Publications by authors named "Bernarda Kazanowska"

67 Publications

Prospective analysis of BKV hemorrhagic cystitis in children and adolescents undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation.

Ann Hematol 2021 Mar 4. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Collegium Medicum, Nicolaus Copernicus University Torun, Bydgoszcz, Poland.

BK virus is one of the most common causes of hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) in children undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Viruses can be found in urine and serum samples of immunocompromised patients. Malignant diseases, age, cell source, day of granulocyte reconstitution, conditioning regimen, or use of total body irradiation may play an important role in BKV epidemiology, development of hemorrhagic cystitis course, and outcome. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence, clinical course, and risk factors for BKV-HC in children undergoing HCT. A total number of 133 patients who were prospectively tested for BKV colonization/infection were enrolled into this multicenter analysis. Episodes of BKV-HC occurred in 36/133 (27%) enrolled subjects. In a univariate analysis for BKV-HC incidence, the following factors were significant: age >5 years, peripheral blood transplantation, matched unrelated donor (MUD) transplantation, busulfan-cyclophosphamide-melphalan conditioning regimen, and acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) diagnosis. Presence of acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) in liver and gut GVHD was a significant risk factor of BKV-HC. No BKV-attributed deaths were reported. In multivariate analysis, the incidence of HC was significantly higher in patients with AML, age >5 years, MUD transplants, and children with GVHD. HC is a frequent complication after HCT among children causes prolonged hospitalization but rarely contributes to death. We identified risk factors of BKV-HC development in children, with focus on aGVHD: we concluded that excessive immune reaction connected with GVHD and immunosuppression drugs might play a pivotal role in the development of BKV-HC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-021-04454-7DOI Listing
March 2021

Results of two consecutive treatment protocols in Polish children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Sci Rep 2020 11 19;10(1):20168. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Department of Pediatric Hematology, Oncology and Transplantology, Medical University of Lublin, Antoni Gębala Street 6, 20-093, Lublin, Poland.

The aim of the study was to retrospectively compare the effectiveness of the ALL IC-BFM 2002 and ALL IC-BFM 2009 protocols and the distribution of risk groups by the two protocols after minimal residual disease (MRD) measurement as well as its impact on survival. We reviewed the medical records of 3248 patients aged 1-18 years with newly diagnosed ALL who were treated in 14 hemato-oncological centers between 2002 and 2018 in Poland. The overall survival (OS) of 1872 children with ALL treated with the ALL IC 2002 protocol was 84% after 3 years, whereas the OS of 1376 children with ALL treated with the ALL IC 2009 protocol was 87% (P < 0.001). The corresponding event-free survival rates were 82% and 84% (P = 0.006). Our study shows that the ALL IC-BFM 2009 protocol improved the results of children with ALL compared to the ALL IC-BFM 2002 protocol in Poland. This analysis confirms that MRD marrow assessment on day 15 of treatment by FCM-MRD is an important predictive factor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-75860-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7678856PMC
November 2020

Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors in children, adolescents, and young adults: Treatment results of five Cooperative Weichteilsarkom Studiengruppe (CWS) trials and one registry.

J Surg Oncol 2020 Dec 18;122(7):1337-1347. Epub 2020 Aug 18.

Department of Pediatric Oncology and Hematology, University Hospital Frankfurt, Frankfurt/Main, Germany.

Background And Objectives: Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) are aggressive soft tissue sarcomas that present as large, invasive tumors. Our aim was to assess outcomes, identify prognostic factors, and analyze treatment strategies in a prospectively collected pediatric cohort.

Methods: Patients less than 21 years with MPNST treated in the consecutive prospective European Cooperative Weichteilsarkom Studiengruppe (CWS)-trials (1981-2009) and the CWS-SoTiSaR registry (2009-2015) were analyzed.

Results: A total of 159 patients were analyzed. Neurofibromatosis type I (NF1) was reported in thirty-eight patients (24%). Most were adolescents (67%) with large (>10 cm, 65%) tumors located at extremities (42%). Nodal involvement was documented in 15 (9%) and distant metastases in 15 (9%) upon diagnosis. Overall, event-free survival (EFS) was 40.5% at 5 and 36.3% at 10 years, and overall survival (OS) was 54.6% at 5 and 47.1% at 10 years. Age, NF1 status, tumor site, tumor size, Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study (IRS) group, metastatic disease, and achieving first complete remission (CR1) were identified as prognostic factors for EFS and/or OS in the univariate analysis.

Conclusions: Prognostic factors were identified and research questions for future clinical trials were addressed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jso.26153DOI Listing
December 2020

Rituximab for High-Risk, Mature B-Cell Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma in Children.

N Engl J Med 2020 06;382(23):2207-2219

From the Departments of Pediatric and Adolescent Oncology (V.M.-C., C.P.) and Clinical Research (G.V.), INSERM Unité 1015 (V.M.-C.), and the Unit of Biostatistics and Epidemiology and INSERM Unité 1018 (A.A.), Gustave Roussy, Université Paris-Saclay, Villejuif, France; the Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, University of Padua, Padua, Italy (M.P.); the Department of Paediatric Haematology, Oncology, and Palliative Care, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge (G.A.A.B.), Cancer Research UK Clinical Trials Unit, Institute of Cancer and Genomic Sciences, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham (K.W.), and the Department of Histopathology, Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London (A.W.) - all in the United Kingdom; the Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles (D.A.B.); the Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain (R.F.D.); the Division of Haematology-Oncology, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto (S.A.); the Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven, Belgium (A.U.); the Center for Cancer and Immunology Research, Children's National Health System and George Washington University, Washington, DC (C.M.B.); Princess Máxima Center for Pediatric Oncology, Utrecht, the Netherlands (J.Z.); the Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary (M.C.); the Department of Pediatric Bone Marrow Transplantation, Oncology, and Hematology, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland (B.K.); the Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, Queen Mary Hospital, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (A.K.C.); the Department of Pathology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City (R.R.M.); Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia (P.C.A.); and the National Cancer Institute, Center for Global Health, Rockville, MD (T.G.G.).

Background: Rituximab added to chemotherapy prolongs survival among adults with B-cell cancer. Data on its efficacy and safety in children with high-grade, mature B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma are limited.

Methods: We conducted an open-label, international, randomized, phase 3 trial involving patients younger than 18 years of age with high-risk, mature B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (stage III with an elevated lactate dehydrogenase level or stage IV) or acute leukemia to compare the addition of six doses of rituximab to standard lymphomes malins B (LMB) chemotherapy with standard LMB chemotherapy alone. The primary end point was event-free survival. Overall survival and toxic effects were also assessed.

Results: Analyses were based on 328 patients who underwent randomization (164 patients per group); 85.7% of the patients had Burkitt's lymphoma. The median follow-up was 39.9 months. Events were observed in 10 patients in the rituximab-chemotherapy group and in 28 in the chemotherapy group. Event-free survival at 3 years was 93.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 89.1 to 96.7) in the rituximab-chemotherapy group and 82.3% (95% CI, 75.7 to 87.5) in the chemotherapy group (hazard ratio for primary refractory disease or first occurrence of progression, relapse after response, death from any cause, or second cancer, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.15 to 0.66; one-sided P = 0.00096, which reached the significance level required for this analysis). Eight patients in the rituximab-chemotherapy group died (4 deaths were disease-related, 3 were treatment-related, and 1 was from a second cancer), as did 20 in the chemotherapy group (17 deaths were disease-related, and 3 were treatment-related) (hazard ratio, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.16 to 0.82). The incidence of acute adverse events of grade 4 or higher after prephase treatment was 33.3% in the rituximab-chemotherapy group and 24.2% in the chemotherapy group (P = 0.07); events were related mainly to febrile neutropenia and infection. Approximately twice as many patients in the rituximab-chemotherapy group as in the chemotherapy group had a low IgG level 1 year after trial inclusion.

Conclusions: Rituximab added to standard LMB chemotherapy markedly prolonged event-free survival and overall survival among children and adolescents with high-grade, high-risk, mature B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and was associated with a higher incidence of hypogammaglobulinemia and, potentially, more episodes of infection. (Funded by the Clinical Research Hospital Program of the French Ministry of Health and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01516580.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1915315DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7720281PMC
June 2020

Prevalence, Epidemiology, Etiology, and Sensitivity of Invasive Bacterial Infections in Pediatric Patients Undergoing Oncological Treatment: A Multicenter Nationwide Study.

Microb Drug Resist 2021 Jan 20;27(1):53-63. Epub 2020 May 20.

Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology and Collegium Medicum, Nicolaus Copernicus University Torun, Bydgoszcz, Poland.

Infectious complications (IC) caused by bacterial strains often impede anticancer therapy. The study aimed to retrospectively analyze bacterial IC that could help predict the risk and optimize the empirical treatment for bacterial infections in pediatric cancer patients. Over a 72-month period, all-in 5,599 children with cancer: 2,441 patients with hematological malignancy (HM including acute leukemias, Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphomas [NHLs], and Langerhans cell histiocytosis) and 3,158 with solid tumors (STs including central nervous system tumors, neuroblastoma, Wilms' tumor, soft tissue sarcoma, germ cell tumors, Ewing sarcoma, osteosarcoma, hepatoblastoma, and others) were enrolled into the study. Episodes of bacterial infectious complications (EBICs) confirmed by microbiological findings were reported by each hospital and analyzed centrally. At least 1 EBIC was diagnosed in 2,155 (36.8%) children (1,281 [59.4%] with HM and 874 [40.6%] with ST;  < 0.001). All-in 4,860 EBICs were diagnosed including 62.2% episodes in children with HM and 37.8% in children with ST ( < 0.001). Having analyzed the source of infections, blood stream infections predominated, apart from NHL patients in whom the most common type was gut infections. The profile of bacteria strains was different in HM and ST groups ( < 0.001). However, in both groups the most common Gram-negative pathogen was Enterobacteriaceae, with the rate being higher in the HM group. Among Gram-negative strains low susceptibility to ceftazidime, whereas among spp. low susceptibility to vancomycin was noticed. The rate of multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens was high, especially for Gram negatives (47.7% vs. 23.9%;  < 0.001). The survival after infections was comparable for HM and ST patients ( = 0.215). The risk of bacterial IC in HM patients was higher than in the ST group. The high rate of MDR strains was detected in pediatric cancer patients, especially in those with HM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/mdr.2019.0393DOI Listing
January 2021

Mixed phenotype acute leukemia: Biological profile, clinical characteristic and treatment outcomes: Report of the population-based study.

Eur J Haematol 2020 Jul 17;105(1):85-93. Epub 2020 Apr 17.

Department of Pediatric Oncology, Hematology and Transplantology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland.

Objectives: The aim of this population-based, retrospective study was to analyze biological and clinical features and treatment results in children diagnosed with MPAL in all Polish pediatric oncology centers between 2007 and 2018.

Methods: Among 2893 children and adolescents diagnosed and treated for acute leukemia, 39 (1.35%) patients fulfilled the WHO criteria of MPAL. The T/myeloid phenotype was most prevalent.

Results: Cytogenetics findings were seen in 2 (5.1%), while chromosomal abnormalities were found in 14 (35.9%) patients. Thirty-two patients achieved CR-1, including 23 (92.0%) treated with ALL-directed chemotherapy and 9 (64.3%) treated with AML-type induction regimens. Within these patients, 4 (12.5%) died due to treatment-related complications and 11 (34.4%) relapsed. Nineteen (63.3%) patients underwent allo-HSCT in CR-1 and 14 (73.7%) of them have been in CR-1. In total, 17 (43.6%) patients remain in CR-1 for 1-12 years, including 14 (58.3%) with T/myeloid MPAL. The 5-year pOS and pEFS were 51.8% and 44.2%, respectively. The overall survival for ALL-directed therapy was significantly better than the one for AML-type chemotherapy (P = .001). It was also better for patients who underwent HSCT in CR-1 (P = .001).

Conclusions: The prognosis of MPAL is unsatisfactory, but initial treatment with ALL-directed chemotherapy consolidated with allo-HSCT improves the outcomes in MPAL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejh.13413DOI Listing
July 2020

Analysis of the rRNA methylation complex components in pediatric B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia: A pilot study.

Adv Clin Exp Med 2020 01;29(1):107-113

Department and Clinic of Hematology, Blood Neoplasms and Bone Marrow Transplantation, Wroclaw Medical University, Poland.

Background: Dysregulation of ribosome biogenesis and alteration of ribosome composition, including alteration in ribosomal RNA (rRNA) 2'-O-ribose methylation, can play a role in malignant transformation and cancer progression. Several studies recently reported that components of the rRNA methylation complex are associated with leukemogenesis. However, no study ever investigated the alteration of ribosome biogenesis factors in the most common pediatric malignancy - B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL).

Objectives: The objective of this study was to examine the expression of factors building the rRNA methylation complex, either the protein components (1 methyl-transferase (FBL), NOP56, NOP58, NHP2L1) or some RNA components (box C/D snoRNAs: SNORD35B, SNORD65, SNORD46, SNORD50A, SNORD38B), as well as CMYC, and nucleolin (NCL) - a protein involved in rRNA synthesis. Clinical effects in children with BCP-ALL were also investigated.

Material And Methods: The factors involved in ribosome biogenesis were studied in 28 children with BCP-ALL with the use of real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using the BioMark HD System (Fluidigm, San Francisco, USA) in cDNA prepared from the bone marrow samples collected at diagnosis.

Results: Strong correlations were observed between NOP56, NOP58 and NCL, and multiple weaker correlations were observed in the box C/D snoRNA category, and between box C/D snoRNA and transcripts coding proteins of the rRNA methylation complex. The expression of analyzed transcripts did not correlate with the initial white blood cells count (WBC) or with bone marrow blast percentage. Ribosome biogenesis upregulation with overexpression of FBL and NOP56, and CMYC was found in patients who subsequently relapsed and the upregulation signature was not associated with known risk predictors.

Conclusions: This is the first report on the clinical aspect of ribosome biogenesis in pediatric BCP-ALL, and it shows that overexpression of CMYC and C/D box nucleoproteins FBL and NOP56 is an antecedent event in patients who subsequently relapse. The dysregulation pattern is different from the previous reports in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), suggesting that dysregulation of ribosome biogenesis is specific for BCP-ALL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.17219/acem/112608DOI Listing
January 2020

Synovial sarcoma disease characteristics and primary tumor sites differ between patient age groups: a report of the Cooperative Weichteilsarkom Studiengruppe (CWS).

J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2020 Apr 13;146(4):953-960. Epub 2020 Jan 13.

Hospital for Children and Adolescents, Goethe-University, Frankfurt (Main), Germany.

Background: Older age is associated with worse outcome in synovial sarcoma (SS) patients. Differences in disease presentation among distinct age groups, however, are currently unknown.

Methods: SS patients < 21 years registered in consecutive CWS trials over the period of 1981-2018 were evaluated. Characteristics were analyzed according to age groups using the Fisher's exact test.

Results: The study population included 432 SS patients. Disease characteristics differed according to age groups of children (0-12 years, n = 176), adolescents (13-16 years, n = 178), and young adults (17-21 years, n = 78). The proportion of invasive tumors (T2) was significantly higher in older patients: children 33%, adolescents 39% and young adults 54%, p = 0.009805. Similarly, the proportion of tumors > 10 cm was higher (13%, 21%, 31%; p = 0.005657) whereas conversely, the proportion of small tumors < 3 cm was lower in older patients (29%, 24%, 6%; p = 0.000104). The presence of metastases at first diagnosis was also highest in older patients (6%, 10%, 21%, p = 0.000963). Notably, the proportion of thigh tumors was higher in older patients (p = 0.04173), whereas the proportion of head-neck tumors was lower in older patients (p = 0.08896).

Conclusions: The rates of large, invasive tumors and the presence of metastases are significantly associated with older patient age. Localization to the thigh is more frequent in older patients.

Discussion: The causes for these variations require further exploration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00432-019-03121-9DOI Listing
April 2020

Metabolic Disturbances in Children Treated for Solid Tumors.

Nutrients 2019 Dec 15;11(12). Epub 2019 Dec 15.

Department of Pediatric Bone Marrow Transplantation, Oncology and Hematology, Wroclaw Medical University, 53-111 Wroclaw, Poland.

Metabolic disturbances are among the most common disorders diagnosed in pediatric patients after anti-cancer therapy (ACT). The aim of our study was to evaluate the prevalence of metabolic disturbances among patients after ACT. The study group comprised 44 patients (31 boys) treated for solid tumors and 31 patients in the control group. Body weight, height, body mass index (BMI) values, lipid parameters are expressed in Standard Deviation Score (SDS), based on centile charts. Indicators of risk to atherosclerosis were calculated. Obesity/overweight was observed in one third of the patients. Hypercholesterolemia occurred in half of them, elevated tryglicerides (TG) SDS in 11, and elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) SDS in nine of the patients. Increased levels of both cholesterol SDS and LDL SDS were found in nine patients and four of them also showed elevated levels of TG SDS. There were significant differences in lipid parameters between the sexes. Risk indicators of lipid disorders defined by statistical distances () were determined for the study group and the control group. The sum of the risk ratios of lipid disorders in the study group was 150 times higher than in the control group. Patients after ACT require special monitoring of lipids profiles and thyroid function as they are at higher risk for dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis than healthy people.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu11123062DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6950685PMC
December 2019

Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma: A report of the Cooperative Weichteilsarkom Studiengruppe (CWS).

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2020 02 17;67(2):e28009. Epub 2019 Nov 17.

Department of Pediatric Oncology, University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany.

Background: Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) is a rare soft-tissue tumor with benign histologic appearance, though fully malignant behavior is possible.

Methods: Patients with LGFMS <21 years registered in Cooperative Weichteilsarkom Studiengruppe trials until 2017 were analyzed. Firstline treatment consisted of complete surgical resection whenever possible.

Results: Median age of 31 patients was 10.9 years (first month to 17.1 years). Twenty-six tumors were confirmed to the tissue of origin (T1), four invaded contiguous structures (T2), one was TX. Eight were >5 cm. The best surgical result was resection with free margins (R0) in 24 and microscopic residuals (R1) in seven. Five-year event-free (EFS), 5-year local-relapse-free (LRFS), and 5-year overall-survival were 71 ± 18.6% confidence interval (CI) 95%, 76 ± 17.6% CI 95%, and 100%, respectively. Six patients suffered local relapse in a median of 1 year, one combined within 1.3 year and one metastatic relapse with lesions in the lung, back muscles, and thigh discovered in whole-body imaging 6 years after the first diagnosis. In univariate analysis, T status correlated with EFS (T1 79.6 ± 18.6%, T2 50.0 ± 49.0%, P = .038). Resection with free margins tends to be associated with better LRFS (R0 82.4 ± 18.6%, R1 53.6 ± 39.4%, P = .053). Among 24 patients with R0 resection, five (21%) suffered relapse, thereof three local, one metastatic, and one combined. Among seven patients with R1-resection, three (43%) suffered local relapse.

Conclusion: Special caution is advisable in T2 tumors. The metastatic potential with lesions in unusual sites indicates that affected patients need to be informed. If long-term follow-up with whole-body imaging is beneficial, it may be addressed in larger intergroup analyses. Further research in disease biology is essential for optimal treatment and follow-up care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.28009DOI Listing
February 2020

The influence of different intensity of treatment on hormonal markers of gonadal function in acute lymphoblastic leukemia survivors.

Hematol Oncol 2019 Dec 11;37(5):609-616. Epub 2019 Nov 11.

Department of Pediatric Laboratory Diagnostics, Medical University of Bialystok, Białystok, Poland.

Anti-cancer treatment in children can deteriorate gonadal function and affect future fertility. We analyzed the hormonal markers of gonadal function in adolescent leukemia survivors, treated in childhood with different levels of aggressiveness. We analyzed hormone levels in 69 adolescents and young adults, leukemia survivors stratified into standard (SR), intermediate (IR), and high (HR) risk groups, and in 80 healthy controls (38 men) at a similar age. We assessed follicular stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and inhibin B in the whole group, testosterone in males, and E2 and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) in females. Males classified into HR group presented, in comparison to control, higher levels of FSH, LH, lower inhibin B, and normal testosterone, whereas in SR and IR group, the hormonal values were comparable to the control. In females, in all risk groups, the levels of FSH, LH, E2, and inhibin B were comparable with the control, but the mean AMH levels were slightly lowered. We did not observe the effect of prophylactic cranial irradiation (12 or 18 Gy) or the time of treatment (before vs. during puberty) on hormone levels. In females, a positive correlation was found between the time interval after the end of treatment and AMH levels. Male leukemia survivors having undergone more intensive chemotherapy show the symptoms of disturbed spermatogenesis and need to be followed-up in the future. Women, irrespective of the risk group, can develop the signs of preterm ovarian insufficiency. They should be informed about the impact of the treatment on gonadal function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hon.2681DOI Listing
December 2019

Treatment and outcome of patients with thoracic tumors of the Ewing sarcoma family: A report from the Cooperative Weichteilsarkom Studiengruppe CWS-81, -86, -91, -96, and -2002P trials.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2019 08;66 Suppl 3:e27884

Klinikum Stuttgart - Olgahospital, Stuttgart Cancer Center, Zentrum für Kinder-, Jugend- und Frauenmedizin, Pediatrics 5 (Oncology, Hematology, Immunology), Stuttgart, Germany.

Background: Ewing tumors are the most frequent malignant tumors of the chest wall in children and young adults. Surgical management of these tumors can be challenging. Optimal local control remains controversial. The aim of this study was to analyze treatment, outcome, and surgical procedures in patients with thoracic tumors of the Ewing sarcoma family (TES) treated within four Cooperative Soft-Tissue Sarcoma (CWS) trials and one registry.

Patients And Methods: Sixty-two patients from 0 to 21 years treated between 1981 and 2014 were selected for this analysis. A retrospective chart analysis was carried out. Institutional review board approval was obtained for all trials.

Results: The median age of the patients was 7 years. The 5-year overall (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) rates were 58.7% (52.7-64.7) and 52.8% (46.8-58.8). Patients with intrathoracic tumor localization (n = 24) had a worse outcome (EFS: 37.5%; 27.5-37.5) compared with those with chest wall tumors (n = 38; EFS: 62.3%; 54.3-70.3, P = 0.008). Patients ≤10 years (n = 38) had a better survival compared with those > 10 years (EFS: 65.7%; 57.7-73.7 vs 31.3%; 21.3-41.3, P = 0.01). Tumor size ≤5 cm (n = 15) was associated with significantly better survival compared with a size > 5 cm (n = 47, EFS: 93.3%; 87.3-99.3 vs 40%; 33-47, P = 0.002). Primary resections were carried out in 36 patients, of which 75% were incomplete resulting in inferior EFS (P = 0.006). Complete secondary resections were performed in 22 of 40.

Conclusions: Positive predictive factors for outcome are age ≤10 years, size ≤5 cm, and localization at the chest wall. Diverse IRS groups require individual treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.27884DOI Listing
August 2019

Eltrombopag Therapy in Children With Rare Disorders Associated With Thrombocytopenia.

J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2020 03;42(2):113-117

Department of Pediatric Bone Marrow Transplantation, Oncology, and Hematology, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland.

Eltrombopag (ELT) is a thrombopoietin receptor activator that has shown efficacy in chronic immune thrombocytopenia. We report the outcome of ELT therapy in 4 children who were treated for rare hematologic disorders, including Pearson syndrome, DiGeorge syndrome, posttransplant allogeneic poor graft function (PGF), and Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome. The ELT tolerance in the analyzed group was good, with the exception of the child with Pearson syndrome, who experienced an exacerbation of cataracts and had to discontinue treatment. Thromboembolic events were observed in one child, who continued ELT therapy despite achieving normalized platelet counts. Independence from PLT transfusions was observed at the 4-week timepoint of therapy in patients with DiGeorge syndrome and PGF who responded to ELT. Discontinuation of therapy was successful in one child, who sustained the normal CBC values afterward. In 2 patients, an increase in neutrophil counts was observed during ELT therapy without additional intervention, and a positive correlation between neutrophil and platelet values during ELT therapy was observed in the child with PGF. ELT is effective in rare pediatric disorders, but response patterns are determined by the underlying disease. ELT shows promising results in patients, but constitutional hematopoiesis defects reduce the chances of a response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MPH.0000000000001528DOI Listing
March 2020

Tumour expressions of hypoxic markers predict the response to neo-adjuvant chemotherapy in children with inoperable rhabdomyosarcoma.

Biomarkers 2019 Sep 31;24(6):538-548. Epub 2019 May 31.

a Department of Paediatrics, Haematology and Oncology, Medical University of Gdansk , Gdansk , Poland.

The study was to assess whether tumour expressions of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α, glucose transporter (GLUT)-1, carbonic anhydrase (CA) IX and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) predict response to neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (naCHT) in children with inoperable rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS). Immunohistochemical expressions of hypoxia markers were determined semi-quantitatively in tumour tissue microarray of 46 patients with embryonal RMS (RME) and 20 with alveolar (RMA), treated with CWS protocols (1992-2013). In paediatric RME, response to naCHT was influenced significantly by tumour expression of CA IX and GLUT-1. Patients with RMA with low expressions of analysed markers responded well to naCHT, while all poor-responders expressed highly hypoxia markers. Only 5.88% of RMA and 11.11% of RME tumours did not express any of the proteins. In both RME and RMA subgroups, most poor-responders demonstrated simultaneous high expression of ≥3 markers, while most patients expressing ≤2 markers responded well to naCHT. In the whole cohort, co-expression of ≥3 markers, was the only independent factor predicting poor-response to chemotherapy (odds ratio 14.706; 95% CI 1.72-125.75;  = 0.014). Immunohistochemical expression pattern of four endogenous markers of hypoxia, in tumour tissue at diagnosis, emerges as a promising tool to predict response to naCHT in children with inoperable RMS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1354750X.2019.1606275DOI Listing
September 2019

Immunohistochemical assessment of cyclin D1 and p53 is associated with survival in childhood malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor.

Cancer Biomark 2019 ;24(3):351-361

Department of Pediatrics, Hematology and Oncology, Medical University of Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland.

Background: Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) is rare, aggressive soft tissue sarcoma which may affect children.

Objective: We aimed to assess prognostic significance of immunohistochemical (IHC) markers, osteopontin, fibronectin, survivin, cyclin D1 and p53, in pediatric MPNST.

Methods: A total of 26 pediatric MPNST patients were enrolled in the current study with a median follow-up of 51 months. IHC staining using commercially available monoclonal antibodies were employed to detect analyzed antigens on tissue microarrays. Eventually, all markers were subclassified to high (H) and low (L) expression categories in all analyzed tumors.

Results: High IHC expressions of survivin, cyclin D1, osteopontin, fibronectin, and p53 were detected in 18 (69.2%), 13 (50%), 16 (61.5%), 16 (61.5%), and 13 (50%) tumors, respectively. A significant correlation was demonstrated between cyclin D1 and osteopontin (p= 0.004). Both markers were associated with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) status (p= 0.041 and p= 0.037, respectively). H-fibronectin was more prevalent in deeply located tumors (p= 0.046). None of the markers was associated with IRS stage, age at diagnosis, and tumor size. Univariate analysis identified IRS stage, regional lymph node metastases, NF1, and cyclin D1 as variables associated with overall survival (OS), whereas tumor depth, osteopontin, and cyclin D1 - for relapse-free survival (RFS). Subsequent multivariate analysis identified cyclin D1 and p53 as independent variables predicting RFS, whereas cyclin D1 and regional lymph nodes status were independent predictors for OS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/CBM-181572DOI Listing
August 2019

GATA3 germline variant is associated with CRLF2 expression and predicts outcome in pediatric B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Genes Chromosomes Cancer 2019 09 3;58(9):619-626. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Department of Pediatrics, Oncology and Hematology, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland.

The germline variant at rs3824662 in GATA3 is a risk locus for Philadelphia-like acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph-like ALL), the biological subtype of B-cell precursor (BCP)-ALL defined by a distinct gene expression profile and the presence of specific somatic aberrations including rearrangements of CRLF2. In this study, we investigated whether rs3824662 in GATA3 associates with CRLF2 expression in leukemic cells and predicts prognosis in pediatric BCP-ALL patients treated according to the ALL Intercontinental Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster (IC BFM) 2009 (n = 645) and the ALL IC BFM 2002 (n = 216) protocols. High expression of CRLF2 was observed at both protein and mRNA levels (fourfold higher in AA than in CA + CC) among GATA3 AA variant carriers, independent of the presence of P2RY8-CRLF2 fusion. Additionally, the AA variant at rs3824662 was a significant factor affecting minimal residual disease level at the end of induction phase and overall survival regardless of the risk group and the protocol. The germline variant at rs3824662 in GATA3 is a prognostic factor which associates with CRLF2 expression in leukemic cells supporting the hypothesis that GATA3 may have a regulatory effect on the CRLF2 pathway in pediatric BCP-ALL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gcc.22748DOI Listing
September 2019

Desmoplastic small round cell tumors: Multimodality treatment and new risk factors.

Cancer Med 2019 02 16;8(2):527-542. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

Pediatrics 5, Olgahospital, Klinikum Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany.

Background: To evaluate optimal therapy and potential risk factors.

Methods: Data of DSRCT patients <40 years treated in prospective CWS trials 1997-2015 were analyzed.

Results: Median age of 60 patients was 14.5 years. Male:female ratio was 4:1. Tumors were abdominal/retroperitoneal in 56/60 (93%). 6/60 (10%) presented with a localized mass, 16/60 (27%) regionally disseminated nodes, and 38/60 (63%) with extraperitoneal metastases. At diagnosis, 23/60 (38%) patients had effusions, 4/60 (7%) a thrombosis, and 37/54 (69%) elevated CRP. 40/60 (67%) patients underwent tumor resection, 21/60 (35%) macroscopically complete. 37/60 (62%) received chemotherapy according to CEVAIE (ifosfamide, vincristine, actinomycin D, carboplatin, epirubicin, etoposide), 15/60 (25%) VAIA (ifosfamide, vincristine, adriamycin, actinomycin D) and, 5/60 (8%) P6 (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, ifosfamide, etoposide). Nine received high-dose chemotherapy, 6 received regional hyperthermia, and 20 received radiotherapy. Among 25 patients achieving complete remission, 18 (72%) received metronomic therapies. Three-year event-free (EFS) and overall survival (OS) were 11% (±8 confidence interval [CI] 95%) and 30% (±12 CI 95%), respectively, for all patients and 26.7% (±18.0 CI 95%) and 56.9% (±20.4 CI 95%) for 25 patients achieving remission. Extra-abdominal site, localized disease, no effusion or ascites only, absence of thrombosis, normal CRP, complete tumor resection, and chemotherapy with VAIA correlated with EFS in univariate analysis. In multivariate analysis, significant factors were no thrombosis and chemotherapy with VAIA. In patients achieving complete remission, metronomic therapy with cyclophosphamide/vinblastine correlated with prolonged time to relapse.

Conclusion: Pleural effusions, venous thrombosis, and CRP elevation were identified as potential risk factors. The VAIA scheme showed best outcome. Maintenance therapy should be investigated further.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.1940DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6382921PMC
February 2019

Treatment and outcome of patients with thoracic tumors of the Ewing sarcoma family: A report from the Cooperative Weichteilsarkom Studiengruppe CWS-81, -86, -91, -96, and -2002P trials.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2019 03 12;66(3):e27537. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Klinikum Stuttgart - Olgahospital, Stuttgart Cancer Center, Zentrum für Kinder-, Jugend- und Frauenmedizin, Pediatrics 5 (Oncology, Hematology, Immunology), Stuttgart, Germany.

Background: Ewing tumors are the most frequent malignant tumors of the chest wall in children and young adults. Surgical management of these tumors can be challenging. Optimal local control remains controversial. The aim of this study was to analyze treatment, outcome, and surgical procedures in patients with thoracic tumors of the Ewing sarcoma family (TES) treated within four Cooperative Soft-Tissue Sarcoma (CWS) trials and one registry.

Patients And Methods: Sixty-two patients from 0 to 21 years treated between 1981 and 2014 were selected for this analysis. A retrospective chart analysis was carried out. Institutional review board approval was obtained for all trials.

Results: The median age of the patients was 7 years. The 5-year overall (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) rates were 58.7% (52.7-64.7) and 52.8% (46.8-58.8). Patients with intrathoracic tumor localization (n = 24) had a worse outcome (EFS: 37.5%; 27.5-37.5) compared with those with chest wall tumors (n = 38; EFS: 62.3%; 54.3-70.3, P = 0.008). Patients ≤10 years (n = 38) had a better survival compared with those > 10 years (EFS: 65.7%; 57.7-73.7 vs 31.3%; 21.3-41.3, P = 0.01). Tumor size ≤5 cm (n = 15) was associated with significantly better survival compared with a size > 5 cm (n = 47, EFS: 93.3%; 87.3-99.3 vs 40%; 33-47, P = 0.002). Primary resections were carried out in 36 patients, of which 75% were incomplete resulting in inferior EFS (P = 0.006). Complete secondary resections were performed in 22 of 40.

Conclusions: Positive predictive factors for outcome are age ≤10 years, size ≤5 cm, and localization at the chest wall. Diverse IRS groups require individual treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.27537DOI Listing
March 2019

Localized synovial sarcoma of the foot or ankle: A series of 32 Cooperative Weichteilsarkom Study Group patients.

J Surg Oncol 2019 Jan 13;119(1):109-119. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Pediatrics 5 (Oncology, Hematology, Immunology), Olgahospital, Klinikum Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany.

Background: Synovial sarcoma of the foot/ankle is rare. Mutilating surgery is often discussed.

Methods: Patients registered from 1981 to 2013 were analyzed. Cooperative Weichteilsarkom Studiengruppe (CWS) protocols recommend chemotherapy for all synovial sarcoma patients.

Results: Thirty-two of 330 patients with localized synovial sarcoma had their tumor at the foot/ankle. Eleven of thirty-two tumors were >5 cm. Twenty were T1, 11 T2, and one TX, respectively. Eight (25%) patients underwent primary complete resection with free margins (Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study [IRS] I), 12 of 32 (38%) primary complete resection with positive margins (IRS II), and 12 of 32 (38%) had macroscopic residuals (IRS III). The best surgical result at any time was R0 in 19, R1 in 10 and R2 in one patient, and missing in two. Mutilation was documented in 14 of 32 (44%). Radiotherapy was conducted in 20 patients. All patients achieved a first complete remission. Five-year-event-free survival and overall survival rates were 80% and 86%, respectively. Four patients suffered local and four other metastatic recurrences. IRS and the best surgical result at any time did not correlate with survival. There was no prognostic difference between R0- and R1-resection.

Conclusion: Survival expectancies for patients with localized synovial sarcomas of the foot/ankle compare favorably to that of those with other affected sites.

Discussion: Further studies are needed to set the limits of minimally required aggressiveness of local therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jso.25284DOI Listing
January 2019

Alveolar soft-part sarcoma: Primary metastatic disease and metastatic relapse occurring during long-term follow-up: Treatment results of four Cooperative Weichteilsarkom Studiengruppe (CWS) trials and one registry.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2018 12 19;65(12):e27405. Epub 2018 Aug 19.

Klinikum Stuttgart-Olgahospital, Stuttgart Cancer Center, Zentrum für Kinder-, Jugend-und Frauenmedizin, Pediatrics 5 (Oncology, Hematology, Immunology), Stuttgart, Germany.

Background: Patients with metastatic alveolar soft-part sarcoma (ASPS) are known to have a very poor prognosis. Little is known about best treatment of primary metastatic disease (MD) or relapsed metastatic disease (rMD).

Patients And Methods: Patients with localized disease (LD), primary MD, and metastatic recurrence after complete remission (CR) treated within the CWS-86, -91, -96, -2002P trials and the recent registry SoTiSaR (1985-2016) were analyzed.

Results: Fifteen of 61 patients had primary metastases at initial diagnosis at the age of 14.6 years (range, 7.8-19.7). Nine of 46 patients with initial LD suffered of rMD at a median age of 9.9 years (range, 3.5-30), 3.75 years (0.75-21) after CR of primary disease. Complete resection (microscopically or macroscopically) was possible in 2 of 15 patients with MD and in 5 of 9 with rMD. RT was administered in 4 of 15 MD and 1 of 9 rMD. Chemotherapy was administered to 11 of 15 MD and 3 of 9 rMD, targeted therapy to 3 of 15 MD and 1 of 9 rMD. Median time to progression of patients treated with targeted therapy (n = 4), CHT (n = 14), and resection only (n = 6) was 56, 17, and 23 months, respectively. The 5-year event-free survival and overall survival (OS) rates were 19.8% and 61%, respectively, for patients with MD compared with 79% and 98% for patients with LD. The 5-year progression-free survival and OS were 67% and 100% for patients with rMD.

Conclusions: Complete tumor resection correlates with long-term survival in patients with primary and relapsed MD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.27405DOI Listing
December 2018

Surface expression of Cytokine Receptor-Like Factor 2 increases risk of relapse in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients harboring deletions.

Oncotarget 2018 May 25;9(40):25971-25982. Epub 2018 May 25.

Department of Pediatrics, Hematology, Oncology and Diabetology, Medical University of Łódź, Łódź, Poland.

We prospectively examined whether surface expression of Cytokine Receptor-Like Factor 2 (CRLF2) on leukemic blasts is associated with survival and induction treatment response in pediatric B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL) patients. Flow cytometric analysis of bone marrow-derived leukemia cells revealed that 7.51% (29/286) of 386 pediatric BCP-ALL patients were CRLF2-positive (CRLF2pos) at diagnosis. The median minimal residual disease (MRD) was lower in CRLF2pos than CRLF2-negative (CRLF2neg) patients on day 15 (MRD15) after induction therapy [0.01% (0.001-0.42%) vs. 0.45% (0.05-3.50%); p=0.001]. By contrast, the MRD15 was higher in Ikaros family Zinc Finger Protein 1 (-deleted BCP-ALL patients than in BCP-ALL patients without deletions [1.18% (0.06-12.0%) vs 0.33% (0.03-2.6%); p=0.003]. Subgroup analysis showed that MRD15 levels were lower in /CRLF2pos patients than in /CRLF2neg patients [0.1% (0.02-5.06%) vs. 2.9% (0.25-12%); p=0.005]. Furthermore, MRD15 levels were higher in WT/CRLF2neg patients than in WT/CRLF2pos patients [0.40% (0.04-2.7%) vs. 0.001% (0.001-0.01%)]. Despite the low MRD15 levels, Δ/CRLF2pos patients showed poorer relapse-free survival (RFS) than other patient groups (p=0.003). These findings demonstrate that surface CRLF2 expression is associated with increased risk of relapse in pediatric BCP-ALL patients harboring deletions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.25411DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5995260PMC
May 2018

Tumor expression of survivin, p53, cyclin D1, osteopontin and fibronectin in predicting the response to neo-adjuvant chemotherapy in children with advanced malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor.

J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2018 Mar 13;144(3):519-529. Epub 2018 Jan 13.

Department of Pediatrics, Hematology and Oncology, Medical University of Gdansk, 7 Debinki Street, 80-211, Gdansk, Poland.

Purpose: Selected cell-cycle regulators and extracellular matrix proteins were found to play roles in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) biology. We aimed to analyze whether initial tumor tissue expressions of survivin, p53, cyclin D1, osteopontin (OPN) and fibronectin (FN) correlate with the response to neo-adjuvant CHT (naCHT) in children with advanced inoperable MPNST.

Methods: The study included 26 children with MPNST (M/F 14/12, median age 130 months) treated in Polish centers of pediatric oncology between 1992 and 2013. Tissue expression of markers was studied immunohistochemically in the manually performed tissue microarrays and assessed semi-quantitatively as low and high, based on the rate of positive cells and staining intensity.

Results: Good response to naCHT was noted in 47.6%, while poor-in 52.4% of patients. The response to naCHT was influenced negatively by the presence of neurofibromatosis NF1 and high initial tumor tissue expression of OPN, survivin, p53 and cyclin D1. Patients with high tumor expression of either OPN, survivin or p53 and those with simultaneous high expression of ≥ 3 of the markers, responded significantly worse to naCHT, than patients, in whom expression of ≤ 2 markers were detected at diagnosis. Nearly, 85% of patients expressing ≥ 3 markers, responded poor to CHT; while 87.5% of children, expressing ≤ 2 markers, were good responders.

Conclusion: The initial tumor tissue expression of OPN, survivin, p53 and cyclin D1 may serve as markers to predict response to naCHT in pediatric advanced MPNST. Future studies in more numerous group of patients are needed to confirm these preliminary results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00432-018-2580-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5816118PMC
March 2018

Nutritional status at the moment of diagnosis in childhood cancer patients.

Pediatr Endocrinol Diabetes Metab 2017 ;23(2):77-82

Department of Medical Sciences, Wroclaw Medical University, Poland.

Introduction: Children with a neoplastic disease are highly susceptible to malnutrition. The main objective of the study was to assess the frequency of undernourishment and obesity at the time of the diagnosis of the neoplastic disease at children.

Materials And Methods: The study included 734 patients (58% males) at the age 1-20,25, with the diagnosis of neoplasm in the years 1986-2014. The patients were divided into groups depending on the type of the diagnosis: 1) ALL, 2) ANLL, 3) HL, 4) NHL, 5) NBL, 6) Wilms tumor, 7) mesenchymal malignant tumor. The BMI SDS and the height SDS were evaluated. The difference in the incidence of disorders in each group was examined.

Results: In the study group at the time of the diagnosis 21.5% of patients were undernourished while 13.8% presented were overweight. Patients in the ALL group were overweight more often than the rest of the study group (RR 1.82, CI 95%1.26-2.63, p=0.002) - 18.6% of them were overweight. However, children with mesenchymal malignant tumor were less susceptible to overweight than the rest of the patients (RR 0.36, CI 95%0.15-0.87, p=0.021) - only 5.4% of them were overweight. Girls with ALL were malnourished more often than other patients (RR 1.72, CI 95%1.08-2.75, p=0.03). There were no significant differences in the malnutrition/obesity frequency in other neoplasms groups.

Summary: ALL patients are less susceptible to underweight than the patients with the solid tumor. Moreover, the high incidence of overweight in children with ALL is noteworthy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18544/PEDM-23.02.0077DOI Listing
June 2018

[Vitamin D and metabolic, autoimmunologic and neoplasm diseases].

Pediatr Endocrinol Diabetes Metab 2016 ;22(1):32-38

Department of Paediatric Bone Marrow Transplantation, Oncology and Hematology,Wroclaw Medical University.

At the turn of the 19th and 20th century McColum made the discovery of vitamin D as a result of the research on cod liver oil, in order to identify substances having anti ricets effect. Since that time, knowledge of its role in the human body systematically increases. For many years it was thought that it only plays a role in regulating calcium economy. The discovery in the mid-1970s of the presence of VDR- Vitamin D Receptor in most cells of the human body have turned attention to its pleiotropic effect. Special attention deserves wit. D impact on the risk of metabolic diseases and of pre-neoplasia as well as the long-term effects of the treatment of these diseases. The article presents a short review of the results of previously conducted studies on these issues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18544/PEDM-22.01.0048DOI Listing
October 2017

Biallelic loss of CDKN2A is associated with poor response to treatment in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Leuk Lymphoma 2017 05 18;58(5):1162-1171. Epub 2016 Oct 18.

a Department of Pediatrics, Oncology, Hematology and Diabetology , Medical University of Lodz , Lodz , Poland.

The inactivation of tumor suppressor genes located within 9p21 locus (CDKN2A, CDKN2B) occurs in up to 30% of children with B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL), but its independent prognostic significance remains controversial. In order to investigate the prognostic impact of deletions and promoter methylation within 9p21, 641 children with newly diagnosed BCP-ALL using methylation specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MS-MLPA) were investigated. A total of 169 (26.4%) microdeletions in 9p21 were detected, of which 71 were homozygous. Patients with CDKN2A homozygous deletions were older at diagnosis (p < .001), more frequently steroid resistant (p = .049), had higher WBC count (p < .001), higher MRD at Day 15 (p = .013) and lower relapse-free survival [p = .028, hazard ratio: 2.28 (95% confidence interval: 1.09-4.76)] than patients without these alterations. CDKN2A homozygous deletions coexisted with IKZF1 and PAX5 deletions (p < .001). In conclusion, CDKN2A homozygous deletions, but not promoter methylation, are associated with poor response to treatment and increased relapse risk of pediatric BCP-ALL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2016.1228925DOI Listing
May 2017

The prognostic impact of SYT-SSX fusion type and histological grade in pediatric patients with synovial sarcoma treated according to the CWS (Cooperative Weichteilsarkom Studie) trials.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2017 01 13;64(1):89-95. Epub 2016 Sep 13.

Klinikum Stuttgart, Olgahospital, Pediatrics 5 (Oncology, Hematology, Immunology), Stuttgart, Germany.

Background: The aim of our analysis was the evaluation of the prognostic impact of SYT-SSX fusion status and histological grading in synovial sarcoma (SS) of children and adolescents in the context of the consistent multimodal treatment strategy of the CWS (Cooperative Weichteilsarkom Studie; Cooperative Soft Tissue Sarcoma Study Group) and in comparison with other risk factors.

Procedure: Between 1986 and 2006, out of 243 patients with SS, tumor samples from 84 patients with localized disease were available for RT-PCR analysis. Outcome depending on fusion status in the context with known clinical risk factors was analyzed.

Results: No prognostic significance was shown for SYT-SSX fusion status and for histological grade. Highest significance of negative prognostic impact was found for large tumor size in uni- and multivariate analysis (P < 0.01). Furthermore, male gender was shown to be an adverse prognostic factor in multivariate analysis (P = 0.01).

Conclusions: Based on our results, neither histological grading nor SYT-SSX fusion status seems to be suitable for outcome prediction and risk stratification in localized SS treated according to the CWS. This is in contrast to several other publications concerning more heterogeneous age groups including children and adults, and this indicates that prognostic factors should not be interpreted apart from the particular study population and the therapeutic context.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.26206DOI Listing
January 2017

Heme Oxygenase-1 Controls an HDAC4-miR-206 Pathway of Oxidative Stress in Rhabdomyosarcoma.

Cancer Res 2016 10 3;76(19):5707-5718. Epub 2016 Aug 3.

Department of Medical Biotechnology, Faculty of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Biotechnology, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland.

Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is an aggressive soft tissue cancer characterized by disturbed myogenic differentiation. Here we report a role for the oxidative stress response factor HO-1 in progression of RMS. We found that HO-1 was elevated and its effector target miR-206 decreased in RMS cell lines and clinical primary tumors of the more aggressive alveolar phenotype (aRMS). In embryonal RMS (eRMS), HO-1 expression was induced by Pax3/7-FoxO1, an aRMS hallmark oncogene, followed by a drop in miR-206 levels. Inhibition of HO-1 by tin protoporphyrin (SnPP) or siRNA downregulated Pax3/7-FoxO1 target genes and induced a myogenic program in RMS. These effects were not mediated by altered myoD expression; instead, cells with elevated HO-1 produced less reactive oxygen species, resulting in nuclear localization of HDAC4 and miR-206 repression. HO-1 inhibition by SnPP reduced growth and vascularization of RMS tumors in vivo accompanied by induction of miR-206. Effects of SnPP on miR-206 expression and RMS tumor growth were mimicked by pharmacologic inhibition of HDAC. Thus, HO-1 inhibition activates an miR-206-dependent myogenic program in RMS, offering a novel therapeutic strategy for treatment of this malignancy. Cancer Res; 76(19); 5707-18. ©2016 AACR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-15-1883DOI Listing
October 2016

Clinical features and treatment outcomes of peripheral T-cell lymphoma in children. A current data report from Polish Pediatric Leukemia/Lymphoma Study Group (PPLLSG).

Adv Med Sci 2016 Sep 21;61(2):311-316. Epub 2016 Mar 21.

Department of Pediatric Oncology/Hematology, Institute of Pediatrics, Medical College Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland.

Purpose: Peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCL) are lymphoproliferative disorders derived from post-thymic cells, that occur extremely rarely in children. The optimal treatment of pediatric PTCL remains still unclear.

Patients And Methods: Ten children with PTCL from 3 up to 18 years of age registered by the Polish Pediatric Leukemia/Lymphoma Study Group (PPLLSG) were retrospectively analyzed. All patients were treated with different regimens including protocols: for lymphoblastic lymphoma in 7 cases, for anaplastic large cell lymphoma in 1, CHOP in 1. Five of the 10 patients with PTCL were classified as stage II; 4 as stage III and 1 as stage IV due to extralymphatic organs (bone marrow) involvement. Four histological subtypes of PTCL were recognized: extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENTNT), peripheral T-cell lymphoma not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS), subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma (SPL), Sezary syndrome (SS). After first-line therapy 9 patients initially achieved complete remission, 4 relapsed, 5 died. One patient achieved remission spontaneously. Three children (1 with stage IV and 2 in relapse) underwent high-dose chemotherapy with allogeneic bone marrow stem cell transplantation and all of them are alive and in CR.

Results: The cumulative probability of 5-year overall survival (OS) for our whole group was 63.9% (95%CI: 35.2-88.2%) with a median follow-up time of 48.4 months (range 24-90+ months). The 5-year event free survival (EFS) was 81%. PTCLs are a heterogeneous and rare group of childhood NHLs.

Conclusions: According to our experience the standard chemotherapy for precursor lymphomas seems to be a beneficial treatment option for children with PTCL. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation may improve the outcome in selected patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.advms.2016.03.002DOI Listing
September 2016