Publications by authors named "Bernardete Weber"

24 Publications

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Effects of a Brazilian cardioprotective diet and nuts on cardiometabolic parameters after myocardial infarction: study protocol for a randomized controlled clinical trial.

Trials 2021 Sep 1;22(1):582. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Instituto Nacional de Cardiologia (INC), Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Background: Nut consumption has been related to improvements on cardiometabolic parameters and reduction in the severity of atherosclerosis mainly in primary cardiovascular prevention. The objective of this trial is to evaluate the effects of the Brazilian Cardioprotective Diet (DIeta CArdioprotetora Brasileira, DICA Br) based on consumption of inexpensive locally accessible foods supplemented or not with mixed nuts on cardiometabolic features in patients with previous myocardial infarction (MI).

Methods: DICA-NUTS study is a national, multicenter, randomized 16-week follow-up clinical trial. Patients over 40 years old with diagnosis of previous MI in the last 2 to 6 months will be recruited (n = 388). A standardized questionnaire will be applied to data collection and blood samples will be obtained. Patients will be allocated in two groups: Group 1: DICA Br supplemented with 30 g/day of mixed nuts (10 g of peanuts, 10 g of cashew, 10 g of Brazil nuts); and Group 2: only DICA Br. The primary outcome will consist of LDL cholesterol means (in mg/dL) after 16 weeks of intervention. Secondary outcomes will consist of other markers of lipid profile, glycemic profile, and anthropometric data.

Discussion: It is expected that DICA Br supplemented with mixed nuts have superior beneficial effects on cardiometabolic parameters in patients after a MI, when compared to DICA Br.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT03728127 . First register: November 1, 2018; Last update: June 16, 2021. World Health Organization Universal Trial Number (WHO-UTN): U1111-1259-8105.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-021-05494-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8411551PMC
September 2021

The effect of the a regional cardioprotective nutritional program on inflammatory biomarkers and metabolic risk factors in secondary prevention for cardiovascular disease, a randomised trial.

Clin Nutr 2021 06 28;40(6):3828-3835. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: To evaluate the effect of the Brazilian Cardioprotective Diet Program (BALANCE Program) on inflammatory biomarkers, involved in the pathophysiology of the atherosclerosis, on inflammatory biomarkers, cardiovascular risk factors, and on plasma fatty acids in cardiovascular disease secondary prevention patients.

Methods: In this substudy of the BALANCE Program randomized clinical trial, a total of 369 patients aged 45 years or older, who have experienced cardiovascular disease in the previous 10 years, were included. These patients were randomized into two groups and followed up for six months: BALANCE Program group and control group (conventional nutrition advice). In the initial and six-month final visits, anthropometry (body weight, height and waist circumference), food intake evaluation by 24-h dietary recall, plasma inflammatory biomarkers (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, tumor necrosis factor-α, adiponectin, and C-reactive protein levels), blood pressure, glycemia, insulinemia, lipid profile, and plasma fatty acids levels were evaluated.

Results: The BALANCE Program group showed increased plasma alpha-linolenic acid levels (P = 0.008), reduction in waist circumference (P = 0.049) and BMI (P = 0.032). No difference was observed among plasma inflammatory biomarkers and clinical data.

Conclusion: After six months of follow-up, BALANCE Program led to a significant reduction on BMI and waist circumference in individuals in secondary prevention for cardiovascular disease. Although plasmatic alpha-linolenic acid has increased, there was no impact on plasma inflammatory biomarkers.

Clinical Trial Registration: NCT01620398.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2021.04.035DOI Listing
June 2021

Factors associated to serum paraoxonase 1 activity in patients with cardiovascular disease.

Arch Endocrinol Metab 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Faculdade de Nutrição, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Pelotas, RS, Brasil.

Objective: Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is an enzyme that has antioxidant potential, which confers a protective effect against the atherosclerotic process. However, studies associating genetics, dietary patterns and PON1 activity in individuals with cardiovascular disease (CVD) are scarce. Thus, the aim of the current study was to evaluate the influence of dietary factors on serum PON1 in CVD patients.

Methods: Cross-sectional, sub-study of the BALANCE Program Trial. All patients aged 45 years or older and had evidence of established atherosclerotic disease in the preceding 10 years. Body weight, height, waist circumference, blood pressure, lipid profile and fasting glucose were collected. Food intake was assessed with 24-h dietary recall. Data was analyzed using SAS University Edition and a P value ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Sample was divided into three groups, according to the PON1 T(-107)C genotype (CC, CT and TT) and serum PON1 activity (Low, Medium, High).

Results: There were no genotype differences for major factors. However, the systolic blood pressure was lower for CT individuals (p<0.05). Intake of cholesterol, saturated fatty acids (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAS) was higher in patients with lower PON1 activity. Lipid ingestion tended to be higher in patients with lower PON1 activity (p=0.08). In the multivariate logistic regression model, SFA intake (P=0.03), genotype (P=0.09), gender (P=0.04), age (P=0.07) and carbohydrate intake (P=0.16) contributed the most to the serum PON1 activity.

Conclusion: Based on these findings, nutritional guidance for these patients becomes essential, since dietary components interact with serum PON1 activity more than genotype.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.20945/2359-3997000000354DOI Listing
April 2021

Ultra-processed foods consumption is associated with cardiovascular disease and cardiometabolic risk factors in Brazilians with established cardiovascular events.

Int J Food Sci Nutr 2021 Apr 11:1-10. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Department of Nutrition and Health, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa, Brazil.

The consumption of ultra-processed foods (UPF) has been associated with cardiometabolic risk factors. However, there is scarce literature on the association between UPF consumption, cardiovascular events, and cardiometabolic risk factors in subjects undergoing secondary care for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Thus, we aimed to evaluate the association between UPF consumption, CVD, and cardiometabolic risk factors in subjects with established CVD. Baseline data from 2,357 subjects participating in a Brazilian multicenter study were analysed finding a mean UPF consumption of 18.7% of their energy intake. Higher figures of UPF consumption were founded associated with an increased presence of high waist circumference, overweight, peripheral arterial disease, and with a decreased odds of the simultaneous presence of coronary arterial disease, peripheral arterial diseases, and stroke when comparing among tertiles of UPF contribution to energy intake. These associations were observed when analyzing the whole sample and women but not men. Thus, these findings should help improve strategies for CVD patients in secondary care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09637486.2021.1908963DOI Listing
April 2021

Dietary total antioxidant capacity is inversely associated with cardiovascular events and cardiometabolic risk factors: A cross-sectional study.

Nutrition 2021 09 19;89:111140. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Laboratory of Energy Metabolism and Body Composition, Department of Nutrition and Health, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Electronic address:

Objectives: Dietary total antioxidant capacity (dTAC) has been introduced as a useful tool to quantify the antioxidant content of a diet. However, few studies have evaluated the association of dTAC with cardiovascular disease (CVD) occurrence and cardiometabolic risk factors in people with established CVD events. Thus, we aimed to investigate the presence of an association between dTAC values, cardiovascular events, and cardiometabolic risk factors in individuals with previous CVD in a Brazilian multicenter study.

Methods: This study has a cross-sectional design. We evaluated baseline data from the Brazilian Cardioprotective Nutritional Program Trial. Sociodemographic, anthropometric, clinical, and food-consumption data were collected in face-to-face interviews. We estimated dTAC from the mean of two 24-h dietary recalls by values of ferric-reducing antioxidant power.

Results: We evaluated 2346 participants, most of whom were men (58.4%), older adults (64.2%), and overweight (68.6%), and had coronary artery disease (92.4%). The mean dTAC was equal to 5.6 (interquartile range, 3.9-7.8) mmol/1000 kcal. Participants in the third dTAC tertile (9.2 mmol/1000 kcal) had a 22%, 59%, and 69% lower chance, respectively, of having hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype, abdominal aortic aneurysm, and amputation due to arterial disease in comparison to the first tertile (3.4 mmol/1000 kcal).

Conclusions: The dTAC was inversely associated with hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype, abdominal aortic aneurysm, and amputation due to arterial disease in individuals undergoing secondary care for CVD. Our results can guide strategies for the prevention of new CVD and its consequences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2021.111140DOI Listing
September 2021

Diabetic Patients with Cardiovascular Disease Show More Metabolic Syndrome than Nondiabetic Patients: Multicentric Study in the Northeast of Brazil.

Metab Syndr Relat Disord 2021 05 1;19(4):233-239. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Medicine and Health Postgraduate Program University Federal of Bahia and Department of Nutrition, Nutrition School of University Federal of Bahia, Salvador, Brazil.

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) and cardiovascular mortality. However, few Brazilian studies evaluated MS in diabetic individuals with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Nevertheless, the objective of this study was to compare the prevalence of MS in cardiac patients with and without DM. Cross-sectional study of BALANCE Program Trial with patients with CVD, ≥45 years old, who had been attending specialized ambulatories on cardiovascular health, in eight states in the Northeast of Brazil. The components of MS were evaluated by following the criteria of National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) and Joint Interim Statement (JIS). In addition, there were investigated different indexes of abdominal obesity, variables related to lifestyle, and food intake. The statistical analysis included descriptive statistics and the Student's -test, Mann-Whitney, and chi-squared tests for the comparison of groups. There were significant values of  < 0.05. Six hundred forty-seven individuals were evaluated with average (standard deviation) age of 63.1 (9.3) years, being 50.5% females and 40.3% diabetic patients. When the groups of patients who were diabetic and the nondiabetic ones, the first showed higher percentage of obesity (38.5% vs. 23.2%,  < 0.001), of high waist circumference (84.8% vs. 71.9%;  < 0.001), higher waist-height ratio [0.6 (0.6-0.7) vs. 0.6 (0.5-0.6);  < 0.001], conicity index [1.35 (1.29-1.39) vs. 1.32 (1.27-1.38);  = 0.004], and prevalence of MS, because of the criteria of NCEP ATP III (98.8% vs. 80.4%;  < 0.001), as well as the criteria of JIS (99.2% vs. 89.3%;  < 0.001). The component of higher frequency was high blood pressure and/or hypertension (95.0%), followed by hypertriglyceridemia (93.0%). There were no differences regarding age, lifestyle, and food intake. Diabetic individuals with CVD showed more prevalence of MS and more abdominal obesity than nondiabetic individuals. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01620398.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/met.2020.0064DOI Listing
May 2021

Effect of qualitative and quantitative nutritional plan on gene expression in obese patients in secondary prevention for cardiovascular disease.

Clin Nutr ESPEN 2021 02 26;41:351-359. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

Nutritional Genomics and Inflammation Laboratory, Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, University of São Paulo, 01246-904, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Diet is a modifiable risk factor, which may influence the gene expression and the concentration of inflammatory biomarkers related to obesity and atherosclerosis. In this substudy from Brazilian Cardioprotective Nutritional (BALANCE) Program, we hypothesized that a nutritional intervention based on the usual Brazilian diet modulates the expression of genes involved with atherosclerosis and inflammatory biomarkers in male patients, in the secondary prevention for cardiovascular disease.

Methods: Six male patients, aged 45 years or older, obese, were selected to follow a qualitative-quantitative food plan for 6 months. Glycemia, insulinemia, lipid profile, plasma concentration of inflammatory biomarkers (interleukin (IL) -1β), IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, tumor necrosis factor alpha, C-reactive protein and adiponectin, and expression of 84 atherosclerosis-related genes in total peripheral blood cells, were measured.

Results: After nutritional intervention, the participants reduced weight (p < 0.04), waist circumference (p < 0.04), Homeostasis Model Assessment index for insulin resistance (p = 0.046) and overall leukocyte count (p = 0.046) and neutrophils (p = 0.028). There was no significant modification in the plasma concentration of the inflammatory biomarkers, however, there was a significant increase in the expression of Apo A1 (p = 0.011), ELN (p = 0.017) and IL4 (p = 0.037) genes.

Conclusions: The BALANCE Program, the qualitative-quantitative food plan composed of Brazilian usual foods, did not reduce the concentration of inflammatory biomarkers, but increased in total peripheral blood cells the expression of genes involved in reducing the risk of cardiometabolic in obese patients, in secondary prevention for cardiovascular disease. The clinical trial is registered at https://clinicaltrials.gov/ and the unique identifier is NCT01620398.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnesp.2020.11.002DOI Listing
February 2021

Pro-inflammatory diet is associated with a high number of cardiovascular events and ultra-processed foods consumption in patients in secondary care.

Public Health Nutr 2021 Aug 5;24(11):3331-3340. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

Department of Nutrition and Health, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Avenida PH Rolfs s/n, Viçosa, Minas Gerais36570-900, Brazil.

Objective: To evaluate the association of dietary inflammatory index (DII®) with the occurrence of cardiovascular events, cardiometabolic risk factors and with the consumption of processed, ultra-processed, unprocessed or minimally processed foods and culinary ingredients.

Design: This was a cross-sectional study that analysed the baseline data from 2359 cardiac patients. Data on socio-demographic, anthropometric, clinical and food consumption were collected. Energy-adjusted food intake data were used to calculate DII, and the foods were classified according to the NOVA classification. Furthermore, the patients were grouped according to the number (1, 2 or ≥ 3) of manifested cardiovascular events. The data were analysed using linear and multinomial logistic regression.

Settings: Multicentre study from Brazil.

Participants: Patients with established cardiovascular events from the Brazilian Cardioprotective Nutritional Program Trial evaluated at baseline.

Results: Most of the patients were male (58·8 %), older adults (64·2 %) and were overweight (68·8 %). Patients in the third tertile of DII (DII > 0·91) had were more likely to have 2 (OR 1·27, 95 % CI: 1·01-1·61) and ≥ 3 (OR 1·39, 95 % CI: 1·07-1·79) cardiovascular events, with poor cardiometabolic profile. They also were more likely to consume a higher percentage of processed, ultra-processed and culinary ingredients foods consumption compared with the patients in the first DII tertile (DII ≤ 0·91).

Conclusion: A more pro-inflammatory diet is associated with a greater chance of having 2 and ≥ 3 cardiovascular events and cardiometabolic risk factors and were more likely to consume processed, ultra-processed and culinary ingredients compared to those with a more anti-inflammatory diet.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S136898002000378XDOI Listing
August 2021

[Quality of diet and daily spending on food by adults with cardiovascular disease in Brazil].

Cad Saude Publica 2020 2;36(10):e00225019. Epub 2020 Oct 2.

Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brasil.

Adherence to a healthy diet depends on factors such as food prices, while studies in developed countries have identified higher costs of more nutritional foods. The current study aimed to assess the direct food expenditures by adults with cardiovascular disease in Brazil, investigating the relationship between cost and quality of diet. The study used data from a randomized clinical trial, the BALANCE Program. The current study is a cross-sectional baseline analysis of participants with high adherence to the trial, conducted in 35 sites in all five major geographic regions of Brazil. Food consumption by 1,160 individuals was collected with a 24-hour dietary recall (24HR), quality of diet was measured with the Diet Quality Index Revised (DQI-R), and direct food costs were estimated from market prices. No significant differences were observed between tertiles of adherence in the direct costs of food or individual characteristics. When all the 24HR were analyzed, there was no correlation between cost and quality of diet (r = 0.38; p = 0.17), while analysis by tertiles showed a weak correlation in the lowest tertile of adherence (r = -0.112; p = 0.03). The study showed absence of differences between direct costs of healthy versus unhealthy foods, a finding that can serve as an incentive for adherence to food recommendations in Brazil, thereby minimizing barriers to the adoption of healthy lifestyles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0102-311X00225019DOI Listing
March 2021

Mindfulness Practice for Glycemic Control: Could it be a New Strategy for an Old Problem? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Curr Diabetes Rev 2021 ;17(7):e081020184730

HCor Research Institute (IP-HCor), Hospital do Coração (HCor), São Paulo, Brazil.

Background: The management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) requires a complex and organized care that includes patient's lifestyle change. Additionally, emotional well-being is an important part of self-management, and it may impair the individual's adherence. Therefore, equipping the patients with the necessary coping and self-care techniques may be an important step in managing diabetes.

Objective: To evaluate the effect of interventions using established mindfulness-based protocols on glycemic control of individuals with T2DM.

Methods: Data sources: Two electronic databases (PubMed and EMBASE) were searched from inception to December 2019. We limited our search to published studies in English, Spanish and Portuguese languages.

Study Selection: Randomized clinical trials that assessed the effects of mindfulness in individuals with T2DM were selected.

Data Extraction: Two authors independently assessed the risk of bias and extracted data from the included trials. Data were pooled using inverse-variance random-effects meta-analyses. The quality of evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system.

Results: Four randomized trials were included. There were no differences in blood glucose change (mean difference between groups (MD) -0.73mg/dl; 95% CI, -10.49; 9.02; I2 =0%; very low quality of evidence) or glycated hemoglobin (MD 0.05%; 95%CI -0.22 to 0.32; I2 =29%; very low quality of evidence).

Conclusion: Although the quality of current evidence is very low, our findings suggest that established protocols involving mindfulness have no effect on blood glucose or glycated hemoglobin in individuals with T2DM. Indeed, large-scale trials are needed to evaluate the contribution of mindfulness to glycemic control in clinical practice. PROSPERO Registration ID: RD42020161940.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1573399816666200810131055DOI Listing
September 2021

Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its association with risk factors in patients with established atherosclerosis disease.

An Acad Bras Cienc 2020 18;92(1):e20180563. Epub 2020 May 18.

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Nutrição e Alimentos, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Pelotas, RS, Brazil.

Risk factors can lead to clinical conditions, like metabolic syndrome, that predisposes the development of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence and which risk factors cause more impact in metabolic syndrome in patients with established atherosclerosis disease. A cross-sectional study was performed as a subanalysis of Programa Alimentação Cardioprotetora Brasileira. Weight, height, waist circumference, blood pressure, lipid profile and fasting glucose were collected. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the harmonized criteria. Linear regression was used to analyze the association between number of components of metabolic syndrome and risk factors. 82 patients were included and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 84.1%. Being overweight was associated with an increase by 0.55 point in diagnostic criteria of metabolic syndrome in crude analysis (95%CI 0.09-1.00) and 0.64 in adjusted analysis (95%CI 0.18-1.09), while former/current smoker status was responsible for raising by 0.48 the number of components of metabolic syndrome, only in adjusted analysis (95%CI 0.04-0.92). Overweight and former/current smoker status are associated with MS, increasing the probability of atherosclerotic events. A healthy lifestyle, that includes avoiding tobacco exposure and proper weight control, must be encouraged in this high-risk population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0001-3765202020180563DOI Listing
June 2020

Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages in patients with established atherosclerosis disease.

Cien Saude Colet 2020 Mar 4;25(4):1499-1506. Epub 2018 Aug 4.

Departamento de Nutrição, Universidade Federal de Pelotas. Pelotas  RS  Brasil.

This study investigated the association between consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and anthropometric and biochemical variables in a cross-sectional study conducted with secondary data from the first visit of the randomized clinical trial of the Brazilian Cardioprotective Nutritional Program (BALANCE Program) (2013-2014). Weight, height, waist circumference, lipid profile and fasting glycemia and a 24-hour diet recall were collected. Differences between consumption and non-consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages were evaluated by Student's t-test. The Chi-square test was employed to analyze the association between consumption and non-consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and biochemical and anthropometric factors. The sample consisted of 2,172 individuals, mostly men (58.5%), elderly (63.6%), C-rated economic class (57.3%), and overweight (62.7%). A statistically significant difference was found between the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and higher BMI values (p=0.029), waist circumference (p=0.004) and triglycerides (p=0.023). These results emphasize the need for nutritional intervention regarding the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages as part of the dietary treatment of this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1413-81232020254.12912018DOI Listing
March 2020

Implementation of a Brazilian Cardioprotective Nutritional (BALANCE) Program for improvement on quality of diet and secondary prevention of cardiovascular events: A randomized, multicenter trial.

Am Heart J 2019 09 21;215:187-197. Epub 2019 Jun 21.

Hospital Universitário Pedro Ernesto, Rio de Janeiro-RJ, Brazil.

Background: Appropriate dietary recommendations represent a key part of secondary prevention in cardiovascular disease (CVD). We evaluated the effectiveness of the implementation of a nutritional program on quality of diet, cardiovascular events, and death in patients with established CVD.

Methods: In this open-label, multicenter trial conducted in 35 sites in Brazil, we randomly assigned (1:1) patients aged 45 years or older to receive either the BALANCE Program (experimental group) or conventional nutrition advice (control group). The BALANCE Program included a unique nutritional education strategy to implement recommendations from guidelines, adapted to the use of affordable and regional foods. Adherence to diet was evaluated by the modified Alternative Healthy Eating Index. The primary end point was a composite of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular death, cardiac arrest, myocardial infarction, stroke, myocardial revascularization, amputation, or hospitalization for unstable angina. Secondary end points included biochemical and anthropometric data, and blood pressure levels.

Results: From March 5, 2013, to Abril 7, 2015, a total of 2534 eligible patients were randomly assigned to either the BALANCE Program group (n = 1,266) or the control group (n = 1,268) and were followed up for a median of 3.5 years. In total, 235 (9.3%) participants had been lost to follow-up. After 3 years of follow-up, mean modified Alternative Healthy Eating Index (scale 0-70) was only slightly higher in the BALANCE group versus the control group (26.2 ± 8.4 vs 24.7 ± 8.6, P < .01), mainly due to a 0.5-serving/d greater intake of fruits and of vegetables in the BALANCE group. Primary end point events occurred in 236 participants (18.8%) in the BALANCE group and in 207 participants (16.4%) in the control group (hazard ratio, 1.15; 95% CI 0.95-1.38; P = .15). Secondary end points did not differ between groups after follow-up.

Conclusions: The BALANCE Program only slightly improved adherence to a healthy diet in patients with established CVD and had no significant effect on the incidence of cardiovascular events or death.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2019.06.010DOI Listing
September 2019

Triglyceride-glucose index is associated with symptomatic coronary artery disease in patients in secondary care.

Cardiovasc Diabetol 2019 07 11;18(1):89. Epub 2019 Jul 11.

Department of Nutrition and Health, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Avenida PH Rolfs s/n, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, 36570-900, Brazil.

Background: The triglyceride-glucose index (TyG index) is a tool for insulin resistance evaluation, however, little is known about its association with coronary artery disease (CAD), which is the major cardiovascular death cause, and what factors may be associated with TyG index.

Objective: To evaluate the association between the TyG index and the prevalence of CAD phases, as well as cardiovascular risk factors.

Methods: The baseline data of patients in secondary care in cardiology from Brazilian Cardioprotective Nutritional Program Trial (BALANCE Program Trial) were analyzed. Anthropometric, clinical, socio-demographic and food consumption data were collected by trained professionals. The TyG index was calculated by the formula: Ln (fasting triglycerides (mg/dl) × fasting blood glucose (mg/dl)/2) and regression models were used to evaluate the associations.

Results: We evaluated 2330 patients, which the majority was male (58.1%) and elderly (62.1%). The prevalence of symptomatic CAD was 1.16 times higher in patients classified in the last tertile of the TyG index (9.9 ± 0.5) compared to those in the first tertile (8.3 ± 0.3). Cardiometabolic risk factors were associated with TyG index, with the highlight for higher carbohydrate and lower lipid consumption in relation to recommendations that reduced the chance of being in the last TyG index tertile.

Conclusion: The TyG index was positively associated with a higher prevalence of symptomatic CAD, with metabolic and behavioral risk factors, and could be used as a marker for atherosclerosis. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01620398. Registered 15 June, 2012.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12933-019-0893-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6625050PMC
July 2019

Effects of oral supplementation with probiotics or synbiotics in overweight and obese adults: a systematic review and meta-analyses of randomized trials.

Nutr Rev 2019 06;77(6):430-450

Research Institute at Hospital do Coração, São Paulo, Brazil.

Context: Recent evidence suggests that modulation of the gut microbiota may contribute to body weight control.

Objective: This systematic review aimed to assess the effects of oral supplementation with probiotics or synbiotics on body weight, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference in overweight and obese adults (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2).

Data Sources: Five electronic databases-PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library/CENTRAL, LILACS, and Web of Science-were searched from inception to August 2017. No language restrictions were applied.

Study Selection: Randomized and quasi-randomized parallel trials that assessed the effects of oral supplementation with probiotics or synbiotics vs any other intervention but bariatric surgery or fecal transplantation in overweight or obese adults were selected.

Data Extraction: Three teams of 2 authors independently assessed risk of bias and extracted data from the included trials. Data were pooled using inverse-variance random-effects meta-analyses. The quality of evidence was assessed using the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) system.

Results: Nineteen randomized trials (28 publications, 1412 participants) were included. There were no differences in mean body weight change [mean difference (MD), -0.54 kg; 95%CI, -1.09 to 0.01; I2 = 0%; moderate quality of evidence) or mean BMI change (MD, -0.19 kg/m2; 95%CI, -0.43 to 0.04; I2 = 51%; low quality of evidence) between groups who received probiotics or synbiotics and control groups. Oral supplementation with probiotics or synbiotics reduced mean waist circumference compared with control (MD, -0.82 cm; 95%CI, -1.43 to -0.21; I2 = 46%; low quality of evidence).

Conclusions: The findings suggest that oral supplementation with probiotics or synbiotics has a small effect to reduce waist circumference but no effect on body weight or BMI, although the quality of evidence is low to moderate. Therefore, the current evidence is not definitive. Large-scale trials are needed and may help to better inform clinical practice.

Systematic Review Registration: PROSPERO registration number CRD42018075126.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nutrit/nuz001DOI Listing
June 2019

Development of a dietary index based on the Brazilian Cardioprotective Nutritional Program (BALANCE).

Nutr J 2018 05 4;17(1):49. Epub 2018 May 4.

Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, University of São Paulo, Avenida Doutor Arnaldo, 715, São Paulo, SP, 01246904, Brazil.

Background: The diet of the Brazilian Cardioprotective Nutritional Program (BALANCE) classifies food into four groups and sets the daily amount to be consumed. The dietary approach of BALANCE is different from other dietary recommendations; therefore, it is not possible to use existing dietary indexes (DI) to assess patient's adequacy to BALANCE diet. For this reason, it is important to develop a specific dietary index based on BALANCE diet. This study aims to describe the development of the BALANCE DI, evaluate its internal consistency, construct and content validity and population characteristics associated with the index.

Methods: We analyzed baseline data from the BALANCE randomized clinical trial ( https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ ; NCT01620398). The four food groups of the diet were adopted as index components. Points ranging from 0 to 10 were given to each index component. Internal consistency was evaluated by correlation coefficients between total score and component scores, as well as Cronbach's Alpha. Content and construct validity were assessed by checking how nutrients are associated with the index and if the index could distinguish between groups with known differences in diet, respectively. Crude and adjusted linear regression analyses were performed to evaluate population characteristics associated with the index.

Results: The analysis included 2044 subjects (58.6% men). The average of the total index was higher among women (p < 0,05). The components of the index showed low correlations with each other. The correlations between each individual component with the total index were > 0.40. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.66. High scores in the index were inversely associated (p < 0,05) with energy, total fat, monounsaturated fat (MUFA) and cholesterol; they were positively associated (p < 0,05) with carbohydrates and fiber. Hypertensive men and diabetic women had higher scores, while male smokers had lower scores.

Conclusions: The BALANCE DI showed reliability and construct validity similar to other DI. It also detected characteristics of individuals that are associated with higher or lower index scores.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12937-018-0359-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5935976PMC
May 2018

Association between plasma fatty acids and inflammatory markers in patients with and without insulin resistance and in secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease, a cross-sectional study.

Nutr J 2018 02 21;17(1):26. Epub 2018 Feb 21.

Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Background: Proinflammatory biomarkers levels are increased among patients with cardiovascular disease, and it is known that both the presence of insulin resistance and diet may influence those levels. However, these associations are not well studied among patients with established cardiovascular disease. Our objective is to compare inflammatory biomarker levels among cardiovascular disease secondary prevention patients with and without insulin resistance, and to evaluate if there is any association between plasma fatty acid levels and inflammatory biomarker levels among them.

Methods: In this cross-sectional sub-study from the BALANCE Program Trial, we collected data from 359 patients with established cardiovascular disease. Plasma fatty acids and inflammatory biomarkers (interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), adiponectin, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha) were measured. Biomarkers and plasma fatty acid levels of subjects across insulin resistant and not insulin resistant groups were compared, and general linear models were used to examine the association between plasma fatty acids and inflammatory biomarkers.

Results: Subjects with insulin resistance had a higher concentration of hs-CRP (p = 0.002) and IL-6 (p = 0.002) than subjects without insulin resistance. Among subjects without insulin resistance there was a positive association between stearic fatty acid and IL-6 (p = 0.032), and a negative association between alpha-linolenic fatty acid and pro-inflammatory biomarkers (p < 0.05). Among those with insulin resistance there was a positive association between monounsaturated fatty acids and arachidonic fatty acid and adiponectin (p < 0.05), and a negative association between monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids and pro-inflammatory biomarkers (p < 0.05), as well as a negative association between polyunsaturated fatty acids and adiponectin (p < 0.05). Our study has not found any association between hs-CRP and plasma fatty acids.

Conclusions: Subjects in secondary prevention for cardiovascular disease with insulin resistance have a higher concentration of hs-CRP and IL-6 than individuals without insulin resistance, and these inflammatory biomarkers are positively associated with saturated fatty acids and negatively associated with unsaturated fatty acids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12937-018-0342-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5822607PMC
February 2018

Association between polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammatory markers in patients in secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease.

Nutrition 2017 May 28;37:30-36. Epub 2016 Dec 28.

Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the association between polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and inflammatory biomarkers among patients in secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD).

Methods: In this cross-sectional substudy from BALANCE Program Trial, we have collected data from 364 patients with established CVD. Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls and plasma FA concentrations were analyzed to estimate the FA intake. Inflammatory biomarkers measurement consisted of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, C-reactive protein, adiponectin, and tumor necrosis factor-α. After log-transformation of inflammatory biomarkers, multivariate-adjusted general linear model was used to examine the effect of FA intake. The association was adjusted for body mass index, waist circumference, energy, smoking status, age, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, physical activity, and calcium channel blockers.

Results: PUFAs were inversely associated with C-reactive protein levels (P = 0.006) and with IL-1 β. The increase of 1 g/1000 kcal in PUFAs, omega-3, and omega-6 reduces, on average, 6%, 48%, and 8% respectively, the mean concentration of IL-1 β.

Conclusion: Omega-3 and omega-6 FA intakes are inversely associated with inflammatory biomarkers among CVD patients. Additional studies on omega-3 and omega-6 intake in relation to inflammatory biomarkers in patients in secondary prevention of CVD are needed, particularly regarding dietary patterns that are rich in some sources of PUFA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2016.12.006DOI Listing
May 2017

The Brazilian Cardioprotective Nutritional Program to reduce events and risk factors in secondary prevention for cardiovascular disease: study protocol (The BALANCE Program Trial).

Am Heart J 2016 Jan 15;171(1):73-81.e1-2. Epub 2015 Aug 15.

Research Institute, Hospital do Coração (IP-HCor), São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

This article reports the rationale for the Brazilian Cardioprotective Nutritional Program (BALANCE Program) Trial. This pragmatic, multicenter, nationwide, randomized, concealed, controlled trial was designed to investigate the effects of the BALANCE Program in reducing cardiovascular events. The BALANCE Program consists of a prescribed diet guided by nutritional content recommendations from Brazilian national guidelines using a unique nutritional education strategy, which includes suggestions of affordable foods. In addition, the Program focuses on intensive follow-up through one-on-one visits, group sessions, and phone calls. In this trial, participants 45 years or older with any evidence of established cardiovascular disease will be randomized to the BALANCE or control groups. Those in the BALANCE group will receive the afore mentioned program interventions, while controls will be given generic advice on how to follow a low-fat, low-energy, low-sodium, and low-cholesterol diet, with a view to achieving Brazilian nutritional guideline recommendations. The primary outcome is a composite of death (any cause), cardiac arrest, acute myocardial infarction, stroke, myocardial revascularization, amputation for peripheral arterial disease, or hospitalization for unstable angina. A total of 2468 patients will be enrolled in 34 sites and followed up for up to 48 months. If the BALANCE Program is found to decrease cardiovascular events and reduce risk factors, this may represent an advance in the care of patients with cardiovascular disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2015.08.010DOI Listing
January 2016

Apolipoprotein E genetic polymorphism, serum lipoprotein levels and breast cancer risk: A case-control study.

Mol Clin Oncol 2014 Nov 1;2(6):1009-1015. Epub 2014 Aug 1.

Post-Graduate Program in Health Sciences, Cardiology and Cardiovascular Sciences, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (HCPA), Porto Alegre, Brazil ; Coorte Núcleo Mama Porto Alegre, Hospital Moinhos de Vento, Porto Alegre, Brazil.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between apolipoprotein E (APOE) allelic frequency, serum lipoproteins and breast cancer (BC). We conducted a nested case-control study within a cohort including 47 cases and 165 controls. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses of the APOE polymorphism were performed. In general, participants with the genotype including alleles e2 and e3 tended to have lower serum triglycerides, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels compared to participants homozygous for the e3 allele and participants heterozygous for the e3 and e4 alleles, respectively. BC patients exhibited higher mean levels of total serum cholesterol (P=0.070), dietary fat intake (P=0.020) and dietary cholesterol intake (P=0.017) compared to control subjects. The allelic distribution between the two groups revealed that the presence of the e2 allele was positively associated with the absence of BC, whereas the e4 allele was positively associated with the BC case group (P=0.019). The distribution of the APOE genotypes was not significantly different between cases and controls (P=0.172). The concomitant presence of the e2 and e4 alleles was positively associated with the absence of BC and e4/e4 homozygosity was positively associated with BC (P=0.021). Our findings suggested that APOE polymorphism plays an important role in the development of BC, particularly when associated with higher serum triglyceride levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/mco.2014.369DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4179805PMC
November 2014

Effects of Brazilian Cardioprotective Diet Program on risk factors in patients with coronary heart disease: a Brazilian Cardioprotective Diet randomized pilot trial.

Clinics (Sao Paulo) 2012 Dec;67(12):1407-14

Hospital do Coração (IEP-HCor), Research Institute, São Paulo/SP, Brazil.

Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of the Brazilian Cardioprotective Diet Program in reducing blood pressures, fasting glucose levels and body mass indices in patients with established atherothrombotic disease.

Method: This randomized controlled pilot trial included outpatients who were over 45 years of age with atherothrombotic cardiovascular disease. Group A, who received the Brazilian Cardioprotective Diet Program, had weekly sessions with dietitians. Groups B and C received the usual dietary therapy that is given to patients with cardiovascular diseases as proposed by the Brazilian guidelines. This diet had the same nutrient profile as that given to Group A, but it was customized by the integration of typical Mediterranean foods. The difference between Groups B and C was the number of sessions with the dietitian. Group B received weekly sessions, while group C only had monthly sessions. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT 01453166.

Results: There was a greater reduction in systolic (7.8%) and diastolic (10.8%) blood pressures in Group A compared with Group B (2.3% and 7.3%), and Group C (3.9% and 4.9%, respectively). Fasting glucose decreased by 5.3% and 2% in Groups A and B, respectively. Fasting glucose increased by 3.7% in Group C. The BMIs decreased by 3.5% and 3.3% in Groups A and B, respectively. Group C did not present with any changes in BMI. However, none of these data showed statistical differences between the groups, which is methodologically acceptable in pilot trials.

Conclusions: The Brazilian Cardioprotective Diet Program seems to be more effective in reducing blood pressures, fasting glucose levels, weights and BMIs in patients with previous cardiovascular disease compared with the diet that has been proposed by the Brazilian guidelines.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3521803PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.6061/clinics/2012(12)10DOI Listing
December 2012

Effect of a multifaceted intervention on use of evidence-based therapies in patients with acute coronary syndromes in Brazil: the BRIDGE-ACS randomized trial.

JAMA 2012 May;307(19):2041-9

Research Institute HCor--Hospital do Coração, São Paulo, Brazil.

Context: Studies have found that patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) often do not receive evidence-based therapies in community practice. This is particularly true in low- and middle-income countries.

Objective: To evaluate whether a multifaceted quality improvement (QI) intervention can improve the use of evidence-based therapies and reduce the incidence of major cardiovascular events among patients with ACS in a middle-income country.

Design, Setting, And Participants: The BRIDGE-ACS (Brazilian Intervention to Increase Evidence Usage in Acute Coronary Syndromes) trial, a cluster-randomized (concealed allocation) trial conducted among 34 clusters (public hospitals) in Brazil and enrolling a total of 1150 patients with ACS from March 15, 2011, through November 2, 2011, with follow-up through January 27, 2012.

Intervention: Multifaceted QI intervention including educational materials for clinicians, reminders, algorithms, and case manager training, vs routine practice (control).

Main Outcome Measures: Primary end point was the percentage of eligible patients who received all evidence-based therapies (aspirin, clopidogrel, anticoagulants, and statins) during the first 24 hours in patients without contraindications.

Results: Mean age of the patients enrolled was 62 (SD, 13) years; 68.6% were men, and 40% presented with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, 35.6% with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, and 23.6% with unstable angina. The randomized clusters included 79.5% teaching hospitals, all from major urban areas and 41.2% with 24-hour percutaneous coronary intervention capabilities. Among eligible patients (923/1150 [80.3%]), 67.9% in the intervention vs 49.5% in the control group received all eligible acute therapies (population average odds ratio [OR(PA)], 2.64 [95% CI, 1.28-5.45]). Similarly, among eligible patients (801/1150 [69.7%]), those in the intervention group were more likely to receive all eligible acute and discharge medications (50.9% vs 31.9%; OR(PA),, 2.49 [95% CI, 1.08-5.74]). Overall composite adherence scores were higher in the intervention clusters (89% vs 81.4%; mean difference, 8.6% [95% CI, 2.2%-15.0%]). In-hospital cardiovascular event rates were 5.5% in the intervention group vs 7.0% in the control group (OR(PA), 0.72 [95% CI, 0.36-1.43]); 30-day all-cause mortality was 7.0% vs 8.4% (ORPA, 0.79 [95% CI, 0.46-1.34]).

Conclusion: Among patients with ACS treated in Brazil, a multifaceted educational intervention resulted in significant improvement in the use of evidence-based therapies.

Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00958958.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2012.413DOI Listing
May 2012

A model to optimize public health care and downstage breast cancer in limited-resource populations in southern Brazil. (Porto Alegre Breast Health Intervention Cohort).

BMC Public Health 2009 Mar 13;9:83. Epub 2009 Mar 13.

Associação Hospitalar Moinhos de Vento, Porto Alegre, Brazil.

Background: Breast cancer (BC) is a major public health problem, with rising incidence in many regions of the globe. Although mortality has recently dropped in developed countries, death rates are still increasing in some developing countries, as seen in Brazil. Among the reasons for this phenomenon are the lack of structured screening programs, a long waiting period between diagnosis and treatment, and lack of access to health services for a large proportion of the Brazilian population.

Methods And Design: Since 2004, an intervention study in a cohort of women in Southern Brazil, denominated Porto Alegre Breast Health Intervention Cohort, is being conducted in order to test the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a model for BC early detection and treatment. In this study, over 4,000 women from underserved communities aged 40 to 69 years are being screened annually with mammography and clinical breast examination performed by a multidisciplinary team, which also involves nutritional counseling and genetic cancer risk assessment. Risk factors for BC development are also being evaluated. Active search of participants by lay community health workers is one of the major features of our program. The accrual of new participants was concluded in 2006 and the study will last for 10 years. The main goal of the study is to demonstrate significant downstaging of BC in an underserved population through proper screening, attaining a higher rate of early-stage BC diagnoses than usually seen in women diagnosed in the Brazilian Public Health System. Preliminary results show a very high BC incidence in this population (117 cases per 100,000 women per year), despite a low prevalence of classical risk factors.

Discussion: This study will allow us to test a model of BC early diagnosis and treatment and evaluate its cost-effectiveness in a developing country where the mortality associated with this disease is very high. Also, it might contribute to the evaluation of risk factors in a population with a different ethnic background from that studied in developed countries. If our model is proven effective, it may be replicated in other parts of the globe where BC is also a major public health problem.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-9-83DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2669067PMC
March 2009
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