Publications by authors named "Benton E Heyworth"

91 Publications

Descriptive Epidemiology of a Surgical Patellofemoral Instability Population of 492 Patients.

Orthop J Sports Med 2022 Jul 14;10(7):23259671221108174. Epub 2022 Jul 14.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Background: Patellofemoral instability (PFI) occurs most commonly in pediatric and adolescent patients, with evolving indications for surgery and changes in surgical techniques over the past decade.

Purpose: To characterize the demographic, clinical, and radiologic characteristics of a large cohort of patients undergoing PFI surgery and investigate longitudinal trends in techniques utilized over a 10-year period at a tertiary-care academic center.

Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4.

Methods: Electronic medical records of patients younger than 25 years of age who underwent primary surgery for lateral PFI from 2008 to 2017 at a single center by 1 of 5 different sports medicine surgeons were retrospectively reviewed. Demographic, clinical, and radiographic parameters of instability were analyzed. Routine surgical techniques included medial retinacular plication/reefing/repair (MRP), medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction (MPFLR), tibial tubercle osteotomy (TTO), or a combination thereof, with or without lateral retinacular release (LR) or lateral retinacular lengthening (LRL). Exclusion criteria, selected for potentially altering routine surgical indications or techniques, included fixed/syndromic PFI, a formally diagnosed collagen disorder, cases in which a chondral/osteochondral shear fragment underwent fixation or was >1 cm in diameter, and body mass index >30 kg/m.

Results: Of the 492 study patients (556 knees; 71% female; median age, 15.2 years; 38% open physes), 88% were athletes, with the most common sports participated in being soccer, basketball, dance, football, gymnastics, and baseball/softball. While 91% of the cohort had recurrent dislocations, the 9% with primary dislocations were more likely to have small osteochondral fractures/loose bodies ( < .001). Female patients were younger ( = .002), with greater patellar tilt ( = .005) than male patients. Utilization of MPFLR and TTO increased significantly over the study period, while use of MRP+LR decreased.

Conclusion: Most patients younger than 25 years of age who underwent PFI surgery were skeletally immature, female, and athletes and had recurrent dislocations. The <10% who had primary dislocations and underwent surgery were likely to have osteochondral fractures. Surgical techniques have changed significantly over time, with increasing use of TTO and MPFLR, while the use of MRP+LR/LRL has significantly decreased.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/23259671221108174DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9289910PMC
July 2022

Reliability of a New Arthroscopic Discoid Lateral Meniscus Classification System: A Multicenter Video Analysis.

Am J Sports Med 2022 04 2;50(5):1245-1253. Epub 2022 Mar 2.

Investigation performed at Seattle Children's Hospital, Seattle, Washington, USA.

Background: The discoid lateral meniscus (DLM) is one of the most common congenital anomalies of the knee. The pathomorphology of DLM varies. Current classification systems are inadequate to describe the spectrum of abnormality.

Purpose: A study group of pediatric orthopaedic surgeons from 20 academic North American institutions developed and tested the reliability of a new DLM classification system.

Study Design: Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 3.

Methods: After reviewing existing classifications, we developed a comprehensive DLM classification system. Four DLM features were evaluated: meniscal width, meniscal height, peripheral stability, and meniscal tear. Stepwise arthroscopic examination using anteromedial and anterolateral viewing portals was established for evaluating these features. Three senior authors who were not observers selected 50 of 119 submitted videos with the best clarity and stepwise examination for reading. Five observers performed assessments using the new classification system to assess interobserver reliability, and a second reading was performed by 3 of the 5 observers to assess intraobserver reliability using the Fleiss κ coefficient (fair, 0.21-0.40; moderate, 0.41-0.60; substantial, 0.61-0.80; excellent, 0.81-1.00).

Results: Interobserver reliability was substantial for most rating factors: meniscal width, meniscal height, peripheral stability, tear presence, and tear type. Interobserver reliability was moderate for tear location. Intraobserver reliability was substantial for meniscal width and meniscal height and excellent for peripheral stability. Intraobserver agreement was moderate for tear presence, type, and location.

Conclusion: This new arthroscopic DLM classification system demonstrated moderate to substantial agreement in most diagnostic categories analyzed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/03635465221076857DOI Listing
April 2022

Recovery After ACL Reconstruction in Male Versus Female Adolescents: A Matched, Sex-Based Cohort Analysis of 543 Patients.

Orthop J Sports Med 2021 Nov 22;9(11):23259671211054804. Epub 2021 Nov 22.

Division of Sports Medicine, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Background: Differences in postoperative recovery after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) between men and women have been demonstrated in the adult population. Sex-based differences have been incompletely investigated in adolescents, which represent the subpopulation most affected by ACL injury.

Purpose/hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to compare the 6-month postoperative functional recovery after ACLR between adolescent boys and girls. It was hypothesized that significant differences in postoperative strength, dynamic balance, and functional hop test performance would be seen between the sexes.

Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3.

Methods: Included in this study were athletes aged 12 to 19 years with closed or closing growth plates who underwent ACLR with hamstring autograft between May 2014 and May 2018 at a single institution. All athletes had undergone strength and functional testing between 5 and 8 months postoperatively. Exclusion criteria were previous knee surgery (contralateral or ipsilateral knee), concomitant injury/surgery other than meniscal tear/repair, allograft supplementation, and incomplete medical records. The limb symmetry index (LSI) for strength (measured with handheld dynamometer), as well as dynamic Y-balance and functional hop test performance, was compared between groups. To account for differences in physical characteristics between the sexes, 1-way between-group multivariate analysis of covariance was used to analyze the data.

Results: Overall, 543 patients (211 boys, 332 girls) were included. There was no significant difference in age, body mass index, incidence of concomitant meniscal pathology, use of regional anesthesia, or time to functional testing between cohorts. Female athletes demonstrated a statistically significantly greater deficit in quadriceps strength LSI compared with male athletes (boys, +3.4%; girls, -2.3%; = .011). Both male and female athletes demonstrated 33% hamstring strength deficits, with no statistically significant sex-based differences in dynamic balance or functional hop testing.

Conclusion: Female athletes demonstrated greater quadriceps strength deficits than male athletes at 6 months after ACLR with hamstring autograft. Severe hamstring strength deficits persisted in both male and female patients at this time point. The correlation of such deficits to risk of ACL retear warrants continued study in the adolescent population and may support a delay in return to sports, which has been suggested in the more recent literature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/23259671211054804DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8647249PMC
November 2021

Descriptive Epidemiology From the Research in Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Knee (ROCK) Prospective Cohort.

Am J Sports Med 2022 01 24;50(1):118-127. Epub 2021 Nov 24.

The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Background: Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) occurs most commonly in the knees of young individuals. This condition is known to cause pain and discomfort in the knee and can lead to disability and early knee osteoarthritis. The cause is not well understood, and treatment plans are not well delineated. The Research in Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Knee (ROCK) group established a multicenter, prospective cohort to better understand this disease.

Purpose: To provide a baseline report of the ROCK multicenter prospective cohort and present a descriptive analysis of baseline data for patient characteristics, lesion characteristics, and clinical findings of the first 1000 cases enrolled into the prospective cohort.

Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3.

Methods: Patients were recruited from centers throughout the United States. Baseline data were obtained for patient characteristics, sports participation, patient-reported measures of functional capabilities and limitations, physical examination, diagnostic imaging results, and initial treatment plan. Descriptive statistics were completed for all outcomes of interest.

Results: As of November 2020, a total of 27 orthopaedic surgeons from 17 institutions had enrolled 1004 knees with OCD, representing 903 patients (68.9% males; median age, 13.1 years; range, 6.3-25.4 years), into the prospective cohort. Lesions were located on the medial femoral condyle (66.2%), lateral femoral condyle (18.1%), trochlea (9.5%), patella (6.0%), and tibial plateau (0.2%). Most cases involved multisport athletes (68.1%), with the most common primary sport being basketball for males (27.3% of cases) and soccer for females (27.6% of cases). The median Pediatric International Knee Documentation Committee (Pedi-IKCD) score was 59.9 (IQR, 45.6-73.9), and the median Pediatric Functional Activity Brief Scale (Pedi-FABS) score was 21.0 (IQR, 5.0-28.0). Initial treatments were surgical intervention (55.4%) and activity restriction (44.0%). When surgery was performed, surgeons deemed the lesion to be stable at intraoperative assessment in 48.1% of cases.

Conclusion: The multicenter ROCK group has been able to enroll the largest knee OCD cohort to date. This information is being used to further understand the pathology of OCD, including its cause, associated comorbidities, and initial presentation and symptoms. The cohort having been established is now being followed longitudinally to better define and elucidate the best treatment algorithms based on these presenting signs and symptoms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/03635465211057103DOI Listing
January 2022

Effect of Concomitant Meniscal Tear on Strength and Functional Performance in Young Athletes 6 Months After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction With Hamstring Autograft.

Orthop J Sports Med 2021 Nov 2;9(11):23259671211046608. Epub 2021 Nov 2.

Division of Sports Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Background: The effect of concomitant meniscal tears, and their associated treatment, on strength and functional recovery after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) has not been adequately investigated in young populations.

Hypothesis: Concomitant meniscal tears, treated with or without repair, would not adversely affect strength, balance, or functional hop test performance at 6 months postoperatively.

Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3.

Methods: The authors retrospectively analyzed return-to-sports (RTS) assessments prospectively collected 6 months after ACLR with hamstring autograft in 165 patients ≤25 years of age. Descriptive, surgical, and RTS testing data were analyzed, and subgroups were compared using analysis of covariance models designed to assess the effects of sex, meniscal tear, and meniscal repair on RTS performance.

Results: Included were 115 female (70%) and 50 male (30%) patients with a mean age of 16.4 years (range, 12.3-25 years). Of these patients, 58% had concomitant meniscal tears (59% lateral, 27% medial, 14% lateral + medial), comprising 53% of the female and 70% of the male patients. The authors treated 61% of the tears with repair, with range of motion (ROM) and weightbearing limitations imposed within the first 6 weeks postoperatively, whereas 39% were treated with partial meniscectomy, rasping, or trephination (no ROM or weightbearing restrictions). The mean deficit in hamstring strength at 6 months postoperatively was significantly greater in the meniscal tear group than in those without a tear (32.3% vs 24.6%; = .028). The meniscal repair group had greater hamstring strength deficits than the group with meniscectomy, rasping or trephination (34.3% vs 26.2%; = .023). Performance on dynamic balance and functional hop tests was similar among all meniscus subgroups. There were no sex-based effects on any subgroup comparisons.

Conclusion: At 6 months postoperatively, both young male and young female patients who underwent ACLR with hamstring autograft demonstrated significant hamstring strength deficits compared with their nonoperative leg. The presence of a meniscal tear and subsequent repair, or its related rehabilitation restrictions, appears to have adverse effects on the postoperative recovery of hamstring strength.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/23259671211046608DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8573495PMC
November 2021

Epiphysiodesis for Leg Length Discrepancy: A Cost Analysis of Drill Versus Screw Technique.

J Surg Orthop Adv 2021 ;30(3):181-184

Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Cleveland, Ohio.

Research has demonstrated similar efficacy of drill epiphysiodesis and percutaneous epiphysiodesis using transphyseal screws for the management of adolescent leg length discrepancy. A cost analysis was performed to determine which procedure is more cost-effective. Patients seen for epiphysiodesis of the distal femur and/or proximal tibia and fibula between 2004 and 2017 were reviewed. A decision analysis model was used to compare costs. Two hundred thirty-five patients who underwent either drill (155/235, 66%) or screw (80/235, 34%) epiphysiodesis were analyzed with an average age at initial procedure of 13 years (range, 8.4 to 16.7 years). There was no significant difference in average initial procedure cost or total cost of all procedures across treatment groups (n = 184). The cost difference between drill and screw epiphysiodesis is minimal. In order for screw epiphysiodesis to be cost-favored, there would need to be a significant decrease in its cost or complication rate. (Journal of Surgical Orthopaedic Advances 30(3):181-184, 2021).
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October 2021

Tibial Tubercle Apophyseal Stage to Determine Skeletal Age in Pediatric Patients Undergoing ACL Reconstruction: A Validation and Reliability Study.

Orthop J Sports Med 2021 Sep 2;9(9):23259671211036897. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Background: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries demand individualized treatments based on an accurate estimation of the child's skeletal age. Wrist radiographs, which have traditionally been used to determine skeletal age, have a number of limitations, including cost, radiation exposure, and inconvenience.

Purpose: To evaluate the reliability and validity of a radiographic staging system using tibial apophyseal landmarks as hypothetical proxies for skeletal age to use in the preoperative management of pediatric ACL tears.

Study Design: Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2.

Methods: The study included children younger than 16 years of age who underwent ACL reconstruction between July 2008 and July 2018 and received both skeletal age radiography and knee radiography within 3 months of each other. Skeletal age was calculated from hand and wrist radiographs using the Greulich and Pyle atlas. Tibial apophyseal staging was categorized into 4 stages: cartilaginous stage (stage 1), apophyseal stage (stage 2), epiphyseal stage (stage 3), and bony/fused stage (stage 4). Data were collected by 2 independent assessors. The analysis was repeated 1 month later with the same assessors. We calculated descriptive statistics, measures of agreement, and the correlation between skeletal age and apophyseal stage.

Results: The mean chronological age of the 287 patients included in the analysis was 12.9 ± 1.9 years; 164 (57%) of the patients were male. The overall Spearman between skeletal age and tibial apophyseal staging was 0.69 (0.77 in males; 0.60 in females). The interrater reliability for the tibial apophyseal staging was substantial (Cohen κ = 0.66), and the intrarater reliability was excellent (Cohen κ = 0.82). The interrater reliability for skeletal age was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = 0.93), as was the intrarater reliability (ICC = 0.97).

Conclusion: The observed correlation between skeletal age and tibial apophyseal staging as well as observed intra- and interrater reliabilities demonstrated that tibial apophyseal landmarks on knee radiographs may be used to estimate skeletal age. This study supports the validity of knee radiographs in determining skeletal age and provides early evidence in certain clinical presentations to simplify the diagnostic workup and operative management of pediatric knee injuries, including ACL tears.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/23259671211036897DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8419558PMC
September 2021

Pediatric Venous Thromboembolism: Different Rates of Incidence, Anatomic Locations, and Risk Factors Between Orthopaedic and Nonorthopaedic Related Patients.

J Pediatr Orthop 2021 Jul;41(6):379-384

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Boston Children's Hospital.

Background: The prevalence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) may be increasing in children; however, scarce literature exists comparing incidence rates between pediatric orthopaedic patients and other pediatric patients. The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence, anatomic locations, and risk factors of VTEs between orthopaedic and nonorthopaedic pediatric related patients to determine if important differences exist.

Methods: Computed tomography and ultrasound data were reviewed for children (below 19 y old) with a diagnosed VTE between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2016. Demographic and clinical data, including VTE anatomic location and risk factors, were recorded. Two major cohorts were identified: orthopaedic-related (ORTH) and nonorthopaedic-related (NORTH) VTEs. Incidence rates were estimated and risk factors were compared using χ2 testing.

Results: There were 373 children diagnosed with a VTE (average age 10.3 y) of a total of 810,097 treated as in-patients for an incidence rate of 4.60 per 10,000 cases (95% confidence interval=4.15 to 5.10 per 10,000 cases). The rate of ORTH VTEs (28 of 188,669 orthopaedic patients, 1.48 per 10,000 cases) was significantly lower than that of NORTH VTEs (345 of 621,428 nonorthopaedic patients, 5.55 per 10,000 cases; P<0.001). For the ORTH cohort, there was a significant difference in the proportion of deep vein thrombosis in the lower extremity (91%) compared with the upper extremity (9%) (P<0.001), while a more even distribution of NORTH deep vein thrombosis in the upper (50%) and lower (41%) extremities was appreciated. The primary risk factors for ORTH VTEs included surgery (93%; P<0.001), change in ambulatory status (61%; P<0.001), and trauma (18%; P<0.001), while the primary risk factors for NORTH VTEs included intravenous peripheral inserted central catheter/central line (61%; P<0.001) and cancer (27%; P=0.001).

Conclusions: Pediatric ORTH VTEs have a significantly lower incidence rate and different primary risk factors than those of NORTH VTEs. This information is useful for health care providers when making decisions regarding risk and prophylaxis in pediatric patients with orthopaedic and nonorthopaedic conditions.

Level Of Evidence: Level III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BPO.0000000000001810DOI Listing
July 2021

Changes in superior displacement, angulation, and shortening in the early phase of healing for completely displaced midshaft clavicle fractures in adolescents: results from a prospective, multicenter study.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2021 Dec 2;30(12):2729-2737. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Washington University Orthopedics, St. Louis, MO, USA.

Background: Progressive displacement of diaphyseal clavicle fractures has been observed in adult patients, at times necessitating a change from nonoperative to operative treatment. Whether this occurs in adolescent patients has not been well investigated. The purpose of this study was to assess the rate and extent of progressive clavicle fracture displacement in adolescent patients following injury and during the early stages of healing.

Methods: This was a multicenter study evaluating prospective data that had previously been collected as part of a larger study evaluating the functional outcomes of adolescent clavicle fractures. A consecutive series of completely displaced diaphyseal clavicle fractures in patients aged 10-18 years treated at 1 of 3 tertiary-care pediatric trauma centers was included; all fractures underwent standardized imaging within 2 weeks of the date of injury and during the course of healing (5-20 weeks after injury). Measurements of clavicle shortening, superior displacement, and angulation were performed using validated techniques. Progressive displacement and/or interval improvement in fracture alignment, as well as the subsequent need for surgical intervention, was noted. Patient demographic and radiographic parameters were assessed as possible risk factors for interval displacement.

Results: One hundred patients met the inclusion criteria. Mean end-to-end shortening, cortex-to-cortex shortening, superior displacement, and angulation at the time of injury were 24 mm, 15 mm, 15 mm, and 7°, respectively. At a mean of 10 weeks after injury, the fracture alignment improved across all 4 measurements for the overall cohort, with mean improvements of 3.5 mm in end-to-end shortening, 3.3 mm in cortex-to-cortex shortening, 2.1 mm in superior displacement, and 2° in angulation. By use of a clinical threshold of a change in shortening or displacement of 10 mm or change in angulation of 10°, 26% of fractures improved, 4% worsened, and 70% remain unchanged. Patients with more severe fractures were more likely to have improved alignment than were patients with less displaced fractures (P < .001). No patient underwent surgical intervention for progressive displacement.

Conclusion: Significant early improvements in fracture alignment were observed in a substantial percentage of adolescent patients with completely displaced clavicle fractures. Among the most severely displaced fractures, shortening improved approximately 6 mm and angulation improved approximately 9°. In 4% of cases, increased displacement was observed, but this tended to be mild, and in no cases did it prompt surgical intervention. This finding indicates that the true final deformity after an adolescent clavicle fracture is commonly less than that present at the time of injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2021.05.006DOI Listing
December 2021

Increased incidence of acute patellar dislocations and patellar instability surgical procedures across the United States in paediatric and adolescent patients.

J Child Orthop 2021 Apr;15(2):149-156

Boston Children's Hospital, Division of Sports Medicine, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Boston, MA, US.

Purpose: Patellofemoral instability is a common cause of knee pain and dysfunction in paediatric and adolescent patients. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the frequency of patellar dislocations seen in emergency departments (EDs) and the rates of surgical procedures for patellar instability at paediatric hospitals in the United States between 2004 and 2014.

Methods: The Pediatric Health Information System database was queried for all paediatric patients who underwent surgery for patellar instability or were seen in the ED for acute patellar dislocation between 2004 and 2014. This was compared with the annual numbers of overall orthopaedic surgical procedures.

Results: Between 2004 and 2014, there were 3481 patellar instability procedures and 447 285 overall orthopaedic surgical procedures performed at the included institutions, suggesting a rate of 7.8 per 1000 orthopaedic surgeries. An additional 5244 patellar dislocations treated in EDs were identified. Between 2004 and 2014, the number of patellar instability procedures increased 2.1-fold (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4 to 3.0), while orthopaedic surgical procedures increased 1.7-fold (95% CI 1.3 to 2.0), suggesting a 1.2-fold relative increase in patellar instability procedures, compared with total paediatric orthopaedic surgeries.

Conclusion: This study shows a significant rise in the rate of acute patellar instability treatment events in paediatric and adolescent patients across the country. Surgery for patellar instability also increased over the study period, though only slightly more than the rate of all paediatric orthopaedic surgical procedures. This may suggest that increasing youth sports participation may be leading to a spectrum of increasing injuries and associated surgeries in children.

Level Of Evidence: IV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1302/1863-2548.15.200225DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8138795PMC
April 2021

Surgical Treatment of Solitary Periarticular Osteochondromas About the Knee in Pediatric and Adolescent Patients: Complications and Functional Outcomes.

J Bone Joint Surg Am 2021 07;103(14):1276-1283

Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

Background: Solitary osteochondromas, or osteocartilaginous exostoses (OCEs), represent the most common benign bone tumor. Despite frequently causing symptoms about the knee in younger populations, there is minimal previous literature investigating surgical treatment.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients <20 years old who had undergone surgical treatment of symptomatic, pathologically confirmed, solitary periarticular knee OCE at a single pediatric center between 2003 and 2016. The clinical course, radiographic and pathological features, and complications were assessed. Prospective outreach was performed to investigate patient-reported functional outcomes.

Results: Two hundred and sixty-four patients (58% male, 81% athletes) underwent excision of a solitary OCE about the knee at a mean age (and standard deviation) of 14.3 ± 2.24 years. Fifty-five percent of the procedures were performed by orthopaedic oncologists, 25% were performed by pediatric orthopaedic surgeons, and 20% were performed by pediatric orthopaedic sports medicine surgeons, with no difference in outcomes or complications based on training. Of the 264 lesions, 171 (65%) were pedunculated (versus sessile), 157 (59%) were in the distal part of the femur (versus the proximal part of the tibia or proximal part of the fibula), and 182 (69%) were medial (versus lateral). Postoperatively, 96% of the patients returned to sports at a median of 2.5 months (interquartile range, 1.9 to 4.0 months). Forty-two patients (16%) experienced minor complications not requiring operative intervention. Six patients (2%) experienced major complications (symptoms or disability at >6 months or requiring reoperation), which were more common in patients with sessile osteochondromas (p = 0.01), younger age (p = 0.01), and distal femoral lesions as compared with proximal tibial lesions (p = 0.003). Lesion recurrence was identified in 3 patients (1.1%). Overall, the median Pediatric International Knee Documentation Committee (Pedi-IKDC) and mean Hospital for Special Surgery Pediatric Functional Activity Brief Scale (HSS Pedi-FABS) scores were 97 (interquartile range, 93 to 99) and 16.7 ± 8.15, respectively, at a median duration of follow-up of 5.8 years.

Conclusions: In our large cohort of pediatric patients who underwent excision of solitary knee osteochondromas, most patients were male adolescent athletes. Most commonly, the lesions were pedunculated, were located in the distal part of the femur, and arose from the medial aspect of the knee. Regardless of surgeon training or lesion location, patients demonstrated excellent functional outcomes, with minimal clinically important postoperative complications and recurrences, although patients with sessile lesions and younger age may be at higher risk for complications.

Level Of Evidence: Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.20.00998DOI Listing
July 2021

Assessment of Skeletal Maturity and Postoperative Growth Disturbance After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in Skeletally Immature Patients: A Systematic Review.

Am J Sports Med 2022 04 13;50(5):1430-1441. Epub 2021 May 13.

Boston Children's Hospital, Division of Sports Medicine, Department of Orthopaedics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Background: Growth disturbance is an uncommon but potentially serious complication after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in skeletally immature patients.

Purpose: To describe how the pediatric ACL literature has assessed preoperative skeletal maturity and the amount of growth remaining and to comprehensively review the incidence, reporting, and monitoring of postoperative growth disturbance.

Study Design: Systematic review; Level of evidence, 4.

Methods: This review included studies reporting original research of clinical outcomes of skeletally immature patients after ACL reconstruction. Patient characteristics, surgical techniques, preoperative assessments of skeletal maturity or growth remaining, and postoperative assessments of growth disturbances were extracted.

Results: A total of 100 studies met inclusion criteria. All studies reported chronological age, and 28 studies (28%) assessed skeletal age. A total of 44 studies (44%) used Tanner staging, and 12 studies (12%) obtained standing hip-to-ankle radiographs preoperatively. In total, 42 patients (2.1%) demonstrated a leg length discrepancy (LLD) >10 mm postoperatively, including 9 patients (0.5%) with LLD >20 mm; furthermore, 11 patients (0.6%) with LLD underwent growth modulation. Shortening was the most common deformity overall, but overgrowth was reported more frequently in patients who had undergone all-epiphyseal techniques. Most LLDs involved the femur (83%). A total of 26 patients (1.3%) demonstrated a postoperative angular deformity ≥5°, and 9 of these patients underwent growth modulation. The most common deformities were femoral valgus (41%), tibial recurvatum (33%), and tibial varus (22%). Although standing hip-to-ankle radiographs were the most common radiographic assessment of growth disturbance, most studies inadequately reported the clinical and radiographic methods of assessment for growth disturbance. Additionally, only 35% of studies explicitly followed patients to skeletal maturity.

Conclusion: This systematic review described significant variability in the reporting and monitoring of growth-related complications after ACL reconstruction in skeletally immature patients. The incidence of LLD and angular deformity appeared to be low, but the quality of research was not comprehensive enough for accurate assessment.

Registration: CRD42019136059 (PROSPERO).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/03635465211008656DOI Listing
April 2022

Reliability of Radiologic Assessments of Clinically Relevant Growth Remaining in Knee MRI of Children and Adolescents With Patellofemoral Instability: Data From the JUPITER Cohort.

Orthop J Sports Med 2021 Apr 13;9(4):2325967121991110. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Investigation performed at Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, New York, USA and Cincinnati Children's Hospital, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA.

Background: Surgical decision making and preoperative planning for children and adolescents with patellofemoral instability rely heavily on a patient's skeletal maturity. To be clinically useful, radiologic assessments of skeletal maturity must demonstrate acceptable interrater reliability and accuracy.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the interrater reliability among surgeons of varying experience levels and specialty training backgrounds when evaluating the skeletal maturity of the distal femur and proximal tibia of children and adolescents with patellofemoral instability.

Study Design: Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 3.

Methods: Six fellowship-trained orthopaedic surgeons (3 pediatric orthopaedic, 2 sports medicine, and 1 with both) who perform a high volume of patellofemoral instability surgery examined 20 blinded knee radiographs and magnetic resonance images in random order. They assessed these images for clinically relevant growth (open physis) or clinically insignificant growth (closing/closed physis) remaining in the distal femoral and proximal tibial physes. Fleiss' kappa was calculated for each measurement. After initial ratings, raters discussed consensus methods to improve reliability and assessed the images again to determine if training and new criteria improved interrater reliability.

Results: Reliability for initial assessments of distal femoral and proximal tibial physeal patency was poor (kappa range, 0.01-0.58). After consensus building, all assessments demonstrated almost-perfect interrater reliability (kappa, 0.99 for all measurements).

Conclusion: Surgical decision making and preoperative planning for children and adolescents with patellofemoral instability rely heavily on radiologic assessment of skeletal maturity. This study found that initial interrater reliability of physeal patency and clinical decision making was unacceptably low. However, with the addition of new criteria, a consensus-building process, and training, these variables became highly reliable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2325967121991110DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8047867PMC
April 2021

Early Operative Versus Delayed Operative Versus Nonoperative Treatment of Pediatric and Adolescent Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Am J Sports Med 2021 12 15;49(14):4008-4017. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Investigation performed at Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, New York, USA.

Background: Treatment options for pediatric and adolescent anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries include early operative, delayed operative, and nonoperative management. Currently, there is a lack of consensus regarding the optimal treatment for these injuries.

Purpose/hypothesis: The purpose was to determine the optimal treatment strategy for ACL injuries in pediatric and adolescent patients. We hypothesized that (1) early ACL reconstruction results in fewer meniscal tears than delayed reconstruction but yields no difference in knee stability and (2) when compared with nonoperative management, any operative management results in fewer meniscal tears and cartilage injuries, greater knee stability, and higher return-to-sport rates.

Study Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis; Level of evidence, 4.

Methods: A systematic search of databases was performed including PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library using PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. Inclusion criteria were a pediatric and adolescent patient population (≤19 years old at surgery), the reporting of clinical outcomes after treatment of primary ACL injury, and original scientific research article. Exclusion criteria were revision ACL reconstruction, tibial spine avulsion fracture, case report or small case series (<5 patients), non-English language manuscripts, multiligamentous injuries, and nonclinical studies.

Results: A total of 30 studies containing 50 cohorts and representing 1176 patients met our criteria. With respect to nonoperative treatment, knee instability was observed in 20% to 100%, and return to preinjury level of sports ranged from 6% to 50% at final follow-up. Regarding operative treatment, meta-analysis results favored early ACL reconstruction over delayed reconstruction (>12 weeks) for the presence of any meniscal tear (odds ratio, 0.23; = .006) and irreparable meniscal tear (odds ratio, 0.31; = .001). Comparison of any side-to-side differences in KT-1000 arthrometer testing did not favor early or delayed ACL reconstruction in either continuous mean differences ( = .413) or proportion with difference ≥3 mm ( = .181). Return to preinjury level of competition rates for early and delayed ACL reconstruction ranged from 57% to 100%.

Conclusion: Delaying ACL reconstruction in pediatric or adolescent patients for >12 weeks significantly increased the risk of meniscal injuries and irreparable meniscal tears; however, early and delayed operative treatment achieved satisfactory knee stability. Nonoperative management resulted in high rates of residual knee instability, increased risk of meniscal tears, and comparatively low rates of return to sports.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0363546521990817DOI Listing
December 2021

Early Outcomes of Adolescent ACL Reconstruction With Hybrid Hamstring Tendon Autograft-Allograft Versus Hamstring Tendon Autograft Alone.

Orthop J Sports Med 2021 Jan 22;9(1):2325967120979985. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Background: Small-diameter semitendinosus-gracilis tendon autografts may be encountered intraoperatively during anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR); these have been shown to be at increased risk of graft rupture. One option that surgeons have pursued to reduce the theoretical failure rate of these smaller-diameter grafts is augmenting them with allograft material, thereby forming a larger-diameter hybrid autograft-allograft construct.

Purpose/hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to compare outcomes in adolescent athletes of primary ACLR using a hybrid autologous hamstring tendon and soft tissue allograft construct versus ACLR using small-diameter hamstring tendon autograft. The hypothesis was that the hybrid hamstring autograft-allograft construct would provide superior short-term results.

Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3.

Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of 47 patients aged between 12 and 20 years who underwent hybrid graft ACLR (mean diameter, 9.1 mm) at a single institution. Electronic medical records including clinic notes, radiographic images, operative notes, and pathology reports were reviewed for study analysis. A control group of 64 patients who underwent small-diameter hamstring reconstruction (mean diameter, 7.1 mm) without allograft supplementation was compiled. Corresponding clinical, radiographic, and surgical characteristics were collected for the control group to allow for comparative analysis.

Results: Mean follow-up was 2.7 years for the hybrid cohort and 2.3 years for the control group. Despite a significantly larger mean graft diameter in the hybrid group as compared with the control group ( < .001), no significant difference in retear rate was seen between cohorts (hybrid, 9%; control, 13%; = .554). Patients with hybrid anterior cruciate ligament constructs also underwent a comparable number of reoperations overall ( = .838). Functionally, all patients with adequate follow-up returned to sports, with no significant difference in time to return to sports between the groups ( = .213). Radiographically, hybrid graft constructs did not undergo a significantly larger degree of tunnel lysis ( = .126).

Conclusion: A cohort of adolescents with hybrid anterior cruciate ligament grafts was shown to have retear rates and overall clinical results comparable with those of a control group that received small-diameter hamstring tendon autografts alone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2325967120979985DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7841686PMC
January 2021

Operative Treatment of Bipartite Patella in Pediatric and Adolescent Athletes: A Retrospective Comparison With a Nonoperatively Treated Cohort.

Orthop J Sports Med 2021 Jan 3;9(1):2325967120967125. Epub 2021 Jan 3.

Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Background: Bipartite patella (BPP) is a developmental anomaly that forms when incomplete patellar ossification leaves a residual fibrocartilaginous synchondrosis between ossification centers. Repetitive traction forces across the synchondrosis can cause knee pain, most commonly presenting in adolescence. Symptoms frequently resolve with nonoperative management. Few surgical case series exist to guide treatment approaches for refractory pain.

Purpose: To investigate the clinical features, surgical techniques, and outcomes associated with operative treatment of symptomatic BPP in pediatric and adolescent athletes and to compare features of the series with a large control group managed nonoperatively.

Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3.

Methods: A retrospective medical record review was conducted of all patients aged ≤20 years who were diagnosed with symptomatic, radiologically confirmed BPP between 2003 and 2018 at a single tertiary-care pediatric hospital (N = 266). Demographic and clinical variables were analyzed, and additional radiologic and perioperative variables were collected for the surgical subcohort.

Results: Of the 266 patients included, 27 were treated operatively (10.2%). When compared with those treated nonoperatively (with rest, physical therapy, cryotherapy, and anti-inflammatory medications), the operatively managed group experienced a longer duration of symptoms before first presentation (21.5 vs 7.6 months; < .001) and were more likely to be older (mean age, 15.4 vs 12.4 years; < .001), female (59.3% vs 35.6%; = .03), and competitive athletes (100% vs 84.5%; = .02). In the 27 patients treated operatively, procedures were categorized as isolated fragment excision (n = 9), fragment excision with lateral release (n = 8), isolated lateral release (n = 5), fragment screw fixation (n = 4), and synchondrosis drilling (n = 1). The mean time between surgery and return to sports was 2.2 months. Four patients (14.8%) reported residual symptoms requiring secondary surgery, including lateral release (n = 1), excision of residual fragment (n = 1), and fixation screw removal (n = 2).

Conclusion: BPP can cause knee pain in adolescent athletes and is generally responsive to nonoperative treatment. Patients undergoing surgical treatment-most commonly female competitive athletes with prolonged symptoms-represented 10% of cases. A variety of surgical techniques may be effective, with a 15% risk of persistent or recurrent symptoms warranting reoperation. Prospective multicenter investigations are needed to identify optimal candidates for earlier interventions and the optimal operative treatment technique.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2325967120967125DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7797588PMC
January 2021

Evaluation and Surgical Management of Knee Osteochondritis Dissecans and Adolescent Cartilage Injuries.

Instr Course Lect 2021 ;70:415-432

Osteochondritis dissecans and cartilage injuries of the knee are among the most challenging clinical entities that pediatric sports medicine specialists encounter. As a weight-bearing joint with significant long-term implications on mobility and overall physical health, the knee also happens to be the most injured or adversely affected joint in preadolescent and adolescent athletes. However, cartilage injuries are unique among other musculoskeletal pathologies in children, in that the healing potential of articular cartilage tissue is limited, and minor injuries or small focal defects can have devastating implications on the lifelong health of the joint. Although the most common form of degenerative joint disease affecting the general population is, of course, osteoarthritis, other conditions such as osteochondritis dissecans or acute, traumatic osteochondral shear injuries can activate their own arthritic pathway, whereby focal injuries precipitate an eventual cascade of diffuse degeneration. Thus, it is important for sports medicine and pediatric orthopaedic specialists alike to understand, diagnose, and initiate early, evidence-based management for cartilage conditions of the knee in pediatric patients. This chapter reviews principles of diagnosis and management of both knee osteochondritis dissecans (a chronic condition of subchondral bone that often secondarily affects the articular cartilage) and acute traumatic cartilage shear injuries. Although the two entities are quite different from an etiologic standpoint, there is significant overlap in technical considerations and treatment principles between these two conditions.
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January 2021

Orthopedic Injuries Associated with Hoverboard Use in Children: A Multi-center Analysis.

HSS J 2020 Dec 21;16(Suppl 2):221-225. Epub 2019 May 21.

Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA USA.

Background: Since its release in 2015, the hoverboard has been associated with injuries in children and adolescents. However, its public health implications have yet to be explored in the orthopedic literature across multiple centers.

Purpose/questions: We sought to assess the nature of orthopedic injuries and the use of clinical resources related to the hoverboard at four high-volume, regional pediatric hospitals.

Methods: Departmental databases of emergency department (ED) consultations and urgent orthopedic clinic (UC) visits were queried for hoverboard injuries. A retrospective medical record review was performed for patients presenting over a 3-month period at four institutions. Data on demographics, injuries, clinical course, and resource use were analyzed. The frequency of hoverboard-related consultations was compared to those for monkey bar-related injuries at the primary study institution.

Results: Eighty-nine patients with orthopedic hoverboard injuries presented to the ED and/or UC in the study period. Hoverboard injuries represented 2.2% of orthopedic ED consultations at the primary institution, compared to 1.5% for monkey bar injuries. Sixty-nine out of 89 (77.5%) total injuries involved the upper extremity, including 47 (52.8%) distal radius fractures, the most common hoverboard-related diagnosis. All but one injury (97.8%) underwent radiography, and eight (9%) required surgery. No patients reported wearing protective gear at the time of their injury.

Conclusions: Hoverboards were associated with a variety of pediatric orthopedic injuries and required the use of significant resources in the ED, UC, and operating room. These data may represent a starting point for further prospective multi-center studies and public health efforts toward prevention of hoverboard injuries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11420-019-09682-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7749912PMC
December 2020

Variation in Treatment Approaches to Adolescent Midshaft Clavicle Fractures in Pediatric Versus Adult Hospitals.

J Orthop Trauma 2021 May;35(5):271-275

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA.

Objective: The primary objective of this study was to identify differences in the treatment approach for isolated, displaced midshaft clavicle fractures in adolescent patients 15-18 years of age at adult versus pediatric hospitals. The secondary objective of this study was to identify factors associated with the surgical treatment of these fractures in this age group.

Design: Retrospective cohort study.

Setting: Two adult and one pediatric tertiary care referral hospitals.

Patients/participants: Adolescent patients 15-18 years of age with isolated, displaced midshaft clavicle fractures treated at 2 adult tertiary care referral hospitals and one pediatric tertiary care referral hospital were identified. A total of 214 patients, 105 from the adult hospitals and 109 from the pediatric hospital, were included.

Intervention: Nonoperative versus surgical treatment of clavicle fractures.

Main Outcome Measurement: Surgical treatment.

Results: A multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that superior-inferior fracture displacement [odds ratio (OR) 1.13, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-1.20], dominant upper extremity injury (OR 2.60, 95% CI 1.19-5.67), and treatment at an adult hospital (OR 5.28, 95% CI 2.28-12.2) were independently associated with the surgical treatment of adolescent displaced midshaft clavicle fractures.

Conclusions: After controlling for relevant demographic and fracture characteristics, adolescent patients treated at adult hospitals for displaced midshaft clavicle fractures have more than 5 times the odds of surgical treatment than those treated at a pediatric hospital. Significant practice variation across institutions reflects ongoing controversy in surgical indications and underscores the need for high-quality prospective outcome studies.

Level Of Evidence: Prognostic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BOT.0000000000001981DOI Listing
May 2021

Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Tibial Plateau in Children and Adolescents: A Case Series.

Orthop J Sports Med 2020 Aug 26;8(8):2325967120941380. Epub 2020 Aug 26.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Division of Sports Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Background: Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the knee is a relatively well-known condition, most commonly arising in the femoral condyle. Lesions arising in the tibial plateau are rarely described.

Purpose: To present a case series of OCD lesions of the tibial plateau.

Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4.

Methods: Medical records and diagnostic imaging of patients <20 years of age with confirmed diagnosis of OCD of the tibial plateau from a single institution were retrospectively reviewed. Characteristic and radiographic features as well as details of both nonoperative and surgical management were investigated. Lesion characteristics and treatment outcomes were also analyzed.

Results: A total of 9 lesions were identified in 9 patients (5 females, 4 males) who fit the inclusion criteria. The mean age at diagnosis was 14.2 years (range, 9-17 years). Knee pain (8/9) of longer than 1 year in duration was the most common presenting symptom. All 9 lesions were located on the lateral tibial plateau, and concomitant lateral compartment pathology was present in 5 of 9 patients (4 lateral femoral condyle OCDs, 3 lateral meniscal tears [1 discoid], and 1 discoid meniscus). Only 2 lesions were visible on initial radiographs; all 9 were visible on magnetic resonance imaging. All patients underwent initial nonoperative treatment; 2 patients demonstrated resolution of symptoms. Two patients underwent surgery for concomitant pathology, and the OCD was not addressed surgically. A total of 5 patients continued to be symptomatic after nonoperative treatment, prompting surgical intervention, which consisted of microfracture and chondroplasty in all 5 cases. A total of 2 of the 5 microfracture patients had resolution of symptoms, while another 2 patients had continued symptoms ultimately responsive to steroid injection treatment. One patient had revision microfracture, followed by autologous chondrocyte implantation and an arthroscopic lysis of adhesions. At final follow-up, ranging from 7 months to 10 years, 8 patients were asymptomatic, while 1 patient had developed early osteoarthritis.

Conclusion: OCD of the tibial plateau in young patients is rare, usually involves the lateral side, and may have significant long-term implications for knee function. Presenting symptoms are often vague, and lesions may not always be visible on initial radiographs, which may lead to delayed treatment and adversely affect outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2325967120941380DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7453468PMC
August 2020

Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Knee: An Interrater Reliability Study of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Characteristics.

Am J Sports Med 2020 07 25;48(9):2221-2229. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Investigation performed at the Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, New York, USA, and Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA.

Background: Imaging characteristics of osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) lesions quantified by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are often used to inform treatment and prognosis. However, the interrater reliability of clinician-driven MRI-based assessment of OCD lesions is not well documented.

Purpose: To determine the interrater reliability of several historical and novel MRI-derived characteristics of OCD of the knee in children.

Study Design: Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 3.

Methods: A total of 42 OCD lesions were evaluated by 10 fellowship-trained orthopaedic surgeons using 31 different MRI characteristics, characterizing lesion size and location, condylar size, cartilage status, the interface between parent and progeny bone, and features of both the parent and the progeny bone. Interrater reliability was determined via intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) with 2-way random modeling, Fleiss kappa, or Krippendorff alpha as appropriate for each variable.

Results: Raters were reliable when the lesion was measured in the coronal plane (ICC, 0.77). Almost perfect agreement was achieved for condylar size (ICC, 0.93), substantial agreement for physeal patency (ICC, 0.79), and moderate agreement for joint effusion (ICC, 0.56) and cartilage status (ICC, 0.50). Overall, raters showed significant variability regarding interface characteristics (ICC, 0.25), progeny (ICC range, 0.03 to 0.62), and parent bone measurements and qualities (ICC range, -0.02 to 0.65), with reliability being moderate at best for these measurements.

Conclusion: This multicenter study determined the interrater reliability of MRI characteristics of OCD lesions in children. Although several measurements provided acceptable reliability, many MRI features of OCD that inform treatment decisions were unreliable. Further work will be needed to refine the unreliable characteristics and to assess the ability of those reliable characteristics to predict clinical lesion instability and prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0363546520930427DOI Listing
July 2020

Descriptive Epidemiology of Adolescent Clavicle Fractures: Results From the FACTS (Function after Adolescent Clavicle Trauma and Surgery) Prospective, Multicenter Cohort Study.

Orthop J Sports Med 2020 May 29;8(5):2325967120921344. Epub 2020 May 29.

Investigation performed at the Division of Sports Medicine, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Background: The majority of previous investigations on operative fixation of clavicle fractures have been related to the adult population, with occasional assessments of the younger, more commonly affected adolescent population. Despite limited prospective data for adolescents, the incidence of operative fixation of adolescent diaphyseal clavicle fractures has increased.

Purpose: To detail the demographic features and descriptive epidemiology of a large pooled cohort of adolescent patients with diaphyseal clavicle fractures presenting to pediatric tertiary care centers in the United States through an observational, prospective, multicenter cohort study (Function after Adolescent Clavicle Trauma and Surgery [FACTS]).

Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 4.

Methods: Patients aged 10 to 18 years who were treated for a diaphyseal clavicle fracture between August 2013 and February 2016 at 1 of 8 geographically diverse, high-volume, tertiary care pediatric centers were screened. Treatment was rendered by any of the pediatric orthopaedic providers at each of the 8 institutions, which totaled more than 50 different providers. Age, sex, race, ethnicity, fracture laterality, hand dominance, mechanism of injury, injury activity, athletic participation, fracture characteristics, and treatment decisions were prospectively recorded in those who were eligible and consented to enroll.

Results: A total of 545 patients were included in the cohort. The mean age of the study population was 14.1 ± 2.1 years, and 79% were male. Fractures occurred on the nondominant side (56%) more frequently than the dominant side (44%). Sport was the predominant activity during which the injury occurred (66%), followed by horseplay (12%) and biking (6%). The primary mechanism of injury was a direct blow/hit to the shoulder (60%). Overall, 54% were completely displaced fractures, defined as fractures with no anatomic cortical contact between fragments. Mean shortening within the completely displaced group was 21.9 mm when measuring the distance between fragment ends (end to end) and 12.4 mm when measuring the distance between the fragment end to the corresponding cortical defect (cortex to corresponding cortex) on the other fragment (ie, true shortening). Comminution was present in 18% of all fractures. While 83% of all clavicle fractures were treated nonoperatively, 32% of completely displaced fractures underwent open reduction and internal fixation.

Conclusion: Adolescent clavicle fractures occurred more commonly in male patients during sports, secondary to a direct blow to the shoulder, and on the nondominant side. Slightly more than half of these fractures were completely displaced, and approximately one-fifth were comminuted. Within this large cohort, approximately one-third of patients with completely displaced fractures underwent surgery, allowing for future prospective comparative analyses of radiographic, clinical, and functional outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2325967120921344DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7263158PMC
May 2020

Long-Term Follow-up of Skeletally Immature Patients With Physeal-Sparing Combined Extra-/Intra-articular Iliotibial Band Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A 3-Dimensional Motion Analysis.

Am J Sports Med 2020 07 10;48(8):1900-1906. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Division of Sports Medicine, Department of Orthopedics, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Background: The physeal-sparing iliotibial band (ITB) anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction (ACLR) is a well-established technique for treating skeletally immature patients with ACL rupture. However, the long-term implications of the procedure on the intricacies of kinetic and kinematic function of the knee have not been comprehensively investigated.

Purpose: To assess the short-, mid-, and long-term effects of ITB ACLR on kinetic and kinematic parameters of knee functions.

Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4.

Methods: A total of 38 patients who had undergone an ITB ACLR as a skeletally immature child were recruited to participate in a 3-dimensional (3D) motion analysis testing protocol at an institutional injury prevention center between 1 and 20 years after reconstruction. Exclusion criteria were congenital ACL deficiency and any other major knee injury (defined as an injury requiring surgery or rehabilitation >3 months) on either knee. 3D and force plate parameters included in the analysis were knee moment, ground-reaction force, and vertical jump height measured during drop vertical jump and vertical single-limb hop. Paired tests and equivalency analyses were used to compare the parameters between cases (ITB ACLR limb) and controls (contralateral/nonsurgical limbs).

Results: Paired tests showed no statistically significant differences between limbs, and equivalency analyses confirmed equivalency between limbs for all tested outcome variables.

Conclusion: The ITB ACLR appears to restore normal, symmetric, physiologic kinetic and kinematic function in the growing knee by 1 year after reconstruction, with maintenance of normal parameters for up to 20 years.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0363546520927399DOI Listing
July 2020

Low proportion of skeletally immature patients met return-to-sports criteria at 7 Months following ACL reconstruction.

Phys Ther Sport 2020 Jul 16;44:143-150. Epub 2020 May 16.

The Micheli Center for Sports Injury Prevention, Waltham, MA, USA; Division of Sports Medicine, Department of Orthopaedics, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA; Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Objective: To examine the proportion of skeletally immature anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed (ACLR) patients who achieve ≥90% of lower extremity recovery at 6-9 months post-operatively.

Design: Cross-sectional study.

Setting: Biomechanical laboratory.

Participants: Skeletally immature ACLR patients.

Main Outcome Measure(s): Muscular strength (quadriceps, hamstrings, hip abductors, and hip extensors), dynamic balance (anterior reach, posteromedial reach, and posterolateral reach), and functional hops tests (single hop, triple hops, cross-over hops, and 6 m timed hops) were examined. The primary outcome variable was the proportion of the study patients whose limb symmetry index (LSI) were ≥90% during return to sport (RTS) tests.

Results: A total of 105 skeletally immature ACLR patients who are planning to return to sporting activities (age: 13.4 ± 1.4 years) were enrolled. The proportion of skeletally immature ACLR patients who achieved ≥90% of LSI in all four strength, three balance, and four hop tests were 20.0%, 65.4%, and 27.8%. In those who completed all test battery (72/105), only 4.2% of skeletally immature ACLR patients demonstrated ≥90% of LSI in all RTS tests.

Conclusion: A small proportion of skeletally immature ACLR patients demonstrated ≥90% of lower extremity recovery approximately at 7 months following ACLR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ptsp.2020.05.007DOI Listing
July 2020

Defining the volume of consultations for musculoskeletal infection encountered by pediatric orthopaedic services in the United States.

PLoS One 2020 4;15(6):e0234055. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Nationwide Children’s Hospital, Columbus, OH, United States of America,

Objective: Adequate resources are required to rapidly diagnose and treat pediatric musculoskeletal infection (MSKI). The workload MSKI consults contribute to pediatric orthopaedic services is unknown as prior epidemiologic studies are variable and negative work-ups are not included in national discharge databases. The hypothesis was tested that MSKI consults constitute a substantial volume of total consultations for pediatric orthopaedic services across the United States.

Study Design: Eighteen institutions from the Children's ORthopaedic Trauma and Infection Consortium for Evidence-based Study (CORTICES) group retrospectively reviewed a minimum of 1 year of hospital data, reporting the total number of surgeons, total consultations, and MSKI-related consultations. Consultations were classified by the location of consultation (emergency department or inpatient). Culture positivity rate and pathogens were also reported.

Results: 87,449 total orthopaedic consultations and 7,814 MSKI-related consultations performed by 229 pediatric orthopaedic surgeons were reviewed. There was an average of 13 orthopaedic surgeons per site each performing an average of 154 consultations per year. On average, 9% of consultations were MSKI related and 37% of these consults yielded positive cultures. Finally, a weak inverse monotonic relationship was noted between percent culture positivity and percent of total orthopedic consults for MSKI.

Conclusion: At large, academic pediatric tertiary care centers, pediatric orthopaedic services consult on an average of ~3,000 'rule-out' MSKI cases annually. These patients account for nearly 1 in 10 orthopaedic consultations, of which 1 in 3 are culture positive. Considering that 2 in 3 consultations were culture negative, estimating resources required for pediatric orthopaedic consult services to work up and treat children based on culture positive administrative discharge data underestimates clinical need. Finally, ascertainment bias must be considered when comparing differences in culture rates from different institution's pediatric orthopaedics services, given the variability in when orthopaedic physicians become involved in a MSKI workup.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0234055PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7272072PMC
August 2020

Outcomes of Surgically Treated Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome in Runners.

Sports Health 2020 May/Jun;12(3):304-309. Epub 2020 Mar 12.

Division of Sports Medicine, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.

Background: Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) is primarily seen in running athletes. Previous outcomes of surgical treatment with fasciotomy have suggested moderate pain relief, but evidence is lacking regarding postoperative return to running.

Hypothesis: Running athletes with limiting symptoms of CECS will show high rates of return to running after fasciotomy.

Study Design: Case series.

Level Of Evidence: Level 4.

Methods: Running athletes treated with fasciotomy for CECS at a single institution were identified using a surgical database and asked to complete a questionnaire designed to assess postoperative pain, activity level, return to running, running distances, overall satisfaction, and rate of revision fasciotomy.

Results: A total of 43 runners met the inclusion criteria, and 32 runners completed outcomes questionnaires at a mean postoperative follow-up of 66 months. In total, 27 of these 32 patients (84%) returned to sport(s) after fasciotomy. However, 9 (28%) of these patients pursued nonrunning sports, 5 (16%) due to recurrent pain with running. Of the 18 patients who returned to running sports (56%), the mean weekly running distance decreased postoperatively. Recurrence of symptoms was reported in 6 patients (19%), 4 of whom had returned to running and 2 of whom had been unable to return to sports. All of these 6 patients elected to undergo revision fasciotomy surgery. Twenty-five (78.1%) patients reported being satisfied with their procedure. In the overall cohort, the mean visual analog scale scores for pain during activities/sports decreased from 7.9 preoperatively to 1.7 postoperatively.

Conclusion: Fasciotomy for CECS in runners may provide significant improvement in pain and satisfaction in over three-quarters of patients and return to sports in 84% of patients. However, only 56% returned to competitive running activity, with a subset (19%) developing recurrent symptoms resulting in revision surgery.

Clinical Relevance: Fasciotomy has been shown to decrease pain in most patients with CECS. This study provides outcomes in running athletes after fasciotomy for CECS with regard to return to sports, maintenance of sports performance, and rates of revision surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1941738120907897DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7222672PMC
May 2020

Complications of Bioabsorbable Tibial Interference Screws After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in Pediatric and Adolescent Athletes.

Orthop J Sports Med 2020 Feb 26;8(2):2325967120904010. Epub 2020 Feb 26.

Division of Sports Medicine, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Background: Interference screw fixation using bioabsorbable implants has become the most common form of tibial-sided graft fixation in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Complications related to implant use in the pediatric and adolescent population have not been well studied.

Purpose/hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to retrospectively analyze the complications associated with tibial bioabsorbable interference screw use in adolescents after ACLR. We hypothesized that complication rates would be low (<5%) and that different screw types would have similar complication rates and clinical outcomes.

Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4.

Methods: Included in this study were patients aged ≤18 years who underwent ACLR with a bioabsorbable tibial interference screw between 2000 and 2011 at a single institution. The subpopulation with screw-related symptoms or complications were identified through chart review. The following 2 outcomes were considered: screw-related symptoms and secondary surgery related to the screw. Multivariable logistic regression was used for adjusted analysis of any screw-related problem.

Results: There were 925 ACLR procedures in 858 patients (mean age, 15.7 years; range, 10-18 years) who met inclusion criteria. The median follow-up period was 32.0 months. Of the 925 knees, 89 (9.6%) developed a screw-related problem. In 44 (4.8%) cases, no surgery was required; in 45 (4.9%) cases, surgery for a screw-related problem occurred at a median of 24 months postoperatively. The most common surgical indication was pain at the tibial screw site (42/45, 93%), followed by intra-articular screw issues (3/45, 7%). In adjusted analysis, ACLR procedure performed by a "low-volume" ACL surgeon was the only significant predictor identified. After screw removal surgery, 25 of 27 (93%) patients with at least 12 months of follow-up had complete resolution of screw site symptoms, 18 of 23 (78%) evaluable patients returned to sports, while 8 of 27 (30%) patients underwent additional surgeries, 7 of which were unrelated to the screw procedure.

Conclusion: The rate of clinical sequelae from bioabsorbable tibial interference screws was surprisingly high, with symptoms arising after approximately 1 of 10 ACLRs in adolescents. Reoperation for these symptoms was performed in approximately 5% of the knees in the study, at a median 2 years postoperatively. Most patients were able to return to sports after screw removal surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2325967120904010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7045297PMC
February 2020

Collateral Ligament Knee Injuries in Pediatric and Adolescent Athletes.

J Pediatr Orthop 2020 Feb;40(2):71-77

Boston Childrens Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.

Background: The majority of research on medial (MCL) and lateral (LCL) collateral ligament injuries has focused on adults and combined collateral/cruciate injuries. The purpose of this study was to determine characteristics associated with isolated collateral ligament injuries in adolescents, and assess timing for return to sports.

Methods: Electronic medical records were queried to identify patients aged below 17 years who sustained a magnetic resonance imaging-confirmed isolated MCL or LCL injury over an 8-year period. Retrospective review then documented patient and injury characteristics and clinical course. General linear modeling was used to analyze risk factors for prolonged return to sports, continued pain or reinjury.

Results: Fifty-one knees (33 in males, 65%), mean age 13.8 years (range, 5 to 17), were identified, of which 40 (78%) had MCL injuries. Over half (29, 57%) of knees had an open distal femoral physis including all 5 bony avulsion injuries. Eleven (22%) had LCL injuries of which 3 (6%) had concurrent posterolateral corner injuries. Forty-two (82%) knees had injuries that occurred during sports. Eleven knees (28%) with MCL tears had a simultaneous patellar instability episode. Knee injuries that occurred during sports had 37% shorter recovery time (P=0.02). Eight knees (16%) experienced a reinjury and 12 (24%) were followed over an extended period of time for various knee issues. Football injuries were more likely to be grade 3 (P=0.03), and football and soccer accounted for all grade III injuries. The mean return to sports was 2.2 months, with grade III cases returning at 2.4 months, and 95% of cases within 4 months.

Conclusions: Isolated collateral ligament injuries are rare in adolescent athletes. MCL injuries, one-quarter of which occurred in conjunction with patellar instability events, were 4 times more common than LCL injuries, one quarter of which have other posterolateral corner structures involved. Grade III injuries represent 20% to 25% of collateral ligament injuries and occurred most commonly in football and soccer.

Level Of Evidence: Level IV-retrospective case series.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BPO.0000000000001112DOI Listing
February 2020

Nonoperative treatment of stable juvenile osteochondritis dissecans of the knee: effectiveness of unloader bracing.

J Pediatr Orthop B 2020 Jan;29(1):81-89

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery.

The purpose of this study was to compare the treatment outcomes of stable juvenile osteochondritis dissecans (JOCD) of the knee in a large cohort treated nonoperatively with unloader bracing versus other nonoperative treatment modalities without unloader bracing. This retrospective study assessed the clinical course of skeletally immature patients who underwent a minimum of 3 months nonoperative treatment for stable JOCD of the femoral condyle at a single institution (2001-2014). Treatment was based on physician preference. Unloader bracing was compared with other 'non-unloader' modalities, with successful nonoperative treatment defined as the avoidance of subsequent surgical intervention. Two hundred ninety-eight patients were included, 219 (73%) of whom were male. The mean ± SD age at diagnosis was 11.5 ± 1.6 years. Thirty-five patients were diagnosed with bilateral OCD, resulting in 333 knees in total. One hundred eighty-seven (56%) knees were treated with unloader bracing for a minimum of 3 months, whereas 146 (44%) were treated with other nonoperative modalities. All patients were treated with activity restrictions. Weight-bearing restrictions were applied for a total of 83 (25%) cases, for durations ranging from 19 to 196 days (median: 46 days) and at similar rates across groups. Nonoperative treatment was successful in 189 (57%) knees with a median follow-up of 9.5 months (interquartile range: 5.9-15.7 months). Surgical intervention was required in 144 (43%) knees at a median time of 6.0 months (interquartile range: 4.1-10.5 months). The unloader bracing group more often required surgical intervention when compared with the nonunloader group [93/187 (50%) vs. 51/146 (35%) knees, respectively; P = 0.02]. Male sex (P = 0.05) and Hefti stage I (P = 0.05) showed possible associations with nonoperative treatment success. Nonoperative treatment for stable JOCD of the knee leads to the avoidance of subsequent surgical intervention in 57% of cases. Unloader bracing is not associated with significantly improved outcomes when compared with other nonoperative modalities. Level of Evidence: III Retrospective Comparative Case Series.
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January 2020

Pediatric Type II Tibial Spine Fractures: Addressing the Treatment Controversy With a Mixed-Effects Model.

Orthop J Sports Med 2019 Aug 28;7(8):2325967119866162. Epub 2019 Aug 28.

Investigation performed at Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Background: Tibial spine fractures, although relatively rare, account for a substantial proportion of pediatric knee injuries with effusions and can have significant complications. Meyers and McKeever type II fractures are displaced anteriorly with an intact posterior hinge. Whether this subtype of pediatric tibial spine fracture should be treated operatively or nonoperatively remains controversial. Surgical delay is associated with an increased risk of arthrofibrosis; thus, prompt treatment decision making is imperative.

Purpose: To assess for variability among pediatric orthopaedic surgeons when treating pediatric type II tibial spine fractures.

Study Design: Cross-sectional study.

Methods: A discrete choice experiment was conducted to determine the patient and injury attributes that influence the management choice. A convenience sample of 20 pediatric orthopaedic surgeons reviewed 40 case vignettes, including physis-blinded radiographs displaying displaced fractures and a description of the patient's sex, age, mechanism of injury, and predominant sport. Surgeons were asked whether they would treat the fracture operatively or nonoperatively. A mixed-effects model was then used to determine the patient attributes most likely to influence the surgeon's decision, as well as surgeon training background, years in practice, and risk-taking behavior.

Results: The majority of respondents selected operative treatment for 85% of the presented cases. The degree of fracture displacement was the only attribute significantly associated with treatment choice ( < .001). Surgeons were 28% more likely to treat the fracture operatively with each additional millimeter of displacement of fracture fragment. Over 64% of surgeons chose to treat operatively when the fracture fragment was displaced by ≥3.5 mm. Significant variation in surgeon's propensity for operative treatment of this fracture was observed ( = .01). Surgeon training, years in practice, and risk-taking scores were not associated with the respondent's preference for surgical treatment.

Conclusion: There was substantial variation among pediatric orthopaedic surgeons when treating type II tibial spine fractures. The decision to operate was based on the degree of fracture displacement. Identifying current treatment preferences among surgeons given different patient factors can highlight current variation in practice patterns and direct efforts toward promoting the most optimal treatment strategies for controversial type II tibial spine fractures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2325967119866162DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6713965PMC
August 2019
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