational system for deaf and hearing pupils. Has this resulted in equal levels of educational attainment? This article compares 2,144 people born between 1941 and 1980 who attended a special education program for the deaf and 100,000 randomly chosen individuals from the total population born between 1941 and 1980. Data consist of registered information about the individuals in the year 2005. Results demonstrate that the deaf population has a lower level of educational attainment than the reference population. Women have a higher level of educational attainment than men, and younger people have a higher level than older people in each population. Neither sex, age category, nor immigrant background accounts for the variance in the level of educational attainment between the populations. The educational reforms have not been sufficient to reduce the unequal level of educational attainment between deaf and hearing people.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/deafed/enp001DOI Listing
September 2009

Participation by doing: social interaction in everyday activities among persons with schizophrenia.

Scand J Occup Ther 2008 Sep;15(3):162-72

Department of Health Science, Institute for Disability Research, Orebro Universitet, 701 85 Orebro, Sweden.

Unlabelled: Schizophrenia impacts on social functioning and participation in everyday life. However, there is limited research describing how persons with schizophrenia interact with others when performing daily activities. The aim of this study is to describe how persons with schizophrenia interact with others while performing everyday activities in different contexts in terms of facilitating and hindering factors. Repeated participant observations of four persons with schizophrenia were conducted in their environment. The observed activities and social interactions were chosen from the participant's daily routines. Field notes were taken during the observations. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the data. Two themes constitute the main result: Facilitating social interaction in activity performance and Hindering social interaction in activity performance. These two themes serve as headings for sub-themes representing factors influencing social interaction in activity performance. Through a further analysis of the themes the following dichotomous contexts were identified as influential: meaningful/not meaningful activity being performed; attitudes were trusting/lacking trust; and location, at home/outside the home.

Conclusion: If the facilitating contextual factors are considered for each individual when planning and performing everyday activities together with others there is a possibility to improve social interaction skills and thereby participation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/11038120802022102DOI Listing
September 2008

Deafblindness, ontological security, and social recognition.

Int J Audiol 2008 Nov;47 Suppl 2:S119-23

Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Orebro University, Sweden.

Trust, ontological security, and social recognition are discussed in relation to self-identity among people with acquired deafblindness. To date the phenomenon has not been elaborated in the context of deafblindness. When a person with deafblindness interacts with the social and material environment, the reliability, constancy, and predictability of his or her relations is crucial for maintaining or achieving ontological security or a general and fairly persistent feeling of well-being. When these relations fundamentally change, the impact on ontological security will be very negative. The construction of social recognition through the interaction between the self and others is embodied across three dimensions: at the individual level, at the legal systems level, and at the normative or value level. The relationship between trust and ontological security on the one hand and social recognition on the other hand is discussed. It is argued that these basic processes affecting personality development have to be identified and acknowledged in the interactions people with deafblindness experience. Some implications for the rehabilitation of people with acquired deafblindness are presented and illustrated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14992020802307388DOI Listing
November 2008

Social recognition, participation, and the dynamic between the environment and personal factors of students with deafblindness.

Am Ann Deaf 2007 ;152(1):42-55

Swedish Institute of Disability Research, Department of Health Sciences, Orebro University.

The study describes environmental and personal factors that, from the student perspective, impede participation in education in secondary upper schools by students with postlingual deafblindness. The discussion is framed by the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health. The researchers use the theory of social recognition as a theoretical tool in understanding the dynamics between personal factors and environment in the context of secondary upper-school education. Thirty-four students with deafblindness responded to a questionnaire; the survey's findings indicate experiences of barriers in the natural and social environments that restrict participation. Experience of considerateness--such as concern for the special requirements of students with deafblindness--and experience of the lack of considerateness are the most important factors. Negative roles adapted by some students for themselves may be interpreted as resulting from a lack of recognition, in the form of denigration or insults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/aad.2007.0012DOI Listing
August 2007

Marital status and birthrate of deaf people in two Swedish counties: the impact of social environment in terms of deaf community.

Am Ann Deaf 2004-2005 Winter;149(5):415-20

Department of Audiology, University Hospital, Orebro, Sweden.

Deafness affects many social interactions. The impact of deafness depends on several factors, e.g., the type of social environment in terms of the particular Deaf community a person lives in. The authors recorded the birthrate and the proportions of married and divorced people among deaf people in two Swedish counties: Narke, which had a strong Deaf community, and Varmland, whose Deaf community was weak. In both counties, the authors found that deafness was associated with low marriage rates and low birthrates. Further, in Narke, 99% of the people in the sample were married to another deaf person; only 10% were in Varmland. In Narke, the divorce rate among deaf people was about the same as that of the reference population (i.e., the county's marriage-age population). In Varmland, deaf people had a relatively low divorce rate. The findings are discussed from medical and social perspectives.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/aad.2005.0010DOI Listing
September 2005
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