Publications by authors named "Bernard Mazoyer"

139 Publications

Novel characterization of the relationship between verbal list-learning outcomes and hippocampal subfields in healthy adults.

Hum Brain Mapp 2021 Nov 28;42(16):5264-5277. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

Université de Bordeaux - Neurocampus, CEA, CNRS, IMN UMR 5293, Bordeaux, France.

The relationship between hippocampal subfield volumetry and verbal list-learning test outcomes have mostly been studied in clinical and elderly populations, and remain controversial. For the first time, we characterized a relationship between verbal list-learning test outcomes and hippocampal subfield volumetry on two large separate datasets of 447 and 1,442 healthy young and middle-aged adults, and explored the processes that could explain this relationship. We observed a replicable positive linear correlation between verbal list-learning test free recall scores and CA1 volume, specific to verbal list learning as demonstrated by the hippocampal subfield volumetry independence from verbal intelligence. Learning meaningless items was also positively correlated with CA1 volume, pointing to the role of the test design rather than word meaning. Accordingly, we found that association-based mnemonics mediated the relationship between verbal list-learning test outcomes and CA1 volume. This mediation suggests that integrating items into associative representations during verbal list-learning tests explains CA1 volume variations: this new explanation is consistent with the associative functions of the human CA1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hbm.25614DOI Listing
November 2021

Age-Related Variations in Regional White Matter Volumetry and Microstructure During the Post-adolescence Period: A Cross-Sectional Study of a Cohort of 1,713 University Students.

Front Syst Neurosci 2021 3;15:692152. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Groupe d'Imagerie Neurofonctionnelle, Institut des Maladies Neurodégénératives, UMR 5293, Université de Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France.

Human brain white matter undergoes a protracted maturation that continues well into adulthood. Recent advances in diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) methods allow detailed characterizations of the microstructural architecture of white matter, and they are increasingly utilized to study white matter changes during development and aging. However, relatively little is known about the late maturational changes in the microstructural architecture of white matter during post-adolescence. Here we report on regional changes in white matter volume and microstructure in young adults undergoing university-level education. As part of the MRi-Share multi-modal brain MRI database, multi-shell, high angular resolution DWI data were acquired in a unique sample of 1,713 university students aged 18-26. We assessed the age and sex dependence of diffusion metrics derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI) in the white matter regions as defined in the John Hopkins University (JHU) white matter labels atlas. We demonstrate that while regional white matter volume is relatively stable over the age range of our sample, the white matter microstructural properties show clear age-related variations. Globally, it is characterized by a robust increase in neurite density index (NDI), and to a lesser extent, orientation dispersion index (ODI). These changes are accompanied by a decrease in diffusivity. In contrast, there is minimal age-related variation in fractional anisotropy. There are regional variations in these microstructural changes: some tracts, most notably cingulum bundles, show a strong age-related increase in NDI coupled with decreases in radial and mean diffusivity, while others, mainly cortico-spinal projection tracts, primarily show an ODI increase and axial diffusivity decrease. These age-related variations are not different between males and females, but males show higher NDI and ODI and lower diffusivity than females across many tracts. These findings emphasize the complexity of changes in white matter structure occurring in this critical period of late maturation in early adulthood.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnsys.2021.692152DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8369154PMC
August 2021

The MRi-Share database: brain imaging in a cross-sectional cohort of 1870 university students.

Brain Struct Funct 2021 Sep 20;226(7):2057-2085. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Groupe d'Imagerie Neurofonctionnelle, Institut des Maladies Neurodégénératives, UMR5293, Université de Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France.

We report on MRi-Share, a multi-modal brain MRI database acquired in a unique sample of 1870 young healthy adults, aged 18-35 years, while undergoing university-level education. MRi-Share contains structural (T1 and FLAIR), diffusion (multispectral), susceptibility-weighted (SWI), and resting-state functional imaging modalities. Here, we described the contents of these different neuroimaging datasets and the processing pipelines used to derive brain phenotypes, as well as how quality control was assessed. In addition, we present preliminary results on associations of some of these brain image-derived phenotypes at the whole brain level with both age and sex, in the subsample of 1722 individuals aged less than 26 years. We demonstrate that the post-adolescence period is characterized by changes in both structural and microstructural brain phenotypes. Grey matter cortical thickness, surface area and volume were found to decrease with age, while white matter volume shows increase. Diffusivity, either radial or axial, was found to robustly decrease with age whereas fractional anisotropy only slightly increased. As for the neurite orientation dispersion and densities, both were found to increase with age. The isotropic volume fraction also showed a slight increase with age. These preliminary findings emphasize the complexity of changes in brain structure and function occurring in this critical period at the interface of late maturation and early ageing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00429-021-02334-4DOI Listing
September 2021

3D Segmentation of Perivascular Spaces on T1-Weighted 3 Tesla MR Images With a Convolutional Autoencoder and a U-Shaped Neural Network.

Front Neuroinform 2021 18;15:641600. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Genesislab, Bordeaux, France.

We implemented a deep learning (DL) algorithm for the 3-dimensional segmentation of perivascular spaces (PVSs) in deep white matter (DWM) and basal ganglia (BG). This algorithm is based on an autoencoder and a U-shaped network (U-net), and was trained and tested using T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data from a large database of 1,832 healthy young adults. An important feature of this approach is the ability to learn from relatively sparse data, which gives the present algorithm a major advantage over other DL algorithms. Here, we trained the algorithm with 40 T1-weighted MRI datasets in which all "visible" PVSs were manually annotated by an experienced operator. After learning, performance was assessed using another set of 10 MRI scans from the same database in which PVSs were also traced by the same operator and were checked by consensus with another experienced operator. The Sorensen-Dice coefficients for PVS voxel detection in DWM (resp. BG) were 0.51 (resp. 0.66), and 0.64 (resp. 0.71) for PVS cluster detection (volume threshold of 0.5 within a range of 0 to 1). Dice values above 0.90 could be reached for detecting PVSs larger than 10 mm and 0.95 for PVSs larger than 15 mm. We then applied the trained algorithm to the rest of the database (1,782 individuals). The individual PVS load provided by the algorithm showed a high agreement with a semi-quantitative visual rating done by an independent expert rater, both for DWM and for BG. Finally, we applied the trained algorithm to an age-matched sample from another MRI database acquired using a different scanner. We obtained a very similar distribution of PVS load, demonstrating the interoperability of this algorithm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fninf.2021.641600DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8273917PMC
June 2021

Prevalence, Severity, and Clinical Management of Brain Incidental Findings in Healthy Young Adults: MRi-Share Cross-Sectional Study.

Front Neurol 2021 20;12:675244. Epub 2021 May 20.

UMR1219 Bordeaux Population Health Center (Team VINTAGE), INSERM-University of Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France.

Young adults represent an increasingly large proportion of healthy volunteers in brain imaging research, but descriptions of incidental findings (IFs) in this age group are scarce. We aimed to assess the prevalence and severity of IFs on brain MRIs of healthy young research participants aged 18-35 years, and to describe the protocol implemented to handle them. The study population comprised 1,867 participants aged 22.1 ± 2.3 years (72% women) from MRi-Share, the cross-sectional brain MRI substudy of the i-Share student cohort. IFs were flagged during the MRI quality control. We estimated the proportion of participants with IFs [any, requiring medical referral, potentially serious (PSIFs) as defined in the UK biobank]: overall, by type and severity of the final diagnosis, as well as the number of IFs. 78/1,867 participants had at least one IF [4.2%, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 3.4-5.2%]. IFs requiring medical referral ( = 38) were observed in 36/1,867 participants (1.9%, 1.4-2.7%), and represented 47.5% of the 80 IFs initially flagged. Referred IFs were retrospectively classified as PSIFs in 25/1,867 participants (1.3%, 0.9-2.0%), accounting for 68.4% of anomalies referred (26/38). The most common final diagnosis was cysts or ventricular abnormalities in all participants (9/1,867; 0.5%, 0.2-0.9%) and in those with referred IFs (9/36; 25.0%, 13.6-41.3%), while it was multiple sclerosis or radiologically isolated syndrome in participants with PSIFs (5/19; 26.3%, 11.5-49.1%) who represented 0.1% (0.0-0.4%) and 0.2% (0.03-0.5%) of all participants, respectively. Final diagnoses were considered serious in 11/1,867 participants (0.6%, 0.3-1.1%). Among participants with referred IFs, 13.9% (5/36) required active intervention, while 50.0% (18/36) were put on clinical surveillance. In a large brain imaging study of young healthy adults participating in research we observed a non-negligible frequency of IFs. The etiological pattern differed from what has been described in older adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2021.675244DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8173138PMC
May 2021

Large-Scale Phenomic and Genomic Analysis of Brain Asymmetrical Skew.

Cereb Cortex 2021 Jul;31(9):4151-4168

Language and Genetics Department, Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, Nijmegen 6525 XD, The Netherlands.

The human cerebral hemispheres show a left-right asymmetrical torque pattern, which has been claimed to be absent in chimpanzees. The functional significance and developmental mechanisms are unknown. Here, we carried out the largest-ever analysis of global brain shape asymmetry in magnetic resonance imaging data. Three population datasets were used, UK Biobank (N = 39 678), Human Connectome Project (N = 1113), and BIL&GIN (N = 453). At the population level, there was an anterior and dorsal skew of the right hemisphere, relative to the left. Both skews were associated independently with handedness, and various regional gray and white matter metrics oppositely in the two hemispheres, as well as other variables related to cognitive functions, sociodemographic factors, and physical and mental health. The two skews showed single nucleotide polymorphisms-based heritabilities of 4-13%, but also substantial polygenicity in causal mixture model analysis, and no individually significant loci were found in genome-wide association studies for either skew. There was evidence for a significant genetic correlation between horizontal brain skew and autism, which requires future replication. These results provide the first large-scale description of population-average brain skews and their inter-individual variations, their replicable associations with handedness, and insights into biological and other factors which associate with human brain asymmetry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhab075DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8328207PMC
July 2021

The genetic architecture of structural left-right asymmetry of the human brain.

Nat Hum Behav 2021 09 15;5(9):1226-1239. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Language and Genetics Department, Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.

Left-right hemispheric asymmetry is an important aspect of healthy brain organization for many functions including language, and it can be altered in cognitive and psychiatric disorders. No mechanism has yet been identified for establishing the human brain's left-right axis. We performed multivariate genome-wide association scanning of cortical regional surface area and thickness asymmetries, and subcortical volume asymmetries, using data from 32,256 participants from the UK Biobank. There were 21 significant loci associated with different aspects of brain asymmetry, with functional enrichment involving microtubule-related genes and embryonic brain expression. These findings are consistent with a known role of the cytoskeleton in left-right axis determination in other organs of invertebrates and frogs. Genetic variants associated with brain asymmetry overlapped with those associated with autism, educational attainment and schizophrenia. Comparably large datasets will likely be required in future studies, to replicate and further clarify the associations of microtubule-related genes with variation in brain asymmetry, behavioural and psychiatric traits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41562-021-01069-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8455338PMC
September 2021

Distinct Hippocampal Subfields Atrophy in Older People With Vascular Brain Injuries.

Stroke 2021 May 4;52(5):1741-1750. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

University of Bordeaux, CNRS, UMR 5293, Institut des Maladies Neurodégénératives, France (G.P., L.N., B.M., V.P.).

Background And Purpose: Many neurological or psychiatric diseases affect the hippocampus during aging. The study of hippocampal regional vulnerability may provide important insights into the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying these processes; however, little is known about the specific impact of vascular brain damage on hippocampal subfields atrophy.

Methods: To analyze the effect of vascular injuries independently of other pathological conditions, we studied a population-based cohort of nondemented older adults, after the exclusion of people who were diagnosed with neurodegenerative diseases during the 14-year clinical follow-up period. Using an automated segmentation pipeline, 1.5T-magnetic resonance imaging at inclusion and 4 years later were assessed to measure both white matter hyperintensities and hippocampal subfields volume. Annualized rates of white matter hyperintensity progression and annualized rates of hippocampal subfields atrophy were then estimated in each participant.

Results: We included 249 participants in our analyses (58% women, mean age 71.8, median Mini-Mental State Evaluation 29). The volume of the subiculum at baseline was the only hippocampal subfield volume associated with total, deep/subcortical, and periventricular white matter hyperintensity volumes, independently of demographic variables and vascular risk factors (β=-0.17, =0.011; β=-0.25, =0.020 and β=-0.14, =0.029, respectively). In longitudinal measures, the annualized rate of subiculum atrophy was significantly higher in people with the highest rate of deep/subcortical white matter hyperintensity progression, independently of confounding factors (β=-0.32, =0.014).

Conclusions: These cross-sectional and longitudinal findings highlight the links between vascular brain injuries and a differential vulnerability of the subiculum within the hippocampal loop, unbiased of the effect of neurodegenerative diseases, and particularly when vascular injuries affect deep/subcortical structures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.120.031743DOI Listing
May 2021

Striatal and cerebellar vesicular acetylcholine transporter expression is disrupted in human DYT1 dystonia.

Brain 2021 04;144(3):909-923

Institut des Maladies Neurodégénératives (IMN, CNRS U5393), Université de Bordeaux, 33076, Bordeaux, France.

Early-onset torsion dystonia (TOR1A/DYT1) is a devastating hereditary motor disorder whose pathophysiology remains unclear. Studies in transgenic mice suggested abnormal cholinergic transmission in the putamen, but this has not yet been demonstrated in humans. The role of the cerebellum in the pathophysiology of the disease has also been highlighted but the involvement of the intrinsic cerebellar cholinergic system is unknown. In this study, cholinergic neurons were imaged using PET with 18F-fluoroethoxybenzovesamicol, a radioligand of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT). Here, we found an age-related decrease in VAChT expression in the posterior putamen and caudate nucleus of DYT1 patients versus matched controls, with low expression in young but not in older patients. In the cerebellar vermis, VAChT expression was also significantly decreased in patients versus controls, but independently of age. Functional connectivity within the motor network studied in MRI and the interregional correlation of VAChT expression studied in PET were also altered in patients. These results show that the cholinergic system is disrupted in the brain of DYT1 patients and is modulated over time through plasticity or compensatory mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awaa465DOI Listing
April 2021

Cortical thickness across the lifespan: Data from 17,075 healthy individuals aged 3-90 years.

Hum Brain Mapp 2021 Feb 17. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Laboratory of Psychiatric Neuroimaging, Departamento e Instituto de Psiquiatria, Hospital das Clinicas HCFMUSP, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Delineating the association of age and cortical thickness in healthy individuals is critical given the association of cortical thickness with cognition and behavior. Previous research has shown that robust estimates of the association between age and brain morphometry require large-scale studies. In response, we used cross-sectional data from 17,075 individuals aged 3-90 years from the Enhancing Neuroimaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium to infer age-related changes in cortical thickness. We used fractional polynomial (FP) regression to quantify the association between age and cortical thickness, and we computed normalized growth centiles using the parametric Lambda, Mu, and Sigma method. Interindividual variability was estimated using meta-analysis and one-way analysis of variance. For most regions, their highest cortical thickness value was observed in childhood. Age and cortical thickness showed a negative association; the slope was steeper up to the third decade of life and more gradual thereafter; notable exceptions to this general pattern were entorhinal, temporopolar, and anterior cingulate cortices. Interindividual variability was largest in temporal and frontal regions across the lifespan. Age and its FP combinations explained up to 59% variance in cortical thickness. These results may form the basis of further investigation on normative deviation in cortical thickness and its significance for behavioral and cognitive outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hbm.25364DOI Listing
February 2021

Subcortical volumes across the lifespan: Data from 18,605 healthy individuals aged 3-90 years.

Hum Brain Mapp 2021 Feb 11. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Department of Psychology, Center for Brain Science, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.

Age has a major effect on brain volume. However, the normative studies available are constrained by small sample sizes, restricted age coverage and significant methodological variability. These limitations introduce inconsistencies and may obscure or distort the lifespan trajectories of brain morphometry. In response, we capitalized on the resources of the Enhancing Neuroimaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium to examine age-related trajectories inferred from cross-sectional measures of the ventricles, the basal ganglia (caudate, putamen, pallidum, and nucleus accumbens), the thalamus, hippocampus and amygdala using magnetic resonance imaging data obtained from 18,605 individuals aged 3-90 years. All subcortical structure volumes were at their maximum value early in life. The volume of the basal ganglia showed a monotonic negative association with age thereafter; there was no significant association between age and the volumes of the thalamus, amygdala and the hippocampus (with some degree of decline in thalamus) until the sixth decade of life after which they also showed a steep negative association with age. The lateral ventricles showed continuous enlargement throughout the lifespan. Age was positively associated with inter-individual variability in the hippocampus and amygdala and the lateral ventricles. These results were robust to potential confounders and could be used to examine the functional significance of deviations from typical age-related morphometric patterns.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hbm.25320DOI Listing
February 2021

Deep Learning-based Classification of Resting-state fMRI Independent-component Analysis.

Neuroinformatics 2021 Feb 5. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Ginesislab, Bordeaux, France.

Functional connectivity analyses of fMRI data have shown that the activity of the brain at rest is spatially organized into resting-state networks (RSNs). RSNs appear as groups of anatomically distant but functionally tightly connected brain regions. Inter-RSN intrinsic connectivity analyses may provide an optimal spatial level of integration to analyze the variability of the functional connectome. Here we propose a deep learning approach to enable the automated classification of individual independent-component (IC) decompositions into a set of predefined RSNs. Two databases were used in this work, BIL&GIN and MRi-Share, with 427 and 1811 participants, respectively. We trained a multilayer perceptron (MLP) to classify each IC as one of 45 RSNs, using the IC classification of 282 participants in BIL&GIN for training and a 5-dimensional parameter grid search for hyperparameter optimization. It reached an accuracy of 92 %. Predictions for the remaining individuals in BIL&GIN were tested against the original classification and demonstrated good spatial overlap between the cortical RSNs. As a first application, we created an RSN atlas based on MRi-Share. This atlas defined a brain parcellation in 29 RSNs covering 96 % of the gray matter. Second, we proposed an individual-based analysis of the subdivision of the default-mode network into 4 networks. Minimal overlap between RSNs was found except in the angular gyrus and potentially in the precuneus. We thus provide the community with an individual IC classifier that can be used to analyze one dataset or to statistically compare different datasets for RSN spatial definitions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12021-021-09514-xDOI Listing
February 2021

Cerebral small vessel disease genomics and its implications across the lifespan.

Nat Commun 2020 12 8;11(1):6285. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine, Birmingham, AL, 35233, USA.

White matter hyperintensities (WMH) are the most common brain-imaging feature of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD), hypertension being the main known risk factor. Here, we identify 27 genome-wide loci for WMH-volume in a cohort of 50,970 older individuals, accounting for modification/confounding by hypertension. Aggregated WMH risk variants were associated with altered white matter integrity (p = 2.5×10-7) in brain images from 1,738 young healthy adults, providing insight into the lifetime impact of SVD genetic risk. Mendelian randomization suggested causal association of increasing WMH-volume with stroke, Alzheimer-type dementia, and of increasing blood pressure (BP) with larger WMH-volume, notably also in persons without clinical hypertension. Transcriptome-wide colocalization analyses showed association of WMH-volume with expression of 39 genes, of which four encode known drug targets. Finally, we provide insight into BP-independent biological pathways underlying SVD and suggest potential for genetic stratification of high-risk individuals and for genetically-informed prioritization of drug targets for prevention trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-19111-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7722866PMC
December 2020

Typical and atypical language brain organization based on intrinsic connectivity and multitask functional asymmetries.

Elife 2020 10 16;9. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

Université de Bordeaux, Institut des Maladies Neurodégénératives, UMR 5293, Groupe d'Imagerie Neurofonctionnelle, Bordeaux, France.

Based on the joint investigation in 287 healthy volunteers (150 left-Handers (LH)) of language task-induced asymmetries and intrinsic connectivity strength of the sentence-processing supramodal network, we show that individuals with atypical rightward language lateralization (N = 30, 25 LH) do not rely on an organization that simply mirrors that of typical leftward lateralized individuals. Actually, the resting-state organization in the atypicals showed that their sentence processing was underpinned by left and right networks both wired for language processing and highly interacting by strong interhemispheric intrinsic connectivity and larger corpus callosum volume. Such a loose hemispheric specialization for language permits the hosting of language in either the left and/or right hemisphere as assessed by a very high incidence of dissociations across various language task-induced asymmetries in this group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.58722DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7605859PMC
October 2020

Greater male than female variability in regional brain structure across the lifespan.

Hum Brain Mapp 2020 Oct 12. Epub 2020 Oct 12.

FIDMAG Germanes Hospitalàries Research Foundation, Barcelona, Spain.

For many traits, males show greater variability than females, with possible implications for understanding sex differences in health and disease. Here, the ENIGMA (Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis) Consortium presents the largest-ever mega-analysis of sex differences in variability of brain structure, based on international data spanning nine decades of life. Subcortical volumes, cortical surface area and cortical thickness were assessed in MRI data of 16,683 healthy individuals 1-90 years old (47% females). We observed significant patterns of greater male than female between-subject variance for all subcortical volumetric measures, all cortical surface area measures, and 60% of cortical thickness measures. This pattern was stable across the lifespan for 50% of the subcortical structures, 70% of the regional area measures, and nearly all regions for thickness. Our findings that these sex differences are present in childhood implicate early life genetic or gene-environment interaction mechanisms. The findings highlight the importance of individual differences within the sexes, that may underpin sex-specific vulnerability to disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hbm.25204DOI Listing
October 2020

Genetic correlations and genome-wide associations of cortical structure in general population samples of 22,824 adults.

Nat Commun 2020 09 22;11(1):4796. Epub 2020 Sep 22.

Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Cortical thickness, surface area and volumes vary with age and cognitive function, and in neurological and psychiatric diseases. Here we report heritability, genetic correlations and genome-wide associations of these cortical measures across the whole cortex, and in 34 anatomically predefined regions. Our discovery sample comprises 22,824 individuals from 20 cohorts within the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) consortium and the UK Biobank. We identify genetic heterogeneity between cortical measures and brain regions, and 160 genome-wide significant associations pointing to wnt/β-catenin, TGF-β and sonic hedgehog pathways. There is enrichment for genes involved in anthropometric traits, hindbrain development, vascular and neurodegenerative disease and psychiatric conditions. These data are a rich resource for studies of the biological mechanisms behind cortical development and aging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-18367-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7508833PMC
September 2020

Common Genetic Variation Indicates Separate Causes for Periventricular and Deep White Matter Hyperintensities.

Stroke 2020 07 10;51(7):2111-2121. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Department of Psychiatry (C.F.-N.), University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA.

Background And Purpose: Periventricular white matter hyperintensities (WMH; PVWMH) and deep WMH (DWMH) are regional classifications of WMH and reflect proposed differences in cause. In the first study, to date, we undertook genome-wide association analyses of DWMH and PVWMH to show that these phenotypes have different genetic underpinnings.

Methods: Participants were aged 45 years and older, free of stroke and dementia. We conducted genome-wide association analyses of PVWMH and DWMH in 26,654 participants from CHARGE (Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology), ENIGMA (Enhancing Neuro-Imaging Genetics Through Meta-Analysis), and the UKB (UK Biobank). Regional correlations were investigated using the genome-wide association analyses -pairwise method. Cross-trait genetic correlations between PVWMH, DWMH, stroke, and dementia were estimated using LDSC.

Results: In the discovery and replication analysis, for PVWMH only, we found associations on chromosomes 2 (), 10q23.1 (), and 10q24.33 ( In the much larger combined meta-analysis of all cohorts, we identified ten significant regions for PVWMH: chromosomes 2 (3 regions), 6, 7, 10 (2 regions), 13, 16, and 17q23.1. New loci of interest include 7q36.1 () and 16q24.2. In both the discovery/replication and combined analysis, we found genome-wide significant associations for the 17q25.1 locus for both DWMH and PVWMH. Using gene-based association analysis, 19 genes across all regions were identified for PVWMH only, including the new genes: (2q32.1), (3q27.1), (5q27.1), and (22q13.1). Thirteen genes in the 17q25.1 locus were significant for both phenotypes. More extensive genetic correlations were observed for PVWMH with small vessel ischemic stroke. There were no associations with dementia for either phenotype.

Conclusions: Our study confirms these phenotypes have distinct and also shared genetic architectures. Genetic analyses indicated PVWMH was more associated with ischemic stroke whilst DWMH loci were implicated in vascular, astrocyte, and neuronal function. Our study confirms these phenotypes are distinct neuroimaging classifications and identifies new candidate genes associated with PVWMH only.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.119.027544DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7365038PMC
July 2020

Age-Related Changes of Peak Width Skeletonized Mean Diffusivity (PSMD) Across the Adult Lifespan: A Multi-Cohort Study.

Front Psychiatry 2020 4;11:342. Epub 2020 May 4.

Institute of Neurodegenerative Diseases (IMN), CNRS, CEA, Bordeaux, France.

Parameters of water diffusion in white matter derived from diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), such as fractional anisotropy (FA), mean, axial, and radial diffusivity (MD, AD, and RD), and more recently, peak width of skeletonized mean diffusivity (PSMD), have been proposed as potential markers of normal and pathological brain ageing. However, their relative evolution over the entire adult lifespan in healthy individuals remains partly unknown during early and late adulthood, and particularly for the PSMD index. Here, we gathered and analyzed cross-sectional diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data from 10 population-based cohort studies in order to establish the time course of white matter water diffusion phenotypes from post-adolescence to late adulthood. DTI data were obtained from a total of 20,005 individuals aged 18.1 to 92.6 years and analyzed with the same pipeline for computing skeletonized DTI metrics from DTI maps. For each individual, MD, AD, RD, and FA mean values were computed over their FA volume skeleton, PSMD being calculated as the 90% peak width of the MD values distribution across the FA skeleton. Mean values of each DTI metric were found to strongly vary across cohorts, most likely due to major differences in DWI acquisition protocols as well as pre-processing and DTI model fitting. However, age effects on each DTI metric were found to be highly consistent across cohorts. RD, MD, and AD variations with age exhibited the same U-shape pattern, first slowly decreasing during post-adolescence until the age of 30, 40, and 50 years, respectively, then progressively increasing until late life. FA showed a reverse profile, initially increasing then continuously decreasing, slowly until the 70s, then sharply declining thereafter. By contrast, PSMD constantly increased, first slowly until the 60s, then more sharply. These results demonstrate that, in the general population, age affects PSMD in a manner different from that of other DTI metrics. The constant increase in PSMD throughout the entire adult life, including during post-adolescence, indicates that PSMD could be an early marker of the ageing process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.00342DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7212692PMC
May 2020

Global and Regional Development of the Human Cerebral Cortex: Molecular Architecture and Occupational Aptitudes.

Cereb Cortex 2020 06;30(7):4121-4139

Institute for Medical Informatics, Statistics and Epidemiology, University of Leipzig, 04109 Leipzig, Germany.

We have carried out meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) (n = 23 784) of the first two principal components (PCs) that group together cortical regions with shared variance in their surface area. PC1 (global) captured variations of most regions, whereas PC2 (visual) was specific to the primary and secondary visual cortices. We identified a total of 18 (PC1) and 17 (PC2) independent loci, which were replicated in another 25 746 individuals. The loci of the global PC1 included those associated previously with intracranial volume and/or general cognitive function, such as MAPT and IGF2BP1. The loci of the visual PC2 included DAAM1, a key player in the planar-cell-polarity pathway. We then tested associations with occupational aptitudes and, as predicted, found that the global PC1 was associated with General Learning Ability, and the visual PC2 was associated with the Form Perception aptitude. These results suggest that interindividual variations in global and regional development of the human cerebral cortex (and its molecular architecture) cascade-albeit in a very limited manner-to behaviors as complex as the choice of one's occupation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhaa035DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7947185PMC
June 2020

The genetic architecture of the human cerebral cortex.

Science 2020 03;367(6484)

The cerebral cortex underlies our complex cognitive capabilities, yet little is known about the specific genetic loci that influence human cortical structure. To identify genetic variants that affect cortical structure, we conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of brain magnetic resonance imaging data from 51,665 individuals. We analyzed the surface area and average thickness of the whole cortex and 34 regions with known functional specializations. We identified 199 significant loci and found significant enrichment for loci influencing total surface area within regulatory elements that are active during prenatal cortical development, supporting the radial unit hypothesis. Loci that affect regional surface area cluster near genes in Wnt signaling pathways, which influence progenitor expansion and areal identity. Variation in cortical structure is genetically correlated with cognitive function, Parkinson's disease, insomnia, depression, neuroticism, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aay6690DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7295264PMC
March 2020

Genetic effects on planum temporale asymmetry and their limited relevance to neurodevelopmental disorders, intelligence or educational attainment.

Cortex 2020 03 29;124:137-153. Epub 2019 Nov 29.

Language and Genetics Department, Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, Nijmegen, the Netherlands; Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University, Nijmegen, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Previous studies have suggested that altered asymmetry of the planum temporale (PT) is associated with neurodevelopmental disorders, including dyslexia, schizophrenia, and autism. Shared genetic factors have been suggested to link PT asymmetry to these disorders. In a dataset of unrelated subjects from the general population (UK Biobank, N = 18,057), we found that PT volume asymmetry had a significant heritability of roughly 14%. In genome-wide association analysis, two loci were significantly associated with PT asymmetry, including a coding polymorphism within the gene ITIH5 that is predicted to affect the protein's function and to be deleterious (rs41298373, p = 2.01 × 10-15), and a locus that affects the expression of the genes BOK and DTYMK (rs7420166, p = 7.54 × 10-10). DTYMK showed left-right asymmetry of mRNA expression in post mortem PT tissue. Cortex-wide mapping of these SNP effects revealed influences on asymmetry that went somewhat beyond the PT. Using publicly available genome-wide association statistics from large-scale studies, we saw no significant genetic correlations of PT asymmetry with autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, schizophrenia, educational attainment or intelligence. Of the top two individual loci associated with PT asymmetry, rs41298373 showed a tentative association with intelligence (unadjusted p = .025), while the locus at BOK/DTYMK showed tentative association with educational attainment (unadjusted Ps < .05). These findings provide novel insights into the genetic contributions to human brain asymmetry, but do not support a substantial polygenic association of PT asymmetry with cognitive variation and mental disorders, as far as can be discerned with current sample sizes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2019.11.006DOI Listing
March 2020

Association Between Cerebral Small Vessel Disease With Antidepressant Use and Depression: 3C Dijon Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study.

Stroke 2020 02 12;51(2):402-408. Epub 2019 Dec 12.

From the Inserm, Bordeaux Population Health Research Center, UMR 1219 (P.J.T., A.A., A.S., S.D., C.T.), University of Bordeaux, France.

Background and Purpose- Evidence links antidepressant use with cerebral small vessel disease; however, it remains unclear whether people with depression face comparable risk. This study aims to determine the association between antidepressant drug use and depression with markers of cerebral small vessel disease. Methods- One thousand nine hundred five participants (mean age, 72.5 years; 60% women) without stroke or dementia history underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging at baseline, and 1402 individuals underwent a second magnetic resonance imaging at 4 years. Outcomes were lacunes 3 to 15 mm and white matter hyperintensity volume (cm) at baseline and follow-up. Exposure to antidepressants was grouped as (1) selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (n=68), (2) tricyclics (n=40), (3) atypicals (n=24), (4) depressed nonusers (n=303), and (5) nondepressed/nonuser group (reference group, n=1470). Statistical analyses adjusted for propensity scores due to the nonrandomized exposure to antidepressant drugs. Results- There was an association between use of atypical antidepressants with lacunes at baseline (adjusted rate ratio, 2.59 [95% CI, 1.14-5.88]; =0.023) and follow-up (adjusted rate ratio, 3.05 [95% CI, 1.25-7.43]; =0.014). Lacunes at baseline were also associated with depressed nonusers (adjusted rate ratio, 1.53 [95% CI, 1.06-2.21]; =0.023). Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor users and depressed nonusers displayed higher total, periventricular, and deep white matter hyperintensity volumes at baseline. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor users had higher deep white matter hyperintensity volumes at follow-up. Conclusions- Users of atypical antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and depressed people without any antidepressant exposure all displayed markers of cerebral small vessel disease higher than the nondepressed/nonuser group. The findings suggest that cerebral small vessel disease is associated with depression and exposure to antidepressants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.119.026712DOI Listing
February 2020

Genetic architecture of subcortical brain structures in 38,851 individuals.

Nat Genet 2019 11 21;51(11):1624-1636. Epub 2019 Oct 21.

Center for Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

Subcortical brain structures are integral to motion, consciousness, emotions and learning. We identified common genetic variation related to the volumes of the nucleus accumbens, amygdala, brainstem, caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, putamen and thalamus, using genome-wide association analyses in almost 40,000 individuals from CHARGE, ENIGMA and UK Biobank. We show that variability in subcortical volumes is heritable, and identify 48 significantly associated loci (40 novel at the time of analysis). Annotation of these loci by utilizing gene expression, methylation and neuropathological data identified 199 genes putatively implicated in neurodevelopment, synaptic signaling, axonal transport, apoptosis, inflammation/infection and susceptibility to neurological disorders. This set of genes is significantly enriched for Drosophila orthologs associated with neurodevelopmental phenotypes, suggesting evolutionarily conserved mechanisms. Our findings uncover novel biology and potential drug targets underlying brain development and disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-019-0511-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7055269PMC
November 2019

High dilated perivascular space burden: a new MRI marker for risk of intracerebral hemorrhage.

Neurobiol Aging 2019 12 10;84:158-165. Epub 2019 Sep 10.

Univ. Bordeaux, Inserm U1219, Bordeaux Population Health Research Center, Bordeaux, France; CHU de Bordeaux, Department of Neurology, Bordeaux, France. Electronic address:

Commonly observed in older community persons, dilated perivascular spaces (dPVSs) are thought to represent an emerging MRI marker of cerebral small vessel disease, but their clinical significance is uncertain. We examined the longitudinal relationship of dPVS burden with risk of incident stroke, ischemic stroke, and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in the 3C-Dijon population-based study (N = 1678 participants, mean age 72.7 ± 4.1 years) using Cox regression. dPVS burden was studied as a global score and according to dPVS location (basal ganglia, white matter, hippocampus, brainstem) at the baseline. During a mean follow-up of 9.1 ± 2.6 years, 66 participants suffered an incident stroke. Increasing global dPVS burden was associated with a higher risk of any incident stroke (hazard ratio [HR], 1.24; 95% CI, [1.06-1.45]) and of incident ICH (HR, 3.12 [1.78-5.47]), adjusting for sex and intracranial volume. Association with ICH remained significant after additionally adjusting for vascular risk factors and for other cerebral small vessel disease MRI markers. High dPVS burden in basal ganglia and hippocampus, but not in white matter or brainstem, were associated with higher risk of any stroke and ICH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2019.08.031DOI Listing
December 2019

What can we learn from healthy atypical individuals on the segregation of complementary functions?: Comment on "Phenotypes in hemispheric functional segregation? Perspectives and challenges" by Guy Vingerhoets.

Phys Life Rev 2019 10 13;30:34-37. Epub 2019 Sep 13.

Groupe d'Imagerie Neurofonctionnelle, Institut des Maladies Neurodégénératives-UMR 5293, CNRS, CEA, University of Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plrev.2019.09.003DOI Listing
October 2019

A genome-wide association study identifies genetic loci associated with specific lobar brain volumes.

Commun Biol 2019 2;2:285. Epub 2019 Aug 2.

17Department of Biomedical Data Sciences, Statistical Genetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, 2333ZA the Netherlands.

Brain lobar volumes are heritable but genetic studies are limited. We performed genome-wide association studies of frontal, occipital, parietal and temporal lobe volumes in 16,016 individuals, and replicated our findings in 8,789 individuals. We identified six genetic loci associated with specific lobar volumes independent of intracranial volume. Two loci, associated with occipital (6q22.32) and temporal lobe volume (12q14.3), were previously reported to associate with intracranial and hippocampal volume, respectively. We identified four loci previously unknown to affect brain volumes: 3q24 for parietal lobe volume, and 1q22, 4p16.3 and 14q23.1 for occipital lobe volume. The associated variants were located in regions enriched for histone modifications ( and ), or close to genes causing Mendelian brain-related diseases ( and ). No genetic overlap between lobar volumes and neurological or psychiatric diseases was observed. Our findings reveal part of the complex genetics underlying brain development and suggest a role for regulatory regions in determining brain volumes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s42003-019-0537-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6677735PMC
April 2020

Corticosteroids and Regional Variations in Thickness of the Human Cerebral Cortex across the Lifespan.

Cereb Cortex 2020 03;30(2):575-586

Bordeaux Population Health Research Center, INSERM UMR, University of Bordeaux, Bordeaux 33076, France.

Exposures to life stressors accumulate across the lifespan, with possible impact on brain health. Little is known, however, about the mechanisms mediating age-related changes in brain structure. We use a lifespan sample of participants (n = 21 251; 4-97 years) to investigate the relationship between the thickness of cerebral cortex and the expression of the glucocorticoid- and the mineralocorticoid-receptor genes (NR3C1 and NR3C2, respectively), obtained from the Allen Human Brain Atlas. In all participants, cortical thickness correlated negatively with the expression of both NR3C1 and NR3C2 across 34 cortical regions. The magnitude of this correlation varied across the lifespan. From childhood through early adulthood, the profile similarity (between NR3C1/NR3C2 expression and thickness) increased with age. Conversely, both profile similarities decreased with age in late life. These variations do not reflect age-related changes in NR3C1 and NR3C2 expression, as observed in 5 databases of gene expression in the human cerebral cortex (502 donors). Based on the co-expression of NR3C1 (and NR3C2) with genes specific to neural cell types, we determine the potential involvement of microglia, astrocytes, and CA1 pyramidal cells in mediating the relationship between corticosteroid exposure and cortical thickness. Therefore, corticosteroids may influence brain structure to a variable degree throughout life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhz108DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7444740PMC
March 2020

Editorial overview: The 25th Anniversary of the Human Brain Mapping Meeting.

Neuroimage 2019 10 5;200:704-705. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

OHBM Program Committee, Université de Bordeaux, France. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2019.04.018DOI Listing
October 2019

Genome sequencing for rightward hemispheric language dominance.

Genes Brain Behav 2019 06 23;18(5):e12572. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Language and Genetics Department, Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Most people have left-hemisphere dominance for various aspects of language processing, but only roughly 1% of the adult population has atypically reversed, rightward hemispheric language dominance (RHLD). The genetic-developmental program that underlies leftward language laterality is unknown, as are the causes of atypical variation. We performed an exploratory whole-genome-sequencing study, with the hypothesis that strongly penetrant, rare genetic mutations might sometimes be involved in RHLD. This was by analogy with situs inversus of the visceral organs (left-right mirror reversal of the heart, lungs and so on), which is sometimes due to monogenic mutations. The genomes of 33 subjects with RHLD were sequenced and analyzed with reference to large population-genetic data sets, as well as 34 subjects (14 left-handed) with typical language laterality. The sample was powered to detect rare, highly penetrant, monogenic effects if they would be present in at least 10 of the 33 RHLD cases and no controls, but no individual genes had mutations in more than five RHLD cases while being un-mutated in controls. A hypothesis derived from invertebrate mechanisms of left-right axis formation led to the detection of an increased mutation load, in RHLD subjects, within genes involved with the actin cytoskeleton. The latter finding offers a first, tentative insight into molecular genetic influences on hemispheric language dominance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gbb.12572DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6850193PMC
June 2019
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