Publications by authors named "Bernardo Bonanni"

207 Publications

Patient- versus physician-reported outcomes in a low-dose tamoxifen trial in noninvasive breast cancer.

Breast J 2021 Oct 8. Epub 2021 Oct 8.

Division of Medical Oncology, E.O. Ospedali Galliera, Genoa, Italy.

Background: We recently conducted a de-escalation trial of low-dose tamoxifen 5 mg/day ("babytam", BT) or placebo given for 3 years in 500 women with noninvasive breast cancer. Women on babytam had a 52% reduction of recurrence (invasive breast cancer or DCIS) after 5 years. Since menopausal symptoms are major reasons for treatment withdrawal during tamoxifen preventive therapy, we compared and analyzed the patient-reported outcomes (PROs) with the physician-reported adverse events and studied their association with recurrence.

Methods: Menopausal symptoms recorded by physicians using the Common Terminology Criteria (CTCAEs) were compared with a patient self-reported validated questionnaire reviewed by a research nurse at baseline and every 6 months up to 36 months. Hot flashes (HF), the main outcome measure, were detected through a self-report 7-day diary for frequency and intensity. Treatment adherence and efficacy were assessed by the Kaplan-Meier curves and the Cox model.

Results: The number of HF events at 12, 24, and 36 months for PROs versus CTCAEs was 246 versus 12, 238 versus 8, and 210 versus 4, respectively. The majority of events were grade 1. There was no difference in PROs between babytam and placebo except for HF daily frequency, which increased by 1.5 events (95% CI, 1.1-1.8) on placebo to 2.1 on babytam (95% CI, 1.7-2.5, p = 0.05). The presence of HF at baseline was a favorable prognostic factor for recurrence and a predictive factor for response to babytam. Adherence was similar between babytam and placebo.

Conclusions: The use of PROs is effective for identifying frequent mild grade menopausal symptoms which are underestimated by physicians but important prognostic and predictive factors. Research nurse can use these results as a tool to reassure patients about symptoms, improve adherence to treatment, and limit dropouts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbj.14296DOI Listing
October 2021

Adherence to Dietary Recommendations after One Year of Intervention in Breast Cancer Women: The DIANA-5 Trial.

Nutrients 2021 Aug 27;13(9). Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Department of Research, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori di Milano, 20133 Milano, Italy.

The Diet and Androgen-5 (DIANA-5) trial aimed at testing whether a dietary change based on the Mediterranean diet and on macrobiotic principles can reduce the incidence of breast cancer (BC)-related events. We analyzed the adherence to the DIANA-5 dietary recommendations by randomization group after 1 year of intervention. We evaluated the association between dietary adherence and changes in body weight and metabolic syndrome (MS) parameters. BC women aged 35-70 years were eligible. After the baseline examinations, women were randomized into an intervention group (IG) or a control group (CG). A total of 1344 BC women (689 IG and 655 CG) concluded the first year of dietary intervention. IG showed greater anthropometric and metabolic improvements compared to CG. These changes were significantly associated with increased adherence to the dietary recommendations. Women who increased recommended foods consumption or reduced discouraged foods consumption showed an Odds Ratio (OR) of 1.37 (0.70-2.67) and 2.02 (1.03-3.98) to improve three or more MS parameters. Moreover, women in the higher category of dietary change showed a four times higher OR of reducing body weight compared to the lower category ( < 0.001). The DIANA-5 dietary intervention is effective in reducing body weight and MS parameters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13092990DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8468802PMC
August 2021

Microsatellite instability evaluation: which test to use for endometrial cancer?

J Clin Pathol 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Division of Cancer Prevention and Genetics, IEO, European Institute of Oncology IRCCS, Milan, Lombardy, Italy.

Aims: Analysis of microsatellite instability (MSI) is strongly recommended in endometrial cancer (EC) and colorectal cancer to screen for Lynch syndrome, to predict prognosis and to determine optimal treatment and follow-up. In a large monoinstitutional series of ECs, we evaluated the reliability and accuracy of Idylla assay, a rapid, fully automated system to detect MSI, and we compared its performance with two routine reference methods.

Methods: We evaluated MSI status in 174 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded EC tissue samples using immunohistochemistry (IHC) for mismatch repair (MMR) proteins and Idylla assay. Samples with discordant or equivocal results were analysed with a third technique, the Promega MSI kit.

Results: Idylla MSI assay and IHC were highly concordant (overall agreement: 154/170=90.59%, 95% CI 85.26% to 94.12%). However, in four samples, MMR-IHC staining was equivocal; moreover, 16 cases showed discordant results, that is, MMR deficient using IHC and microsatellite stable using Idylla. These 20 samples were reanalysed using the MSI-Promega kit, which showed the same results of Idylla assay in 18/20 cases (overall agreement: 90%, 95% CI 69.90% to 97.21%).

Conclusions: Our results suggest that IHC is an efficient method to determine MMR status in ECs. However, the Idylla MSI assay is a rapid and reliable tool to define MSI status, and it could represent a valuable alternative to conventional MSI-PCR methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jclinpath-2021-207723DOI Listing
July 2021

Alternative dosing of exemestane in postmenopausal women with ER-positive breast cancer. Design and methods of a randomized presurgical trial.

Contemp Clin Trials 2021 08 1;107:106498. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

European Institute of Oncology IRCCS, Milan, Italy.

Introduction: Aromatase inhibitors are effective in lowering breast cancer incidence among postmenopausal women, but adverse events represent a barrier to their acceptability and adherence as a preventive treatment. This study aims to assess whether lowering exemestane schedule may retain biological activity while improving tolerability in breast cancer patients.

Methods/design: We are conducting a, pre-surgical, non-inferiority phase IIb study in postmenopausal women with newly diagnosed estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. Participants are randomized to receive either exemestane 25 mg/day or 25 mg/three times-week or once a week for 4 to 6 weeks prior to surgery. The primary endpoint is the percentage change of serum estradiol concentration between baseline and surgery comparing the three arms. Sample size of 180 women was calculated assuming a 6% non-inferiority of the percent change of estradiol in the lower dose arms compared with the 80% decrease predicted in the full dose arm, with 80% power and using a one-sided 5% significance level and a two-sample t-test. Main secondary outcomes are: safety; change in Ki-67 in cancer and adjacent pre-cancer tissue, circulating sex hormones, adipokines, lipid profile, insulin and glucose changes, in correlation with drug and metabolites concentrations.

Results And Discussion: The present paper is focused on methodology and operational aspects of the study. A total of 180 participants have ben enrolled. The trial is still blinded, and the analyses are ongoing. Despite the short term duration, results may have relevant implications for clinical management of women at increased risk of developing a ER positive breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cct.2021.106498DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8429140PMC
August 2021

A Novel Automated Immunoassay Platform to Evaluate the Association of Adiponectin and Leptin Levels with Breast Cancer Risk.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Jun 30;13(13). Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Molecular and Pharmaco-Epidemiology Unit, Department of Experimental Oncology, IEO, European Institute of Oncology IRCCS, 20141 Milan, Italy.

Adiponectin and leptin are adipokines secreted by the adipose tissue that are associated with several chronic diseases including cancer. We aimed to compare the immunoassay platform ELLA with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit and to assess whether the results of the association analyses with breast cancer risk were dependent on the assay used. We measured adiponectin and leptin with ELLA and ELISA on baseline serum samples of 116 Italian postmenopausal women enrolled in two international breast cancer prevention trials. Results were compared with Deming, Passing-Bablok regression and Bland-Altman plots. Disease-free survival was analyzed with the Cox model. There was a good correlation between the methods for adiponectin and leptin (r > 0.96). We found an increased breast cancer risk for very low adiponectin levels (HR for ELLA = 3.75; 95% CI: 1.37;10.25, = 0.01), whereas no significant association was found for leptin levels. The disease-free survival curves were almost identical for values obtained with the two methods, for both biomarkers. The ELLA platform showed a good concordance with ELISA for adiponectin and leptin measurements. Our results support the association of very low adiponectin levels with postmenopausal breast cancer risk, irrespective of the method used. The ELLA platform is a time-saving system with high reproducibility, therefore we recommend its use for biomarker assessment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13133303DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8268385PMC
June 2021

No Difference in Penetrance between Truncating and Missense/Aberrant Splicing Pathogenic Variants in and : A Prospective Lynch Syndrome Database Study.

J Clin Med 2021 Jun 28;10(13). Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Medical Genetics, Institute for Medical Genetics and Pathology, University Hospital Basel, 4031 Basel, Switzerland.

Background: Lynch syndrome is the most common genetic predisposition for hereditary cancer. Carriers of pathogenic changes in mismatch repair (MMR) genes have an increased risk of developing colorectal (CRC), endometrial, ovarian, urinary tract, prostate, and other cancers, depending on which gene is malfunctioning. In Lynch syndrome, differences in cancer incidence (penetrance) according to the gene involved have led to the stratification of cancer surveillance. By contrast, any differences in penetrance determined by the type of pathogenic variant remain unknown.

Objective: To determine cumulative incidences of cancer in carriers of truncating and missense or aberrant splicing pathogenic variants of the and genes.

Methods: Carriers of pathogenic variants of () and () genes filed in the Prospective Lynch Syndrome Database (PLSD) were categorized as truncating or missense/aberrant splicing according to the InSiGHT criteria for pathogenicity.

Results: Among 5199 carriers, 1045 had missense or aberrant splicing variants, and 3930 had truncating variants. Prospective observation years for the two groups were 8205 and 34,141 years, respectively, after which there were no significant differences in incidences for cancer overall or for colorectal cancer or endometrial cancers separately.

Conclusion: Truncating and missense or aberrant splicing pathogenic variants were associated with similar average cumulative incidences of cancer in carriers of and .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10132856DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8269121PMC
June 2021

Vitamin D Supplementation and Disease-Free Survival in Stage II Melanoma: A Randomized Placebo Controlled Trial.

Nutrients 2021 Jun 4;13(6). Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Experimental Oncology, IEO, European Institute of Oncology IRCCS, 20141 Milan, Italy.

Patients with newly resected stage II melanoma ( = 104) were randomized to receive adjuvant vitamin D3 (100,000 IU every 50 days) or placebo for 3 years to investigate vitamin D3 protective effects on developing a recurrent disease. Median age at diagnosis was 50 years, and 43% of the patients were female. Median serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25OHD) level at baseline was 18 ng/mL, interquartile range (IQ) was 13-24 ng/mL, and 80% of the patients had insufficient vitamin D levels. We observed pronounced increases in 25OHD levels after 4 months in the active arm (median 32.9 ng/mL; IQ range 25.9-38.4) against placebo (median 19.05 ng/mL; IQ range 13.0-25.9), constantly rising during treatment. Remarkably, patients with low Breslow score (<3 mm) had a double increase in 25OHD levels from baseline, whereas patients with Breslow score ≥3 mm had a significantly lower increase over time. After 12 months, subjects with low 25OHD levels and Breslow score ≥3 mm had shorter disease-free survival ( = 0.02) compared to those with Breslow score <3 mm and/or high levels of 25OHD. Adjusting for age and treatment arm, the hazard ratio for relapse was 4.81 (95% CI: 1.44-16.09, = 0.011). Despite the evidence of a role of 25OHD in melanoma prognosis, larger trials with vitamin D supplementation involving subjects with melanoma are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13061931DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8226808PMC
June 2021

Gene-Environment Interactions Relevant to Estrogen and Risk of Breast Cancer: Can Gene-Environment Interactions Be Detected Only among Candidate SNPs from Genome-Wide Association Studies?

Cancers (Basel) 2021 May 14;13(10). Epub 2021 May 14.

Copenhagen General Population Study, Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, Copenhagen University Hospital, 2730 Herlev, Denmark.

In this study we aim to examine gene-environment interactions (GxEs) between genes involved with estrogen metabolism and environmental factors related to estrogen exposure. GxE analyses were conducted with 1970 Korean breast cancer cases and 2052 controls in the case-control study, the Seoul Breast Cancer Study (SEBCS). A total of 11,555 SNPs from the 137 candidate genes were included in the GxE analyses with eight established environmental factors. A replication test was conducted by using an independent population from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC), with 62,485 Europeans and 9047 Asians. The GxE tests were performed by using two-step methods in GxEScan software. Two interactions were found in the SEBCS. The first interaction was shown between rs13035764 of NCOA1 and age at menarche in the GE|2df model (-2df = 1.2 × 10). The age at menarche before 14 years old was associated with the high risk of breast cancer, and the risk was higher when subjects had homozygous minor allele G. The second GxE was shown between rs851998 near ESR1 and height in the GE|2df model (-2df = 1.1 × 10). Height taller than 160 cm was associated with a high risk of breast cancer, and the risk increased when the minor allele was added. The findings were not replicated in the BCAC. These results would suggest specificity in Koreans for breast cancer risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13102370DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8156547PMC
May 2021

A Meta-Analysis of Obesity and Risk of Colorectal Cancer in Patients with Lynch Syndrome: The Impact of Sex and Genetics.

Nutrients 2021 May 20;13(5). Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Experimental Oncology, European Institute of Oncology (IEO) IRCCS, 20141 Milan, Italy.

There appears to be a sex-specific association between obesity and colorectal neoplasia in patients with Lynch Syndrome (LS). We meta-analyzed studies reporting on obesity and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk in LS patients to test whether obese subjects were at increased risk of cancer compared to those of normal weight. We explored also a possible sex-specific relationship between adiposity and CRC risk among patients with LS. The summary relative risk (SRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated through random effect models. We investigated the causes of between-study heterogeneity and assessed the presence of publication bias. We were able to retrieve suitable data from four independent studies. We found a twofold risk of CRC in obese men compared to nonobese men (SRR = 2.09; 95%CI: 1.23-3.55, I = 33%), and no indication of publication bias ( = 0.13). No significantly increased risk due to obesity was found for women. A 49% increased CRC risk for obesity was found for subjects with an mutation (SRR = 1.49; 95%CI: 1.11-1.99, I = 0%). These results confirm the different effects of sex on obesity and CRC risk and also support the public measures to reduce overweight in people with LS, particularly for men.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13051736DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8160758PMC
May 2021

Association of Vitamin D Receptor and Vitamin D-Binding Protein Polymorphisms with Familial Breast Cancer Prognosis in a Mono-Institutional Cohort.

Nutrients 2021 Apr 6;13(4). Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Division of Cancer Prevention and Genetics, European Institute of Oncology (IEO) IRCCS, 20141 Milan, Italy.

Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) has been associated with an increased cancer incidence and poorer prognosis. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of vitamin D receptor (VDR) and vitamin D binding protein (GC gene) may interfere with vitamin D activity. This study assesses the role of VDR and GC SNPs on breast cancer (BC) recurrence and survival in a cohort of patients with a family history of breast cancer, without the pathogenic variant for BRCA1 and BRCA2. A consecutive series of patients who underwent genetic testing were genotyped for VDR and GC genes. Specifically, ApaI, FokI, TaqI, BsmI and rs2282679, rs4588, rs7041 SNPs were determined. A total of 368 wild type (WT) patients with BC were analyzed for VDR and GC SNPs. The GC rs2282679 minor allele was significantly associated with luminal subtype of the primary tumor compared to Her2+/TN breast cancer ( = 0.007). Multivariate Cox models showed that BmsI and TaqI are significantly associated with BC outcome. Patients with the major alleles showed more than 30% lower hazard of relapse (BsmI = 0.02 and TaqI = 0.03). Our study supports the evidence for a pivotal role of 25OHD metabolism in BC. GC SNPs may influence the hormone tumor responsiveness and VDR may affect tumor prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13041208DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8067530PMC
April 2021

Geographical Distribution of E-cadherin Germline Mutations in the Context of Diffuse Gastric Cancer: A Systematic Review.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Mar 12;13(6). Epub 2021 Mar 12.

i3S-Instituto de Investigação e Inovação em Saúde, University of Porto, 4200-135 Porto, Portugal.

Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) is a complex and multifactorial inherited cancer predisposition syndrome caused by germline mutations. Nevertheless, current genetic screening recommendations disregard an unbalanced worldwide distribution of variants, impacting testing efficacy and patient management. In this systematic review, we collected and analyzed all studies describing variants in gastric cancer patients originating from both high- and low-prevalence countries. Selected studies were categorized as family study, series study, and unknown study, according to the implementation of HDGC clinical criteria for genetic testing. Our results indicate that mutations are more frequently identified in gastric cancer low-incidence countries, and in the family study group that encompasses cases fulfilling criteria. Considering the type of alterations, we verified that the relative frequency of mutation types varies within study groups and geographical areas. In the series study, the missense variant frequency is higher in high-incidence areas of gastric cancer, when compared with non-missense mutations. However, application of variant scoring for putative relevance led to a strong reduction of variants conferring increased risk of gastric cancer. Herein, we demonstrate that criteria for genetic screening are critical for identification of individuals carrying mutations with clinical significance. Further, we propose that future guidelines for testing should consider GC incidence across geographical regions for improved surveillance programs and early diagnosis of disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13061269DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8001745PMC
March 2021

Association of CYP2D6 genotype and tamoxifen metabolites with breast cancer recurrence in a low-dose trial.

NPJ Breast Cancer 2021 Mar 25;7(1):34. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.

Low-dose tamoxifen halves recurrence in non-invasive breast cancer without significant adverse events. Some adjuvant trials with tamoxifen 20 mg/day had shown an association between low endoxifen levels (9-16 nM) and recurrence, but no association with CYP2D6 was shown in the NSABP P1 and P2 prevention trials. We studied the association of CYP2D6 genotype and tamoxifen metabolites with tumor biomarkers and recurrence in a randomized phase III trial of low-dose tamoxifen. Median (IQR) endoxifen levels at year 1 were 8.4 (5.3-11.4) in patients who recurred vs 7.5 (5.1-10.2) in those who did not recur (p = 0.60). Tamoxifen and metabolites significantly decreased C-reactive protein (CRP, p < 0.05), and a CRP increase after 3 years was associated with higher risk of recurrence (HR = 4.37, 95% CI, 1.14-16.73, P = 0.03). In conclusion, endoxifen is below 9 nM in most subjects treated with 5 mg/day despite strong efficacy and there is no association with recurrence, suggesting that the reason for tamoxifen failure is not poor drug metabolism. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, Identifier: NCT01357772 .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41523-021-00236-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7994552PMC
March 2021

Uptake of hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy in carriers of pathogenic mismatch repair variants: a Prospective Lynch Syndrome Database report.

Eur J Cancer 2021 05 17;148:124-133. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik IV, Campus Innenstadt, Klinikum der Universität München, Munich, Germany; MGZ- Medical Genetics Center, Munich, Germany; The International Society for Gastrointestinal Hereditary Tumours (InSiGHT), The Polyposis Registry, St Mark's Hospital, Watford Road, Harrow, Middlesex, HA1 3UJ, UK; European Hereditary Tumour Group (EHTG), C/o Lindsays, Caledonian Exchange, 19A Canning Street, Edinburgh, EH3 8HE, United Kingdom.

Purpose: This study aimed to report the uptake of hysterectomy and/or bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO) to prevent gynaecological cancers (risk-reducing surgery [RRS]) in carriers of pathogenic MMR (path_MMR) variants.

Methods: The Prospective Lynch Syndrome Database (PLSD) was used to investigate RRS by a cross-sectional study in 2292 female path_MMR carriers aged 30-69 years.

Results: Overall, 144, 79, and 517 carriers underwent risk-reducing hysterectomy, BSO, or both combined, respectively. Two-thirds of procedures before 50 years of age were combined hysterectomy and BSO, and 81% of all procedures included BSO. Risk-reducing hysterectomy was performed before age 50 years in 28%, 25%, 15%, and 9%, and BSO in 26%, 25%, 14% and 13% of path_MLH1, path_MSH2, path_MSH6, and path_PMS2 carriers, respectively. Before 50 years of age, 107 of 188 (57%) BSO and 126 of 204 (62%) hysterectomies were performed in women without any prior cancer, and only 5% (20/392) were performed simultaneously with colorectal cancer (CRC) surgery.

Conclusion: Uptake of RRS before 50 years of age was low, and RRS was rarely undertaken in association with surgical treatment of CRC. Uptake of RRS aligned poorly with gene- and age-associated risk estimates for endometrial or ovarian cancer that were published recently from PLSD and did not correspond well with current clinical guidelines. The reasons should be clarified. Decision-making on opting for or against RRS and its timing should be better aligned with predicted risk and mortality for endometrial and ovarian cancer in Lynch syndrome to improve outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2021.02.022DOI Listing
May 2021

Effect Modifiers of Low-Dose Tamoxifen in a Randomized Trial in Breast Noninvasive Disease.

Clin Cancer Res 2021 07 19;27(13):3576-3583. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

IEO, European Institute of Oncology IRCCS, Milan, Italy.

Purpose: Low-dose tamoxifen halved recurrence after surgery in a phase III trial in breast noninvasive disease without increasing adverse events. We explored the effect of low-dose tamoxifen in clinically relevant subgroups, including menopausal status, estradiol levels, smoking, body mass index, and proliferation of baseline lesion.

Patients And Methods: Incidence of invasive breast cancer or ductal carcinoma was the primary endpoint. HRs and interaction terms were estimated using Cox models.

Results: A favorable HR and 95% confidence interval (CI) could be demonstrated for postmenopausal status (HR = 0.30; 95% CI, 0.11-0.82 vs. HR = 0.73; 95% CI, 0.30-1.76 in premenopausal women; = 0.13), women with estradiol less than 15.8 pg/mL, presence of menopausal symptoms at baseline, and never smoking ( = 0.07), although the interaction value was >0.05 for all characteristics. Efficacy was similar in all body mass index categories. Tumors with Ki-67 above the median level of 10% had a greater benefit (HR = 0.27; 95% CI, 0.09-0.81) than those with Ki-67 ≤10% (HR = 1.58; 95% CI, 0.45-5.60; = 0.04).

Conclusions: The efficacy of low-dose tamoxifen seems to be greater in postmenopausal women and in women with lower estradiol levels. Benefits appear to be larger also in women with menopausal symptoms, never smokers, and tumors with Ki-67 >10%. Our results by menopausal status provide important insight into low-dose tamoxifen personalized treatment, although caution is necessary given their exploratory nature. Observation of an improved response in tumors with Ki-67 >10% is consistent but the use of the marker in this setting is investigational..
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-20-4213DOI Listing
July 2021

A case-only study to identify genetic modifiers of breast cancer risk for BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation carriers.

Nat Commun 2021 02 17;12(1):1078. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Copenhagen General Population Study, Herlev and Gentofte Hospital Copenhagen University Hospital, Herlev, Denmark.

Breast cancer (BC) risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers varies by genetic and familial factors. About 50 common variants have been shown to modify BC risk for mutation carriers. All but three, were identified in general population studies. Other mutation carrier-specific susceptibility variants may exist but studies of mutation carriers have so far been underpowered. We conduct a novel case-only genome-wide association study comparing genotype frequencies between 60,212 general population BC cases and 13,007 cases with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. We identify robust novel associations for 2 variants with BC for BRCA1 and 3 for BRCA2 mutation carriers, P < 10, at 5 loci, which are not associated with risk in the general population. They include rs60882887 at 11p11.2 where MADD, SP11 and EIF1, genes previously implicated in BC biology, are predicted as potential targets. These findings will contribute towards customising BC polygenic risk scores for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20496-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7890067PMC
February 2021

Analysis of Italian Pathogenic Variants Identifies a Private Spectrum in the Population from the Bergamo Province in Northern Italy.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Jan 30;13(3). Epub 2021 Jan 30.

Genome Diagnostics Program, IFOM, FIRC Institute for Molecular Oncology, 20139 Milan, Italy.

Germline pathogenic variants (PVs) in the or genes cause high breast cancer risk. Recurrent or founder PVs have been described worldwide including some in the Bergamo province in Northern Italy. The aim of this study was to compare the PV spectra of the Bergamo and of the general Italian populations. We retrospectively identified at five Italian centers 1019 PVs carrier individuals affected with breast cancer and representative of the heterogeneous national population. Each individual was assigned to the Bergamo or non-Bergamo cohort based on self-reported birthplace. Our data indicate that the Bergamo PV spectrum shows less heterogeneity with fewer different variants and an average higher frequency compared to that of the rest of Italy. Consistently, four PVs explained about 60% of all carriers. The majority of the Bergamo PVs originated locally with only two PVs clearly imported. The Bergamo PV spectrum appears to be private. Hence, the Bergamo population would be ideal to study the disease risk associated with local PVs in breast cancer and other disease-causing genes. Finally, our data suggest that the Bergamo population is a genetic isolate and further analyses are warranted to prove this notion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13030532DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7866799PMC
January 2021

Response to Braillon.

JNCI Cancer Spectr 2021 Feb 23;5(1):pkab005. Epub 2021 Jan 23.

Division of Cancer Prevention, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jncics/pkab005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7853174PMC
February 2021

Microbiome as Mediator of Diet on Colorectal Cancer Risk: The Role of Vitamin D, Markers of Inflammation and Adipokines.

Nutrients 2021 Jan 25;13(2). Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Department of Experimental Oncology, IEO European Institute of Oncology IRCCS, 20125 Milan, Italy.

Obesity and diet are associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk, and microbiome could mediate this risk factor. To investigate this interaction, we performed a case-control study (34 CRC cases and 32 controls) and analyzed fecal microbiota composition using 16S rRNA metabarcoding and sub-sequential shotgun analyses of genomic bacterial DNA to evaluate the role of microbiome and diet in CRC etiology, taking into account vitamin D and other risk biomarkers. Dietary habits were evaluated using a short questionnaire. Multivariate methods for data integration and mediation analysis models were used to investigate causal relationships. CRC cases were significantly more often deficient in vitamin D than controls ( = 0.04); and polymorphism frequency were different between cases and controls ( = 0.03 and = 0.02, respectively). A diet poor in fatty fish and rich in carbohydrates was found to be significantly associated with CRC risk ( = 0.011). The mediation analysis confirmed the significant role of the microbiome in mediating CRC risk-increasing levels of / genera ratio, an indicator of "healthy" intestinal microbiome, can overcome the effect of diet on CRC risk ( = 0.03). This study suggests that microbiome mediates the diet effect on CRC risk, and that vitamin D, markers of inflammation, and adipokines are other factors to consider in order to achieve a better knowledge of the whole carcinogenic process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13020363DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7911673PMC
January 2021

Breast Cancer Risk Genes - Association Analysis in More than 113,000 Women.

N Engl J Med 2021 02 20;384(5):428-439. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

The authors' affiliations are as follows: the Centre for Cancer Genetic Epidemiology, Departments of Public Health and Primary Care (L.D., S. Carvalho, J.A., K.A.P., Q.W., M.K.B., J.D., B.D., N. Mavaddat, K. Michailidou, A.C.A., P.D.P.P., D.F.E.) and Oncology (C.L., P.A.H., C. Baynes, D.M.C., L.F., V.R., M. Shah, P.D.P.P., A.M.D., D.F.E.), University of Cambridge, Cambridge, the Centre for Genomic and Experimental Medicine, MRC Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine (A. Campbell, D.J.P.), and the Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, Department of Psychology (D.J.P.), University of Edinburgh, the Cancer Research UK Edinburgh Centre (D.A.C., J.F.), and the Usher Institute of Population Health Sciences and Informatics, University of Edinburgh Medical School (A. Campbell, J.F.), Edinburgh, the Divisions of Informatics, Imaging, and Data Sciences (E.F.H.), Cancer Sciences (A. Howell), Population Health, Health Services Research, and Primary Care (A. Lophatananon, K. Muir), and Evolution and Genomic Sciences, School of Biological Sciences (W.G.N., E.M.V., D.G.E.), University of Manchester, the NIHR Manchester Biomedical Research Unit (E.F.H.) and the Nightingale Breast Screening Centre, Wythenshawe Hospital (E.F.H., H.I.), Academic Health Science Centre and North West Genomics Laboratory Hub, and the Manchester Centre for Genomic Medicine, St. Mary's Hospital, Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust (W.G.N., E.M.V., D.G.E.), Manchester, the School of Cancer and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Comprehensive Cancer Centre, Guy's Campus, King's College London, London (E.J.S.), the Institute of Cancer and Genomic Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham (I.T.), and the Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics and Oxford NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, University of Oxford, Oxford (I.T.) - all in the United Kingdom; the Human Genotyping-CEGEN Unit, Human Cancer Genetic Program (A.G.-N., M.R.A., N.Á., B.H., R.N.-T.), and the Human Genetics Group (V.F., A.O., J.B.), Spanish National Cancer Research Center, Centro de Investigación en Red de Enfermedades Raras (A.O., J.B.), Servicio de Oncología Médica, Hospital Universitario La Paz (M.P.Z.), and Molecular Oncology Laboratory, Hospital Clinico San Carlos, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria del Hospital Clínico San Carlos (M. de la Hoya), Madrid, the Genomic Medicine Group, Galician Foundation of Genomic Medicine, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Santiago de Compostela, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago (A. Carracedo, M.G.-D.), and Centro de Investigación en Red de Enfermedades Raras y Centro Nacional de Genotipado, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (A. Carracedo), Santiago de Compostela, the Oncology and Genetics Unit, Instituto de Investigacion Sanitaria Galicia Sur, Xerencia de Xestion Integrada de Vigo-Servizo Galeo de Saúde, Vigo (J.E.C.), and Servicio de Cirugía General y Especialidades, Hospital Monte Naranco, Oviedo (J.I.A.P.) - all in Spain; the Division of Oncology and Pathology, Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Lund University, Lund (C. Wahlström, J.V., M.L., T. Törngren, Å.B., A.K.), the Department of Oncology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro (C. Blomqvist), and the Departments of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics (K.C., M.E., M.G., P. Hall, W.H., K.H.), Oncology, Södersjukhuset (P. Hall, S. Margolin), Molecular Medicine and Surgery (A. Lindblom), and Clinical Science and Education, Södersjukhuset (S. Margolin, C. Wendt), Karolinska Institutet, and the Department of Clinical Genetics, Karolinska University Hospital (A. Lindblom), Stockholm - all in Sweden; the Department of Genetics and Computational Biology, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane, QLD (M.T.P., C.F., G.C.-T., A.B.S.), the Cancer Epidemiology Division, Cancer Council Victoria (G.G.G., R.J.M., R.L.M.), the Centre for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Melbourne School of Population and Global Health (G.G.G., R.J.M., R.L.M.), and the Department of Clinical Pathology (M.C.S.), University of Melbourne, Anatomical Pathology, Alfred Hospital (C.M.), and the Cancer Epidemiology Division, Cancer Council Victoria (M.C.S.), Melbourne, VIC, and Precision Medicine, School of Clinical Sciences at Monash Health, Monash University, Clayton, VIC (G.G.G., M.C.S., R.L.M.) - all in Australia; the Division of Molecular Pathology (R.K., S. Cornelissen, M.K.S.), Family Cancer Clinic (F.B.L.H., L.E.K.), Department of Epidemiology (M.A.R.), and Division of Psychosocial Research and Epidemiology (M.K.S.), the Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam, Division Laboratories, Pharmacy and Biomedical Genetics, Department of Genetics, University Medical Center, Utrecht (M.G.E.M.A.), the Department of Clinical Genetics, Erasmus University Medical Center (J.M.C., A.M.W.O.), and the Department of Medical Oncology, Family Cancer Clinic, Erasmus MC Cancer Institute (B.A.M.H.-G., A. Hollestelle, M.J.H.), Rotterdam, the Department of Clinical Genetics, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht (E.B.G.G.), the Departments of Human Genetics (I.M.M.L., M.P.G.V., P.D.), Clinical Genetics (C.J.A.), and Pathology (P.D.), Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Department of Human Genetics, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen (A.R.M.), and the Department of Genetics, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (J.C.O.) - all in the Netherlands; the Cancer Genetics and Comparative Genomics Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute (B.D.), and the Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute (T.A., S.J.C., X.R.Y., M.G.-C.), National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD; the Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School (B.D.), and the Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health (R.M.V.D.), Boston; the Departments of Clinical Genetics (K.A.), Oncology (C. Blomqvist), and Obstetrics and Gynecology (H.N., M. Suvanto), Helsinki University Hospital, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, and the Unit of Clinical Oncology, Kuopio University Hospital (P. Auvinen), the Institute of Clinical Medicine, Oncology (P. Auvinen), the Translational Cancer Research Area (J.M.H., V.-M.K., A. Mannermaa), and the Institute of Clinical Medicine, Pathology, and Forensic Medicine (J.M.H., V.-M.K., A. Mannermaa), University of Eastern Finland, and the Biobank of Eastern Finland, Kuopio University Hospital (V.-M.K., A. Mannermaa), Kuopio - both in Finland; the N.N. Alexandrov Research Institute of Oncology and Medical Radiology, Minsk, Belarus (N.N.A., N.V.B.); the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics and Institute of Clinical Molecular Biology, University Hospital of Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel, Christian-Albrechts University Kiel, Kiel (N.A.), the Institute of Medical Biometry and Epidemiology (H. Becher) and Cancer Epidemiology Group (T.M., J.C.-C.), University Cancer Center Hamburg, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics (M.W.B., P.A.F., L.H.) and Institute of Human Genetics (A.B.E.), University Hospital Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Comprehensive Cancer Center Erlangen-European Metropolitan Region of Nuremberg, Erlangen, the Division of Cancer Epidemiology (S.B., A. Jung, P.M.K., J.C.-C.), Molecular Epidemiology Group, C080 (B. Burwinkel, H.S.), Division of Pediatric Neurooncology (A.F.), and Molecular Genetics of Breast Cancer (U.H., M.M., M.U.R., D.T.), German Cancer Research Center, Molecular Biology of Breast Cancer, University Women's Clinic Heidelberg, University of Heidelberg (B. Burwinkel, A.S., H.S.), Hopp Children's Cancer Center (A.F.), Faculty of Medicine, University of Heidelberg (P.M.K.), and National Center for Tumor Diseases, University Hospital and German Cancer Research Center (A.S., C.S.), Heidelberg, the Department of Radiation Oncology (N.V.B., M. Bremer, H.C.) and the Gynecology Research Unit (N.V.B., T.D., P. Hillemanns, T.-W.P.-S., P.S.), Hannover Medical School, Hannover, the Institute of Human Genetics, University of Münster, Münster (N.B.-M.), Dr. Margarete Fischer-Bosch-Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Stuttgart (H. Brauch, W.-Y.L.), iFIT-Cluster of Excellence, University of Tübingen, and the German Cancer Consortium, German Cancer Research Center, Partner Site Tübingen (H. Brauch), and the University of Tübingen (W.-Y.L.), Tübingen, Institute for Prevention and Occupational Medicine of the German Social Accident Insurance, Institute of the Ruhr University Bochum, Bochum (T.B.), Institute for Medical Informatics, Statistics, and Epidemiology, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (C.E.), Center for Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer (E.H., R.K.S.) and Center for Integrated Oncology (E.H., R.K.S.), Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Cologne, University of Cologne, Cologne, the Department of Internal Medicine, Evangelische Kliniken Bonn, Johanniter Krankenhaus, Bonn (Y.-D.K.), the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University of Munich, Campus Großhadern, Munich (A. Meindl), and the Institute of Pathology, Städtisches Klinikum Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe (T.R.) - all in Germany; the Gynecological Cancer Registry, Centre Georges-François Leclerc, Dijon (P. Arveux), and the Center for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health, Team Exposome and Heredity, INSERM, University Paris-Saclay, Villejuif (E.C.-D., P.G., T. Truong) - both in France; the Institute of Biochemistry and Genetics, Ufa Federal Research Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences (M. Bermisheva, E.K.), the Department of Genetics and Fundamental Medicine, Bashkir State University (E.K., D.P., Y.V.), and the Ufa Research Institute of Occupational Health and Human Ecology (Y.V.), Ufa, Russia; the Department of Genetics and Pathology (K.B., A. Jakubowska, J. Lubiński, K.P.) and the Independent Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Genetic Diagnostics (A. Jakubowska), Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin, Poland; the Copenhagen General Population Study, the Department of Clinical Biochemistry (S.E.B., B.G.N.), and the Department of Breast Surgery (H.F.), Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, Copenhagen University Hospital, Herlev, and the Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (S.E.B., B.G.N.) - both in Denmark; the Division of Cancer Prevention and Genetics, European Institute of Oncology Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico (IRCCS) (B. Bonanni), the Unit of Medical Genetics, Department of Medical Oncology and Hematology, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori di Milano (S. Manoukian), the Genome Diagnostics Program, FIRC Institute of Molecular Oncology (P.P.), and the Unit of Molecular Bases of Genetic Risk and Genetic Testing, Department of Research, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori (P.R.), Milan; the Department of Cancer Genetics, Institute for Cancer Research, Oslo University Hospital-Radiumhospitalet (A.-L.B.-D., G.I.G.A., V.N.K.), and the Institute of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo (A.-L.B.-D., V.N.K.), Oslo; Medical Faculty, Universidad de La Sabana (I.B.), and the Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics Department (F.G.) and Institute of Human Genetics (D.T.), Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogota, Colombia; the Department of Internal Medicine and Huntsman Cancer Institute, University of Utah (N.J.C., M.J.M., J.A.W.), and the Intermountain Healthcare Biorepository and Department of Pathology, Intermountain Healthcare (M.H.C.), Salt Lake City; the David Geffen School of Medicine, Department of Medicine Division of Hematology and Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles (P.A.F.), and Moores Cancer Center (M.G.-D., M.E.M.) and the Department of Family Medicine and Public Health (M.E.M.), University of California San Diego, La Jolla; the Departments of Medical Oncology (V.G., D.M.) and Pathology (M.T.), University Hospital of Heraklion, Heraklion, and the Department of Oncology, University Hospital of Larissa, Larissa (E.S.) - both in Greece; the Fred A. Litwin Center for Cancer Genetics, Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute of Mount Sinai Hospital (G.G., I.L.A.), the Departments of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology (A.M.M.) and Molecular Genetics (I.L.A.), University of Toronto, and the Laboratory Medicine Program, University Health Network (A.M.M.), Toronto, and the Genomics Center, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Québec-Université Laval Research Center, Québec City, QC (J.S.) - both in Canada; the Department of Electron Microscopy and Molecular Pathology (A. Hadjisavvas, K.K., M.A.L.), the Cyprus School of Molecular Medicine (A. Hadjisavvas, K.K., M.A.L., K. Michailidou), and the Biostatistics Unit (K. Michailidou), Cyprus Institute of Neurology and Genetics, Nicosia, Cyprus; the Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health (M. Hartman, R.M.V.D.) and the Department of Medicine, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine (R.M.V.D.), National University of Singapore, the Department of Surgery, National University Health System (M. Hartman, J. Li), and the Human Genetics Division, Genome Institute of Singapore (J. Li), Singapore; the Department of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Nottingham Malaysia (W.K.H.), and the Breast Cancer Research Programme, Cancer Research Malaysia (W.K.H., P.S.N., S.-Y.Y., S.H.T.), Selangor, and the Breast Cancer Research Unit, Cancer Research Institute (N.A.M.T.), and the Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine (N.A.M.T., P.S.N., S.H.T.), University Malaya, Kuala Lumpur - both in Malaysia; Surgery, School of Medicine, National University of Ireland, Galway (M.J.K., N. Miller); the Department of Surgery, Daerim Saint Mary's Hospital (S.-W.K.), the Department of Surgery, Ulsan University College of Medicine and Asan Medical Center (J.W.L.), the Department of Surgery, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine and Soonchunhyang University Hospital (M.H.L.), Integrated Major in Innovative Medical Science, Seoul National University College of Medicine (S.K.P.), and the Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University (S.K.P.), Seoul, South Korea; the Department of Basic Sciences, Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Center, Lahore, Pakistan (M.U.R.); and the National Cancer Institute, Ministry of Public Health, Nonthaburi, Thailand (S.T.).

Background: Genetic testing for breast cancer susceptibility is widely used, but for many genes, evidence of an association with breast cancer is weak, underlying risk estimates are imprecise, and reliable subtype-specific risk estimates are lacking.

Methods: We used a panel of 34 putative susceptibility genes to perform sequencing on samples from 60,466 women with breast cancer and 53,461 controls. In separate analyses for protein-truncating variants and rare missense variants in these genes, we estimated odds ratios for breast cancer overall and tumor subtypes. We evaluated missense-variant associations according to domain and classification of pathogenicity.

Results: Protein-truncating variants in 5 genes (, , , , and ) were associated with a risk of breast cancer overall with a P value of less than 0.0001. Protein-truncating variants in 4 other genes (, , , and ) were associated with a risk of breast cancer overall with a P value of less than 0.05 and a Bayesian false-discovery probability of less than 0.05. For protein-truncating variants in 19 of the remaining 25 genes, the upper limit of the 95% confidence interval of the odds ratio for breast cancer overall was less than 2.0. For protein-truncating variants in and , odds ratios were higher for estrogen receptor (ER)-positive disease than for ER-negative disease; for protein-truncating variants in , , , , , and , odds ratios were higher for ER-negative disease than for ER-positive disease. Rare missense variants (in aggregate) in , , and were associated with a risk of breast cancer overall with a P value of less than 0.001. For , , and , missense variants (in aggregate) that would be classified as pathogenic according to standard criteria were associated with a risk of breast cancer overall, with the risk being similar to that of protein-truncating variants.

Conclusions: The results of this study define the genes that are most clinically useful for inclusion on panels for the prediction of breast cancer risk, as well as provide estimates of the risks associated with protein-truncating variants, to guide genetic counseling. (Funded by European Union Horizon 2020 programs and others.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1913948DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7611105PMC
February 2021

Low-Dose Aspirin in High-Risk Individuals With Screen-Detected Subsolid Lung Nodules: A Randomized Phase II Trial.

JNCI Cancer Spectr 2020 Dec 20;4(6):pkaa096. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

Division of Cancer Prevention, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Lung cancer screening by helical low-dose computed tomography detects nonsolid nodules that may be lung adenocarcinoma precursors. Aspirin's anti-inflammatory properties make it an attractive target for prevention of multiple cancers, including lung cancer. Therefore, we conducted a phase IIb trial (NCT02169271) to study the efficacy of low-dose aspirin to reduce the size of subsolid lung nodules (SSNs). A total of 98 current or former smokers (67.3% current) undergoing annual low-dose computed tomography screening with persistent SSNs were randomly assigned to receive aspirin 100 mg/day or placebo for 1 year. There was no difference in change in the sum of the longest diameters of target nodules in the placebo and aspirin arm after 12 months of treatment (-0.12 mm [SD = 1.55 mm] and +0.30 mm [SD= 2.54 mm], respectively; 2-sided  = .33 primary endpoint). There were no changes observed in subgroup analyses by individual characteristics or nodule type. One year of low-dose aspirin did not show any effect on lung SSNs. SSNs regression may not be the proper target for aspirin, and/or longer duration may be needed to see SSNs modifications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jncics/pkaa096DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7771428PMC
December 2020

Risk-reducing hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy in female heterozygotes of pathogenic mismatch repair variants: a Prospective Lynch Syndrome Database report.

Genet Med 2021 04 1;23(4):705-712. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik IV, Campus Innenstadt, Klinikum der Universität München, Munich, Germany.

Purpose: To determine impact of risk-reducing hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO) on gynecological cancer incidence and death in heterozygotes of pathogenic MMR (path_MMR) variants.

Methods: The Prospective Lynch Syndrome Database was used to investigate the effects of gynecological risk-reducing surgery (RRS) at different ages.

Results: Risk-reducing hysterectomy at 25 years of age prevents endometrial cancer before 50 years in 15%, 18%, 13%, and 0% of path_MLH1, path_MSH2, path_MSH6, and path_PMS2 heterozygotes and death in 2%, 2%, 1%, and 0%, respectively. Risk-reducing BSO at 25 years of age prevents ovarian cancer before 50 years in 6%, 11%, 2%, and 0% and death in 1%, 2%, 0%, and 0%, respectively. Risk-reducing hysterectomy at 40 years prevents endometrial cancer by 50 years in 13%, 16%, 11%, and 0% and death in 1%, 2%, 1%, and 0%, respectively. BSO at 40 years prevents ovarian cancer before 50 years in 4%, 8%, 0%, and 0%, and death in 1%, 1%, 0%, and 0%, respectively.

Conclusion: Little benefit is gained by performing RRS before 40 years of age and premenopausal BSO in path_MSH6 and path_PMS2 heterozygotes has no measurable benefit for mortality. These findings may aid decision making for women with LS who are considering RRS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-020-01029-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8026395PMC
April 2021

E-Cadherin ( Gene) Germline Mutations in Gastric Cancer: Evolutions and Innovations.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Oct 11;12(10). Epub 2020 Oct 11.

Division of Cancer Prevention and Genetics, European Institute of Oncology, IRCCS, 20141 Milan, Italy.

Family history has contributed greatly to understanding inherited diseases throughout the centuries, in particular familial and hereditary cancer syndromes [...].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12102920DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7601113PMC
October 2020

Breast Cancer Polygenic Risk Score and Contralateral Breast Cancer Risk.

Am J Hum Genet 2020 11 5;107(5):837-848. Epub 2020 Oct 5.

Hong Kong Hereditary Breast Cancer Family Registry, Hong Kong; Hong Kong Sanatorium and Hospital, Department of Pathology, Happy Valley, Hong Kong.

Previous research has shown that polygenic risk scores (PRSs) can be used to stratify women according to their risk of developing primary invasive breast cancer. This study aimed to evaluate the association between a recently validated PRS of 313 germline variants (PRS) and contralateral breast cancer (CBC) risk. We included 56,068 women of European ancestry diagnosed with first invasive breast cancer from 1990 onward with follow-up from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Metachronous CBC risk (N = 1,027) according to the distribution of PRS was quantified using Cox regression analyses. We assessed PRS interaction with age at first diagnosis, family history, morphology, ER status, PR status, and HER2 status, and (neo)adjuvant therapy. In studies of Asian women, with limited follow-up, CBC risk associated with PRS was assessed using logistic regression for 340 women with CBC compared with 12,133 women with unilateral breast cancer. Higher PRS was associated with increased CBC risk: hazard ratio per standard deviation (SD) = 1.25 (95%CI = 1.18-1.33) for Europeans, and an OR per SD = 1.15 (95%CI = 1.02-1.29) for Asians. The absolute lifetime risks of CBC, accounting for death as competing risk, were 12.4% for European women at the 10 percentile and 20.5% at the 90 percentile of PRS. We found no evidence of confounding by or interaction with individual characteristics, characteristics of the primary tumor, or treatment. The C-index for the PRS alone was 0.563 (95%CI = 0.547-0.586). In conclusion, PRS is an independent factor associated with CBC risk and can be incorporated into CBC risk prediction models to help improve stratification and optimize surveillance and treatment strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2020.09.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7675034PMC
November 2020

Mutation Rates in Cancer Susceptibility Genes in Patients With Breast Cancer With Multiple Primary Cancers.

JCO Precis Oncol 2020 19;4. Epub 2020 Aug 19.

Basser Center for BRCA and Abramson Cancer Center, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.

Purpose: Women with breast cancer have a 4%-16% lifetime risk of a second primary cancer. Whether mutations in genes other than are enriched in patients with breast and another primary cancer over those with a single breast cancer (S-BC) is unknown.

Patients And Methods: We identified pathogenic germline mutations in 17 cancer susceptibility genes in patients with -negative breast cancer in 2 different cohorts: cohort 1, high-risk breast cancer program (multiple primary breast cancer [MP-BC], n = 551; S-BC, n = 449) and cohort 2, familial breast cancer research study (MP-BC, n = 340; S-BC, n = 1,464). Mutation rates in these 2 cohorts were compared with a control data set (Exome Aggregation Consortium [ExAC]).

Results: Overall, pathogenic mutation rates for autosomal, dominantly inherited genes were higher in patients with MP-BC versus S-BC in both cohorts (8.5% 4.9% [ = .02] and 7.1% 4.2% [ = .03]). There were differences in individual gene mutation rates between cohorts. In both cohorts, younger age at first breast cancer was associated with higher mutation rates; the age of non-breast cancers was unrelated to mutation rate. and mutations were significantly enriched in patients with MP-BC but not S-BC, whereas and mutations were significantly enriched in both groups compared with ExAC.

Conclusion: Mutation rates are at least 7% in all patients with mutation-negative MP-BC, regardless of age at diagnosis of breast cancer, with mutation rates up to 25% in patients with a first breast cancer diagnosed at age < 30 years. Our results suggest that all patients with breast cancer with a second primary cancer, regardless of age of onset, should undergo multigene panel testing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/PO.19.00301DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7496037PMC
August 2020

Risk-Reducing Gynecological Surgery in Lynch Syndrome: Results of an International Survey from the Prospective Lynch Syndrome Database.

J Clin Med 2020 Jul 18;9(7). Epub 2020 Jul 18.

Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik IV, Campus Innenstadt, Klinikum der Universität München, 80336 Munich, Germany.

Purpose: To survey risk-reducing hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO) practice and advice regarding hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in women with Lynch syndrome.

Methods: We conducted a survey in 31 contributing centers from the Prospective Lynch Syndrome Database (PLSD), which incorporates 18 countries worldwide. The survey covered local policies for risk-reducing hysterectomy and BSO in Lynch syndrome, the timing when these measures are offered, the involvement of stakeholders and advice regarding HRT.

Results: Risk-reducing hysterectomy and BSO are offered to _ and carriers in 20/21 (95%) contributing centers, to carriers in 19/21 (91%) and to carriers in 14/21 (67%). Regarding the involvement of stakeholders, there is global agreement (~90%) that risk-reducing surgery should be offered to women, and that this discussion may involve gynecologists, genetic counselors and/or medical geneticists. Prescription of estrogen-only HRT is offered by 15/21 (71%) centers to women of variable age range (35-55 years).

Conclusions: Most centers offer risk-reducing gynecological surgery to carriers of , and variants but less so for carriers. There is wide variation in how, when and to whom this is offered. The Manchester International Consensus Group developed recommendations to harmonize clinical practice across centers, but there is a clear need for more research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9072290DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7408942PMC
July 2020

Polygenic risk scores and breast and epithelial ovarian cancer risks for carriers of BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variants.

Genet Med 2020 10 15;22(10):1653-1666. Epub 2020 Jul 15.

Royal Devon & Exeter Hospital, Department of Clinical Genetics, Exeter, UK.

Purpose: We assessed the associations between population-based polygenic risk scores (PRS) for breast (BC) or epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) with cancer risks for BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variant carriers.

Methods: Retrospective cohort data on 18,935 BRCA1 and 12,339 BRCA2 female pathogenic variant carriers of European ancestry were available. Three versions of a 313 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) BC PRS were evaluated based on whether they predict overall, estrogen receptor (ER)-negative, or ER-positive BC, and two PRS for overall or high-grade serous EOC. Associations were validated in a prospective cohort.

Results: The ER-negative PRS showed the strongest association with BC risk for BRCA1 carriers (hazard ratio [HR] per standard deviation = 1.29 [95% CI 1.25-1.33], P = 3×10). For BRCA2, the strongest association was with overall BC PRS (HR = 1.31 [95% CI 1.27-1.36], P = 7×10). HR estimates decreased significantly with age and there was evidence for differences in associations by predicted variant effects on protein expression. The HR estimates were smaller than general population estimates. The high-grade serous PRS yielded the strongest associations with EOC risk for BRCA1 (HR = 1.32 [95% CI 1.25-1.40], P = 3×10) and BRCA2 (HR = 1.44 [95% CI 1.30-1.60], P = 4×10) carriers. The associations in the prospective cohort were similar.

Conclusion: Population-based PRS are strongly associated with BC and EOC risks for BRCA1/2 carriers and predict substantial absolute risk differences for women at PRS distribution extremes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-020-0862-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7521995PMC
October 2020

Is tumor testing efficiency for Lynch syndrome different in rectal and colon cancer?

Dig Liver Dis 2020 12 30;52(12):1503-1511. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Division of Cancer Prevention and Genetics, IEO, European Institute of Oncology IRCCS, Via Giuseppe Ripamonti, 435, 20141 Milan, Italy.

Background: Tumor testing utility in Lynch syndrome (LS) diagnosis is established.

Aims: Analyze the differences between tumor testing efficiency in rectal (RC) and colon cancer (CC).

Methods: We performed immunohistochemistry (IHC) for MisMatch Repair (MMR) proteins (IHC-MMR) and MicroSatellite Instability analysis (MSI) on 482 unselected primary tumors: 320 CCs and 162 RCs. Samples had proficient-IHC, deficient-IHC or borderline-IHC ("patchy" expression). MSI-H borderline-IHC tumors were considered as likely MMR-deficient. Germline testing was offered to MMR-deficient patients without BRAF mutation or MLH1 promoter hypermetilation (MLH1-Hy).

Results: We identified 51/482 (10.6%) MMR-defective tumors. Multivariable analysis demonstrated a significant correlation between tumor testing results with histotype, lymph-node involvement and tumor location. In particular, RC showed a lower MMR-deficiency rate than CC (p<0.0001). Interestingly, MLH1 loss was detected in 0% RCs and 76.1% CCs, with 80% of them showing BRAF mutation/MLH1-Hy. A germline variant was detected in 12 out of 18 patients (mutation detection rate of 66.7%).

Conclusion: Tumor testing results showed molecular differences between CCs and RCs, in terms of MMR proteins expression, and presence of BRAF mutation/MLH1-Hy. MSH6 variants were the most frequent ones (50%). Although young age at diagnosis was associated with mutation detection (p = 0.045), 33.3% of LS patients were >50 years.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dld.2020.06.002DOI Listing
December 2020

Characterization of the Cancer Spectrum in Men With Germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 Pathogenic Variants: Results From the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA).

JAMA Oncol 2020 08;6(8):1218-1230

Department of Oncology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Importance: The limited data on cancer phenotypes in men with germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variants (PVs) have hampered the development of evidence-based recommendations for early cancer detection and risk reduction in this population.

Objective: To compare the cancer spectrum and frequencies between male BRCA1 and BRCA2 PV carriers.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Retrospective cohort study of 6902 men, including 3651 BRCA1 and 3251 BRCA2 PV carriers, older than 18 years recruited from cancer genetics clinics from 1966 to 2017 by 53 study groups in 33 countries worldwide collaborating through the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA). Clinical data and pathologic characteristics were collected.

Main Outcomes And Measures: BRCA1/2 status was the outcome in a logistic regression, and cancer diagnoses were the independent predictors. All odds ratios (ORs) were adjusted for age, country of origin, and calendar year of the first interview.

Results: Among the 6902 men in the study (median [range] age, 51.6 [18-100] years), 1634 cancers were diagnosed in 1376 men (19.9%), the majority (922 of 1,376 [67%]) being BRCA2 PV carriers. Being affected by any cancer was associated with a higher probability of being a BRCA2, rather than a BRCA1, PV carrier (OR, 3.23; 95% CI, 2.81-3.70; P < .001), as well as developing 2 (OR, 7.97; 95% CI, 5.47-11.60; P < .001) and 3 (OR, 19.60; 95% CI, 4.64-82.89; P < .001) primary tumors. A higher frequency of breast (OR, 5.47; 95% CI, 4.06-7.37; P < .001) and prostate (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.09-1.78; P = .008) cancers was associated with a higher probability of being a BRCA2 PV carrier. Among cancers other than breast and prostate, pancreatic cancer was associated with a higher probability (OR, 3.00; 95% CI, 1.55-5.81; P = .001) and colorectal cancer with a lower probability (OR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.29-0.78; P = .003) of being a BRCA2 PV carrier.

Conclusions And Relevance: Significant differences in the cancer spectrum were observed in male BRCA2, compared with BRCA1, PV carriers. These data may inform future recommendations for surveillance of BRCA1/2-associated cancers and guide future prospective studies for estimating cancer risks in men with BRCA1/2 PVs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2020.2134DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7333177PMC
August 2020

Development of an HPLC-MS/MS Method for the Determination of Silybin in Human Plasma, Urine and Breast Tissue.

Molecules 2020 Jun 24;25(12). Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Research and Development Department, Indena S.p.A., Viale Ortles 12, 20139 Milan, Italy.

Silybin is a flavonolignan extracted from with chemopreventive activity against various cancers, including breast. This study was designed to develop an HPLC-MS/MS method for the determination of silybin in human plasma, urine and breast tissue in early breast cancer patients undergoing Siliphos supplementation, an oral silybin-phosphatidylcholine complex. The determination of silybin was carried out by liquid-liquid extraction with methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE); total silybin concentration was determined by treating the samples with β-glucuronidase, while for the determination of free silybin, the hydrolytic step was omitted. Naringenin and naproxen were selected as internal standards. The detection of the analyte was carried out by mass spectrometry and by chromatography. The HPLC-MS/MS method was evaluated in terms of selectivity, linearity, limit of quantification, precision and accuracy, and carryover. The method proved to be selective, linear, precise and accurate for the determination of silybin. To the best of our knowledge, this presents the first analytical method with the capacity to quantify the major bioactive components of milk thistle in three different biological matrices with a lower limit of quantification of 0.5 ng/mL for plasma. Silybin phosphatidylcholine, taken orally, can deliver high blood concentrations of silybin, which selectively accumulates in breast tumor tissue.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25122918DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7356828PMC
June 2020
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