Publications by authors named "Benoit You"

85 Publications

Durvalumab compared to maintenance chemotherapy in metastatic breast cancer: the randomized phase II SAFIR02-BREAST IMMUNO trial.

Nat Med 2021 02 18;27(2):250-255. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Department of Medical Oncology, Gustave Roussy, Université Paris Saclay, Villejuif, France.

The impact of single-agent antibodies against programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) as maintenance therapy is unknown in patients with metastatic breast cancer. The SAFIR02-BREAST IMMUNO substudy included patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (Her2)-negative metastatic breast cancer whose disease did not progress after six to eight cycles of chemotherapy. Patients (n = 199) were randomized to either durvalumab (10 mg kg every 2 weeks) or maintenance chemotherapy. In the overall population, durvalumab did not improve progression-free survival (adjusted hazard ratio (HR): 1.40, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00-1.96; P = 0.047) or overall survival (OS; adjusted HR: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.54-1.29; P = 0.423). In an exploratory subgroup analysis, durvalumab improved OS in patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC; n = 82; HR: 0.54, 95% CI: 0.30-0.97, P = 0.0377). Exploratory analysis showed that the HR of death was 0.37 (95% CI: 0.12-1.13) for patients with PD-L1 TNBC (n = 32) and 0.49 (95% CI: 0.18-1.34) for those with PD-L1 TNBC (n = 29). In patients with TNBC, exploratory analyses showed that the HR for durvalumab efficacy (OS) was 0.18 (95% CI: 0.05-0.71; log-rank test, P = 0.0059) in patients with CD274 gain/amplification (n = 23) and 1.12 (95% CI: 0.42-2.99; log-rank test, P = 0.8139) in patients with CD274 normal/loss (n = 32). Tumor infiltration by lymphocytes (CD8, FoxP3 and CD103 expressions) and homologous recombination deficiency did not predict sensitivity to durvalumab in exploratory analyses. This latter finding should be interpreted with caution since only one patient presented a germline BRCA mutation. The present study provides a rationale to evaluate single-agent durvalumab in maintenance therapy in patients with TNBC. Exploratory analyses identified CD274 amplification as a potential biomarker of sensitivity. Maintenance chemotherapy was more effective than durvalumab in patients with hormone receptor-positive and Her2-negative disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41591-020-01189-2DOI Listing
February 2021

First-line bevacizumab and eribulin combination therapy for HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer: Efficacy and safety in the GINECO phase II ESMERALDA study.

Breast 2020 Dec 30;54:256-263. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Breast Cancer Unit, Centre François Baclesse (Institut Normand Du Sein), Caen, France.

Purpose: Combining bevacizumab with paclitaxel significantly improves progression-free survival (PFS) versus paclitaxel alone in HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer (MBC). Eribulin is active and tolerable in pretreated MBC. To assess whether eribulin may offer a more tolerable yet effective combination partner for bevacizumab, we evaluated a bevacizumab/eribulin combination regimen as first-line therapy for MBC.

Methods: In this single-arm phase II study, patients with histologically confirmed HER2-negative MBC and no prior chemotherapy for MBC received eribulin 1.23 mg/m on days 1 and 8 every 3 weeks for ≥6 cycles plus bevacizumab 15 mg/kg on day 1 every 3 weeks until disease progression. The primary endpoint was non-progression rate at 1 year. Secondary endpoints included objective response rate (ORR), PFS, and safety.

Results: The median age of the 61 treated female patients was 59 years, 16% had triple-negative MBC, 30% had ≥3 metastatic sites, and 71% had received prior (neo)adjuvant chemotherapy. Patients received a median of six eribulin and nine bevacizumab cycles. The non-progression rate at 1 year was 32% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 20-43%), ORR was 47% (95% CI: 34-60%), and median PFS was 8.3 months (95% CI: 7.0-9.6 months). The only grade ≥3 clinical adverse events in >5% of patients were hypertension (39%), neutropenia (26%), thrombosis (10%), and paresthesia/dysesthesia (7%).

Conclusion: First-line eribulin/bevacizumab combination therapy showed interesting activity in MBC with an acceptable safety profile, including a particularly low incidence of high-grade neuropathy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.breast.2020.09.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7672314PMC
December 2020

Reply to J. R. Lurain et al.

J Clin Oncol 2020 Dec 26;38(36):4350-4351. Epub 2020 Oct 26.

Benoit You, MD, PhD, Centre de Référence des Maladies Trophoblastiques, Lyon, France; Université Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, EMR UCBL/HCL 3738, Lyon, France; Medical Oncology, Institut de Cancérologie des Hospices Civils de Lyon (IC-HCL), CITOHL, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon, France; and Pierre-Adrien Bolze, MD, PhD, and Francois Golfier, MD, PhD, Centre de Référence des Maladies Trophoblastiques, Lyon, France; Université Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, EMR UCBL/HCL 3738, Lyon, France; Service de Chirurgie Gynécologique et Oncologique, Obstétrique, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Pierre Bénite, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.02911DOI Listing
December 2020

Front-Line Maintenance Therapy in Advanced Ovarian Cancer-Current Advances and Perspectives.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Aug 25;12(9). Epub 2020 Aug 25.

Oncology Department, Hôpital Lyon Sud, Institut de Cancérologie des Hospices Civils de Lyon (IC-HCL) and Université de Lyon, 69310 Lyon, France.

Ovarian tumor is the gynecological cancer associated with the highest mortality. Most diseases are diagnosed at an advanced stage, which impairs the chances of prolonged complete remission. The standard front-line treatment of advanced stages combines surgery in an expert center with platinum-based chemotherapy. Most patients experience a relapse in the years following the initial treatment. During the last decade, anti-angiogenic agents used in the maintenance setting improved progression free survival (PFS) over chemotherapy alone. More recently, PARP inhibitors demonstrated substantial efficacy, mainly in patients with germinal or somatic mutations or other homologous recombination deficiencies (HRD), all involved in double strand DNA Damage Repair (DDR). Other therapeutic paradigms are currently being explored, including combinations of immune-checkpoints inhibitors, chemotherapy, bevacizumab and PARP inhibitors. In addition to these clinical advances, molecular characterization of the tumors and their correlations with drugs efficacy are needed to better understand which patient will benefit the most from the various treatments available to date.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12092414DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7564452PMC
August 2020

Olaparib and durvalumab in patients with germline BRCA-mutated metastatic breast cancer (MEDIOLA): an open-label, multicentre, phase 1/2, basket study.

Lancet Oncol 2020 09 6;21(9):1155-1164. Epub 2020 Aug 6.

Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Israel; Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Background: Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors combined with immunotherapy have shown antitumour activity in preclinical studies. We aimed to assess the safety and activity of olaparib in combination with the PD-L1-inhibitor, durvalumab, in patients with germline BRCA1-mutated or BRCA2-mutated metastatic breast cancer.

Methods: The MEDIOLA trial is a multicentre, open-label, phase 1/2, basket trial of durvalumab and olaparib in solid tumours. Patients were enrolled into four initial cohorts: germline BRCA-mutated, metastatic breast cancer; germline BRCA-mutated, metastatic ovarian cancer; metastatic gastric cancer; and relapsed small-cell lung cancer. Here, we report on the cohort of patients with breast cancer. Patients who were aged 18 years or older (or aged 19 years or older in South Korea) with germline BRCA1-mutated or BRCA2-mutated or both and histologically confirmed, progressive, HER2-negative, metastatic breast cancer were enrolled from 14 health centres in the UK, the USA, Israel, France, Switzerland, and South Korea. Patients should not have received more than two previous lines of chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer. Patients received 300 mg olaparib in tablet form orally twice daily for 4 weeks and thereafter a combination of olaparib 300 mg twice daily and durvalumab 1·5 g via intravenous infusion every 4 weeks until disease progression. Primary endpoints were safety and tolerability, and 12-week disease control rate. Safety was analysed in patients who received at least one dose of study treatment, and activity analyses were done in the full-analysis set (patients who received at least one dose of study treatment and were not excluded from the study). Recruitment has completed and the study is ongoing. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02734004.

Findings: Between June 14, 2016, and May 2, 2017, 34 patients were enrolled and received both study drugs and were included in the safety analysis. 11 (32%) patients experienced grade 3 or worse adverse events, of which the most common were anaemia (four [12%]), neutropenia (three [9%]), and pancreatitis (two [6%]). Three (9%) patients discontinued due to adverse events and four (12%) patients experienced a total of six serious adverse events. There were no treatment-related deaths. 24 (80%; 90% CI 64·3-90·9) of 30 patients eligible for activity analysis had disease control at 12 weeks.

Interpretation: Combination of olaparib and durvalumab showed promising antitumour activity and safety similar to that previously observed in olaparib and durvalumab monotherapy studies. Further research in a randomised setting is needed to determine predictors of therapeutic benefit and whether addition of durvalumab improves long-term clinical outcomes compared with olaparib monotherapy.

Funding: AstraZeneca.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(20)30324-7DOI Listing
September 2020

Avelumab in Patients With Gestational Trophoblastic Tumors With Resistance to Single-Agent Chemotherapy: Cohort A of the TROPHIMMUN Phase II Trial.

J Clin Oncol 2020 09 27;38(27):3129-3137. Epub 2020 Jul 27.

Centre de Référence des Maladies Trophoblastiques, Lyon, France.

Purpose: Women with gestational trophoblastic tumors (GTT) resistant to single-agent chemotherapy receive alternative chemotherapy regimens, which, although effective, cause considerable toxicity. All GTT subtypes express programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), and natural killer (NK) cells are involved in trophoblast immunosurveillance. Avelumab (anti-PD-L1) induces NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity. The TROPHIMMUN trial assessed avelumab in women with chemotherapy-resistant GTT.

Methods: In this phase II multicenter trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03135769), women with GTT who experienced disease progression after single-agent chemotherapy received avelumab 10 mg/kg intravenously every 2 weeks until human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) normalization, followed by 3 consolidation cycles. Rate of hCG normalization was the primary endpoint (2-step Simon design).

Results: Between December 2016 and September 2018, 15 patients were treated. Median age was 34 years; disease stage was I or III in 53.3% and 46.7% of women, respectively; and International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) score was 0-4 in 33.3%, 5-6 in 46.7%, and ≥ 7 in 20% of patients. Prior treatment included methotrexate (100%) and actinomycin D (7%). Median follow-up was 25 months, and median number of avelumab cycles was 8 (range, 2-11). Grade 1-2 treatment-related adverse events occurred in 93% of patients, most commonly (≥ 25%) fatigue (33.3%), nausea/vomiting (33.3%), and infusion-related reaction (26.7%). One patient had grade 3 uterine bleeding (treatment unrelated). Eight patients (53.3%) had hCG normalization after a median of 9 avelumab cycles; none subsequently relapsed. Probability of normalization was not associated with disease stage, FIGO score, or baseline hCG. One patient subsequently had a healthy pregnancy. In avelumab-resistant patients (46.7%), hCG was normalized with actinomycin D (42.3%) or combination chemotherapy/surgery (57.1%).

Conclusion: In patients with single-agent chemotherapy-resistant GTT, avelumab had a favorable safety profile and cured approximately 50% of patients. Avelumab could be a new therapeutic option, particularly in patients who would otherwise receive combination chemotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.00803DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7499607PMC
September 2020

Comparative analysis of predictive values of the kinetics of 11 circulating miRNAs and of CA125 in ovarian cancer during first line treatment (a GINECO study).

Gynecol Oncol 2020 Oct 22;159(1):256-263. Epub 2020 Jul 22.

EMR3738, Ciblage Thérapeutique en Oncologie, Faculté de Médecine et de Maïeutique Lyon-Sud Charles Mérieux, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Oullins, France, Université de Lyon, Lyon, France; Service d'Oncologie Médicale, CITOHL, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire Lyon-Sud, Institut de Cancérologie des Hospices Civils de Lyon (IC-HCL), Pierre-Bénite, France, GINECO, Paris, France.

Objective: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are promising biomarkers in ovarian cancer. Their kinetics during treatment might be useful for monitoring disease burden, and guiding treatments in patients treated with peri-operative chemotherapy and interval debulking surgery (IDS).

Methods: Serial blood samples of patients enrolled in the randomized phase II CHIVA trial, comparing first line carboplatin-paclitaxel +/- nintedanib (NCT01583322) and IDS, were investigated to assess the kinetics of 11 relevant miRNAs. Their prognostic/predictive values regarding the likelihood of complete IDS, and the patient survival, were assessed and compared to those of CA125 kinetics. The selection of the miRNAs (miR-15b-5p, miR-16-5p, miR-20a-5p, miR-21-5p, miR-93-5p, miR-122-5p, miR-150-5p, miR-195-5p, miR-200b-3p, miR-148b-5p and miR-34a-5p) was based on the expression levels found with a large explorative panel, and on the literature data.

Results: 756 serial blood samples from 119 patients were analyzed for a total of 8172 miRNA assays, and 1299 CA125 values. The longitudinal kinetics of the miRNA expressions were highly inconsistent, and were not related to CA125 dynamics. The miRNA changes during neoadjuvant treatment were not found associated with RECIST tumor response or IDS outcomes. Decreases of miR-34a-5p and miR-93-5p were associated with PFS benefit (p = .009) and OS benefits (p < .001), respectively, using univariate tests.

Conclusions: The longitudinal kinetics of miRNA expressions during neoadjuvant treatment in ovarian cancer patients were inconsistent, and were not found to be associated with tumor burden changes. Although some prognostic value could be discussed, no predictive value regarding tumor responses or IDS quality could be identified.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygyno.2020.07.021DOI Listing
October 2020

Bevacizumab for Newly Diagnosed Ovarian Cancers: Best Candidates Among High-Risk Disease Patients (ICON-7).

JNCI Cancer Spectr 2020 Jun 4;4(3):pkaa026. Epub 2020 Apr 4.

Faculté de Médecine Lyon-Sud, Univ Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, EMR UCBL/HCL 3738, Lyon, France.

Bevacizumab is approved as a maintenance treatment in first-line setting in advanced-stage III-IV ovarian cancers, because GOG-0218 and ICON-7 phase III trials demonstrated progression-free survival benefits. However, only the subgroup of patients with high-risk diseases (stage IV, and incompletely resected stage III) derived an overall survival (OS) gain in the ICON-7 trial (4.8 months). The modeled CA-125 elimination rate constant K (KELIM) parameter, based on the longitudinal CA-125 kinetics during the first 100 days of chemotherapy, is a potential indicator of the tumor primary chemo-sensitivity. In the ICON-7 trial dataset, the OS of patients within the low- and high-risk disease groups was assessed according to treatment arms and KELIM. Among the patients with high-risk diseases, those with favorable standardized KELIM of at least 1.0 (n = 214, 46.7%) had no survival benefit from bevacizumab, whereas those with unfavorable KELIM less than 1.0 (n = 244, 53.2%) derived the highest OS benefit (absolute difference = 9.1 months, 2-sided log-rank  = .10; Cox hazard ratio = 0.78, 95% confidence interval = 0.58 to 1.04, 2-sided  = .09).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jncics/pkaa026DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7306189PMC
June 2020

Transcriptomic and immunohistochemical approaches identify HLA-G as a predictive biomarker of gestational choriocarcinoma resistance to monochemotherapy.

Gynecol Oncol 2020 Sep 5;158(3):785-793. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Joint Research Unit Hospices Civils de Lyon-bioMérieux, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon Sud Hospital, 165 chemin du grand Revoyet, 69495 Pierre Bénite, France; Medical Diagnostic Discovery Department (MD3), bioMérieux S.A., Marcy l'Etoile, France; Joint Research Unit Hospices Civils de Lyon-bioMérieux, EA 7426 Pathophysiology of Injury-Induced Immunosuppression, PI3, Claude Bernard Lyon 1 University, Edouard Herriot Hospital, Lyon, France.

Objective: Using a transcriptional approach on tissue samples, we sought to identify predictive biomarkers of post molar malignant transformation, and of choriocarcinoma chemosensitivity to mono- (methotrexate or actinomycin D) or polychemotherapy [EMA(Etoposide, Methotrexate, Actinomycin D)-CO(Cyclophosphamide, Vincristine) and EMA-EP(Etoposide, Cisplatine)] regimens.

Methods: We studied the expression of a 760-gene panel (PanCancer Pathway) related to oncogenesis and immune tolerance in tissue samples of complete hydatidiform moles and gestational choriocarcinoma.

Results: We did not identify any differentially expressed gene between moles with post molar malignant transformation in choriocarcinoma (n = 14) and moles with remission (n = 20). In monochemoresistant choriocarcinoma (n = 34), four genes (HLA-G, COL27A1, IL1R2 and GLI3) had a significantly reduced expression and one (THEM4) had an increased expression [FDR (false discovery rate) adjusted p-value ≤ 0.05] when compared to monochemosensitive choriocarcinoma (n = 9). The proportion of trophoblast cells and the intensity of immunohistochemical HLA-G expression were reduced in monochemoresistant choriocarcinoma (p < 0.05). In polychemoresistant choriocarcinoma (n = 20) we did not identify differentially expressed genes with an FDR adjusted p-value ≤ 0.05 when compared to polychemosensitive choriocarcinoma (n = 15). Gene pathway analysis revealed a predicted activation of IFN ᵞ in monochemoresistant choriocarcinoma and inhibited IL2 and TNF in polychemoresistant choriocarcinoma. The main biological functions predicted to be altered in chemoresistant choriocarcinoma were related to immunological homeostasis and leukopoiesis.

Conclusion: HLA-G is a strong candidate gene to predict choriocarcinoma resistance to monochemotherapy and that further studies are required to implement its routine quantification in the decision process for the management of gestational choriocarcinoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygyno.2020.05.042DOI Listing
September 2020

Validation of an online tool for early prediction of the failure-risk in gestational trophoblastic neoplasia patients treated with methotrexate.

Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2020 07 4;86(1):15-24. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Oncology Medical Department, CITOHL, Université Claude Bernard Lyon-1, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon, France.

Purpose: In a low-risk gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) treated with methotrexate (MTX), the modeled hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) residual concentration (hCGres), calculated with NONMEM program® (NM) during the first 50 treatment days, is a predictor of MTX-resistance risk. This model was implemented with another algorithm on https://www.biomarker-kinetics.org/hCG . The objective was to confirm the validity of the website estimations with respect to NM.

Methods: The consistencies of modeled hCGres estimated by NM and by the website were assessed in a dataset of 60 fictive patients with simulated hCG profiles, as well as in an independent database of 531 actual patients. Moreover, the hCGres predictive values regarding MTX failure-risk were assessed.

Results: The values of hCGres obtained with both methods were highly consistent in the fictive patient and in the actual patient datasets: median relative prediction errors (RPE) were - 0.059 and 9.9 × 10, respectively. The ROC AUCs for predictions of MTX failure-risk were 0.90 (95% CI 0.87,0.93) with both NM and the website. The gradual association between increasing hCGres and the 2-year MTX failure-free survival was confirmed.

Conclusion: There is a high consistency of hCGres estimates obtained with the two methods. The website is meant to help clinicians in the interpretation of hCG decline curves of MTX-treated GTN patients. hCGres is now validated for more than 1690 patients in four independent datasets, and its recognition as an early predictor of MTX resistance for treatment adjustment and for the future studies should be considered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00280-020-04086-0DOI Listing
July 2020

CA-125 ELIMination Rate Constant K (KELIM) Is a Marker of Chemosensitivity in Patients with Ovarian Cancer: Results from the Phase II CHIVA Trial.

Clin Cancer Res 2020 Sep 24;26(17):4625-4632. Epub 2020 Mar 24.

Univ Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Faculté de médecine Lyon-Sud, Lyon, France.

Purpose: In patients with ovarian cancer receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy, the first-line treatment success will depend on both the tumor-primary chemosensitivity and the completeness of interval debulking surgery (IDS). The modeled CA-125 ELIMination rate constant K (KELIM), calculated with the CA-125 longitudinal kinetics during the first 100 chemotherapy days, is a validated early marker of tumor chemosensitivity. The objective was to investigate the role of the chemosensitivity relative to the success of first-line medical-surgical treatment.

Experimental Design: The CA-125 concentrations were prospectively measured in the randomized phase II trial CHIVA (NCT01583322, carboplatin-paclitaxel regimen ± nintedanib, and IDS, = 188 patients). The KELIM predictive value regarding the tumor response rate, likelihood of complete IDS, risk of subsequent platinum-resistant relapse (PtRR), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) was assessed using univariate and multivariate tests.

Results: The data from 134 patients were analyzed. KELIM was an independent and major predictor of subsequent PtRR risk, and of survivals. The final logistic regression model, including KELIM [OR = 0.13; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.03-0.49] and complete IDS (no vs. yes, OR = 0.30; 95% CI, 0.11-0.76) highlights the preponderant role of chemosensitivity on the success of the first-line treatment. In patients with highly chemosensitive diseases, the patient prognosis was driven more by the chemotherapy-induced antitumor effects than by the surgery.

Conclusions: The tumor-primary chemosensitivity, assessed by the modeled CA-125 KELIM calculated during neoadjuvant chemotherapy (http://www.biomarker-kinetics.org/CA-125-neo), may be a major parameter to consider for decision-making regarding IDS attempt, and selecting patients for treatments meant to reverse the primary chemoresistance..
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-20-0054DOI Listing
September 2020

The oncogenic and druggable hPG80 (Progastrin) is overexpressed in multiple cancers and detected in the blood of patients.

EBioMedicine 2020 Jan 24;51:102574. Epub 2019 Dec 24.

ECS-Progastrin, Chemin de la Meunière 12, 1008 Prilly, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Background: In colorectal cancer, hPG80 (progastrin) is released from tumor cells, promotes cancer stem cells (CSC) self-renewal and is detected in the blood of patients. Because the gene GAST that encodes hPG80 is a target gene of oncogenic pathways that are activated in many tumor types, we hypothesized that hPG80 could be expressed by tumors from various origins other than colorectal cancers, be a drug target and be detectable in the blood of these patients.

Methods: hPG80 expression was monitored by fluorescent immunohistochemistry and mRNA expression in tumors from various origins. Cancer cell lines were used in sphere forming assay to analyze CSC self-renewal. Blood samples were obtained from 1546 patients with 11 different cancer origins and from two retrospective kinetic studies in patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis or hepatocellular carcinomas. These patients were regularly sampled during treatments and assayed for hPG80.

Findings: We showed that hPG80 was present in the 11 tumor types tested. In cell lines originating from these tumor types, hPG80 neutralization decreased significantly CSC self-renewal by 28 to 54%. hPG80 was detected in the blood of patients at significantly higher concentration than in healthy blood donors (median hPG80: 4.88 pM versus 1.05 pM; p < 0.0001) and shown to be correlated to GAST mRNA levels in the matched tumor (i.e., lung cancers, Spearman r = 0.8; p = 0.0023). Furthermore, we showed a strong association between longitudinal hPG80 concentration changes and anti-cancer treatment efficacy in two independent retrospective studies. In the peritoneal carcinomatosis cohort, median hPG80 from inclusion to the post-operative period decreased from 5.36 to 3.00 pM (p < 0.0001, n = 62) and in the hepatocellular carcinoma cohort, median hPG80 from inclusion to remission decreased from 11.54 pM to 1.99 pM (p < 0.0001, n = 63).

Interpretation: Because oncogenic hPG80 is expressed in tumor cells from different origins and because circulating hPG80 in the blood is related to the burden/activity of the tumor, it is a promising cancer target for therapy and for disease monitoring.

Fundings: ECS-Progastrin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ebiom.2019.11.035DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6938867PMC
January 2020

Olaparib plus Bevacizumab as First-Line Maintenance in Ovarian Cancer.

N Engl J Med 2019 12;381(25):2416-2428

From Centre Léon Bérard (I.R.-C., D.P.), University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 (I.R.-C.), and Centre Hospitalier Lyon-Sud (B.Y.), Lyon, Groupe d'Investigateurs Nationaux pour l'Etude des Cancers Ovariens (GINECO) (I.R.-C., P.P., F.S., C.L.-P., A.L., P.C., M.R., C.D., B.Y., E.P.-L.), Groupe Hospitalier Diaconesses Croix Saint-Simon (F.S.), Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou (P.C.), Institut Curie, Hôpital Claudius Régaud (M.R.), and Association de Recherche Cancers Gynécologiques (ARCAGY) (E.P.-L.), Paris, Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (P.P.), Centre Eugène Marquis, Rennes (C.L.-P.), Centre Catherine de Sienne Hôpital Privé du Confluent, Nantes (A.L.), and Institut Curie, Hôpital René Huguenin, Saint Cloud (C.D.) - all in France; the Department of Urology and Gynecology, Istituto Nazionale Tumori IRCCS Fondazione G. Pascale, and Multicenter Italian Trials in Ovarian Cancer and Gynecologic Malignancies (MITO), Naples (S.P.), University of Milan-Bicocca and European Institute of Oncology IRCCS, and Mario Negri Gynecologic Oncology Group (MANGO) (N.C.), and Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori and MITO (D.L.), Milan, and Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, Università Cattolica, and MITO, Rome (G.S.) - all in Italy; M.D. Anderson Cancer Center Madrid (A.G.-M.), Grupo Español de Investigación en Cáncer de Ovario (GEICO) (A.G.-M., E.M.G.A.), and Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal (E.M.G.A.) - all in Madrid; Medical University of Innsbruck, University Clinic for Gynecology and Obstetrics (R.B.), and Arbeitsgemeinschaft Gynäkologische Onkologie Study Group (AGO)-Austria (R.B., A.R.), Innsbruck, and Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (A.R.) - all in Austria; Saitama Medical University International Medical Center, Hidaka (K.F.), Gynecologic Oncology Trial and Investigation Consortium (GOTIC), Moroyama-cho (K.F., S.N.), and Hyogo Cancer Center, Akashi (S.N.) - all in Japan; University Hospital Leuven, Leuven Cancer Institute, and Belgium and Luxembourg Gynecologic Oncology Group (BGOG) - both in Leuven, Belgium (I.V.); Tampere University and University Hospital, Tampere, Finland (J.M.); the Nordic Society of Gynecologic Oncology (NSGO), Copenhagen (J.M.); and Charité-Medical University of Berlin (Campus Virchow Klinikum), Berlin (J.S.), German Society of Gynecologic Oncology (AGO) (J.S., U.C., F.M., N.G., P.B., A.B., P.H.), Universitätsklinikum Essen (P.B.), and Kliniken Essen Mitte (P.H.), Essen, Universitätsklinikum Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden (U.C.), Universitätsklinikum Heidelberg, Heidelberg (F.M.), Universitätsklinikum Ulm, Ulm (N.G.), and Klinikum der Universität München, Munich (A.B.) - all in Germany.

Background: Olaparib has shown significant clinical benefit as maintenance therapy in women with newly diagnosed advanced ovarian cancer with a mutation. The effect of combining maintenance olaparib and bevacizumab in patients regardless of mutation status is unknown.

Methods: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, international phase 3 trial. Eligible patients had newly diagnosed, advanced, high-grade ovarian cancer and were having a response after first-line platinum-taxane chemotherapy plus bevacizumab. Patients were eligible regardless of surgical outcome or mutation status. Patients were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to receive olaparib tablets (300 mg twice daily) or placebo for up to 24 months; all the patients received bevacizumab at a dose of 15 mg per kilogram of body weight every 3 weeks for up to 15 months in total. The primary end point was the time from randomization until investigator-assessed disease progression or death.

Results: Of the 806 patients who underwent randomization, 537 were assigned to receive olaparib and 269 to receive placebo. After a median follow-up of 22.9 months, the median progression-free survival was 22.1 months with olaparib plus bevacizumab and 16.6 months with placebo plus bevacizumab (hazard ratio for disease progression or death, 0.59; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.49 to 0.72; P<0.001). The hazard ratio (olaparib group vs. placebo group) for disease progression or death was 0.33 (95% CI, 0.25 to 0.45) in patients with tumors positive for homologous-recombination deficiency (HRD), including tumors that had mutations (median progression-free survival, 37.2 vs. 17.7 months), and 0.43 (95% CI, 0.28 to 0.66) in patients with HRD-positive tumors that did not have mutations (median progression-free survival, 28.1 vs. 16.6 months). Adverse events were consistent with the established safety profiles of olaparib and bevacizumab.

Conclusions: In patients with advanced ovarian cancer receiving first-line standard therapy including bevacizumab, the addition of maintenance olaparib provided a significant progression-free survival benefit, which was substantial in patients with HRD-positive tumors, including those without a mutation. (Funded by ARCAGY Research and others; PAOLA-1 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02477644.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1911361DOI Listing
December 2019

Are Older Patients with Cervical Cancer Managed Differently to Younger Patients? An International Survey.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Dec 6;11(12). Epub 2019 Dec 6.

Department of Medical Oncology, Institut Curie, Paris Science & Lettres Research University, 75005 Paris, France.

Although a quarter of cervical cancers occur after the age of 65 years, there is no treatment consensus for these patients. The aim of this work was to survey how physicians treat patients with advanced cervical cancer, focusing on treatment adjustments according to age and frailty status. Specialists were invited to an online survey. Data collected included information on respondent and treatment strategy in four cases (FIGO IIb, FIGO IVa, FIGO IVb, metastatic recurrence) with three age scenarios (45-year-old, 75-year-old and fit, 75-year-old and unfit). We received 237 responses of which 117 were fully completed. Thirty-four percent of respondents reported they had available access to a geriatric team and 25% used a frailty screening tool in routine. Therapeutic strategies did not differ between young and old fit patients. However, treatment modalities and intensity were different for old and unfit patients. Physicians answered that they would treat old fit patients as their younger counterparts but would reduce treatment intensity for old unfit patients. However, even if they were willing to adapt their treatment strategy based on frailty status, most of them do not use the tools that would allow distinguishing "fit" and "unfit" older patients, leaving room for improving accurate geriatric evaluation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11121955DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6966543PMC
December 2019

Clinical efficacy of the optimal biological dose in early-phase trials of anti-cancer targeted therapies.

Eur J Cancer 2019 10 31;120:40-46. Epub 2019 Aug 31.

Faculty of Medicine Lyon-Sud, Claude Bernard University Lyon 1, EMR UCBL/HCL 3738, University of Lyon, Lyon, France; Department of Medical Oncology, Cancerology Institute of Hospices Civils de Lyon (IC-HCL), CITOHL, Lyon-Sud Hospital, Lyon, France. Electronic address:

Background: Determining the optimal biological dose (OBD) has been described as an alternative strategy to the maximum tolerated doses (MTDs) for identifying the recommended phase II trial doses (RP2Ds) of phase I anti-cancer therapies. However, the clinical relevance is still unknown. An extensive review was performed to assess if the OBDs defined in early-phase trials were useful for subsequent drug development and approvals.

Methods: All the molecular targeted therapies approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in solid oncology or in haematological malignancies before July 2018 were listed through the National Cancer Institute Database. The early-phase trial publications investigating these drugs as single agents were retrieved and analysed to identify the drugs for which OBDs were reported. The publications of subsequent pivotal efficacy clinical trials leading to the approvals were retrieved, and OBDs compared with the final labelled doses and dosing schedules.

Results: A total of 87 early-phase trial publications were analysed, corresponding to 81 FDA-approved targeted therapies. OBDs were reported for 40% (32/81) of these drugs (19 small molecules, 13 monoclonal antibodies). MTDs were not identified for 59% (19/32) of molecules. When the OBDs were selected as the RP2Ds (18/32 molecules), the final FDA-approved doses were consistent with the OBDs for 83% of the drugs, which is much higher than the previously reported 58% rate when MTDs were chosen as the RP2Ds.

Conclusion: Although still poorly investigated, the OBD may be a relevant and complementary end-point for early-phase trials of targeted therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2019.08.002DOI Listing
October 2019

Actionable molecular alterations in advanced gynaecologic malignancies: updated results from the ProfiLER programme.

Eur J Cancer 2019 09 24;118:156-165. Epub 2019 Jul 24.

Medical Practices Evaluation Team - HESPER EA7425, Centre Léon Bérard, Lyon, France; Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Lyon, France; Department of Medical Oncology, Centre Léon Bérard, Lyon, France. Electronic address:

Objectives: The objectives of this study were to identify actionable genomic alterations in the gynaecological subpopulation of the ProfiLER programme and to report clinical efficacy of recommended targeted treatment (RTT).

Methods: The ProfiLER programme (NCT01774409) is a multicentric prospective trial aiming to implement molecular profiling in patients with advanced refractory cancers. In this programme, tumour DNA is analysed by targeted next-generation sequencing (69 genes) and by whole genome array comparative genomic hybridisation. Clinical cases and genomic profiles are presented in a dedicated molecular tumour board to guide treatment strategies. We report here an analysis of patients with gynaecological cancers included in this trial.

Results: From February 2013 to February 2017, 309 patients with gynaecologic cancer were included; 279 (90%) had sufficient quality, and 131 patients (42.4%) had at least one actionable genomic alteration in cancer cells. Four alterations were shared by at least 3% of the patients: 27 (9.7%) PIK3CA mutations, 15 (5.4%) KRAS mutations, 11 (3.9%) ERBB2 amplifications and 9 (3.2%) CDKN2A deletions. Forty-one treatments were initiated among 39 patients (12.6% of the screened population): 8 (20%) had a partial response, and other 10 (24%) had a stable disease. The median progression-free survival was 2.7 months. The median overall survival was 15.6 months for patients who received a RTT.

Conclusion: Molecular profiling identified actionable alterations in 42.4% of patients with advanced refractory gynaecologic cancer, but only 12.6% were treated with a RTT. Among them, 46% derived clinical benefit (5.8% of the screened population).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2019.06.017DOI Listing
September 2019

Determination of Cetuximab in Plasma by Liquid Chromatography-High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry Orbitrap With a Stable Labeled 13C,15N-Cetuximab Internal Standard.

Ther Drug Monit 2019 08;41(4):467-475

Laboratoire de Pharmaco-Toxicologie, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon-Sud, Pierre Bénite.

Background: Cetuximab (CTX) is a chimeric IgG1 Kappa monoclonal antibody used to treat head and neck cancer and colorectal cancer. Previous clinical studies indicated that the pharmacokinetics of CTX influences patient survival. Thus, individualizing CTX treatment by measuring trough levels of the drug in plasma could have a major impact on clinical efficacy.

Methods: To measure these levels, a full-length stable isotope-labeled CTX standard was used in a generic, rapid, and high-throughput sample preparation protocol based on IgG capture followed by trypsin digestion, on-line solid-phase extraction cleanup, and liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS).

Results: The optimized method displayed good analytical performance and was linear over a range from 5 to 150 mcg/mL. The within-run and between-run imprecision of the assay were equal to or less than 10%, for 6 replicates at 3 different concentrations and for runs performed on 5 separate days. The plasma CTX concentrations in 19 patients were also determined.

Conclusions: The results showed that quantification of mAb in clinical samples does not strictly require a tandem mass spectrometry system, and LC-HRMS is also relevant in this context. This first study implementing a quantitative LC-HRMS assay with a specific stable isotope-labeled mAb internal standard paves the way for more robust clinical monitoring of anticancer mAbs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/FTD.0000000000000613DOI Listing
August 2019

Early Modeled Longitudinal CA-125 Kinetics and Survival of Ovarian Cancer Patients: A GINECO AGO MRC CTU Study.

Clin Cancer Res 2019 09 1;25(17):5342-5350. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Université de Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Faculté de Médecine Lyon-Sud, EMR UCBL/HCL 3738, Lyon, France.

Purpose: Regarding cancer antigen 125 (CA-125) longitudinal kinetics during chemotherapy, the actual predictive value of the Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup (GCIG) CA-125 response criterion is questioned. The modeled CA-125 elimination rate constant KELIM exhibited higher prognostic value in patients with recurrent ovarian cancer enrolled in the CALYPSO trial. The objective was to validate the higher predictive and prognostic values of KELIM during first-line treatments.

Experimental Design: Data from three large phase III trials were analyzed: AGO OVAR 9 [learning set: carboplatin-paclitaxel (CP) ± gemcitabine; = 1,288]; AGO OVAR 7 (validation set: CP ± topotecan; = 192); and ICON7 (validation set: CP ± bevacizumab; = 1,388). The CA-125 profiles were fit with a nonlinear mixed-effect model during the first 100 days, and the individual KELIM were calculated. KELIM prognostic and predictive values for survival were assessed against GCIG criterion and other prognostic factors in univariate/multivariate analyses.

Results: The GCIG CA-125 endpoint provided no meaningful predictive/prognostic information. C-index analyses confirmed the higher predictive value of KELIM compared with GCIG criterion for progression-free survival and overall survival (OS). KELIM provided reproducible prognostic information. Patients with favorable KELIM ≥ upper tercile (0.0711 per days) consistently experienced better OS, with HRs between 0.44 and 0.58 (e.g., median OS >65 months vs. <35 months).

Conclusions: Modeled KELIM provides higher predictive and prognostic information based on CA-125 longitudinal kinetics compared with GCIG response criteria during first-line chemotherapy. Integration of this endpoint in guidelines may be considered. Individual KELIM and survival simulations can be calculated at http://www.biomarker-kinetics.org/. Further assessment of the surrogate value of KELIM treatment-related variations in a GCIG meta-analysis is warranted..
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-18-3335DOI Listing
September 2019

Pharmacokinetic Study of Osimertinib in Cancer Patients with Mild or Moderate Hepatic Impairment.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2019 05 14;369(2):291-299. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Medical Oncology Department, Ramón y Cajal Hospital, Madrid, Spain (E.G.); Department of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Emory University School of Medicine, Winship Cancer Institute, Atlanta, Georgia (R.D.H., S.S.R.); Medical Oncology, Faculté de Médecine Lyon-Sud, Université Claude Bernard Lyon-1, Institute de Cancérologie des Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon, France (B.Y.); Medical Oncology Department, La Paz University Hospital, Autonoma University of Madrid (affiliated with CIBERONC-Instituto de Salud Carlos III), Madrid, Spain (J.F.B.); IQVIA, Kansas City, Missouri (H.G.); Institute for Drug Development, Mays Cancer Center at University of Texas, Health San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas (J.S.); Global Medicines Development, AstraZeneca, Cambridge, United Kingdom (H.M., K.S.); and Quantitative Clinical Pharmacology, Early Clinical Development IMED Biotech Unit, AstraZeneca, Cambridge, United Kingdom (M.J., K.V.)

Osimertinib, an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), undergoes significant hepatic elimination. In this phase 1 study, we assessed the effects of mild and moderate hepatic impairment on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of osimertinib in patients with malignant solid tumors. In part A, patients with normal hepatic function, mild hepatic impairment, and moderate hepatic impairment, according to the Child-Pugh classification, received a single 80 mg oral dose of osimertinib. Standard PK measures were assessed. In part B, patients could continue osimertinib treatment if deemed clinically appropriate. We compared these study results with a population PK analysis including other osimertinib clinical studies. Geometric mean osimertinib plasma concentrations were lower in patients with mild ( = 7) or moderate hepatic impairment ( = 5) versus normal hepatic function ( = 10): was reduced to 51% and 61%, respectively; area under the curve was reduced to 63% and 68%, respectively. PK results for the metabolites were similar. No apparent differences in the safety profile were found between patients with normal hepatic function and patients with mild or moderate hepatic impairment. Comparison of these study results with National Cancer Institute-Organ Dysfunction Working Group criteria from population PK analysis showed osimertinib exposure was not affected by hepatic impairment. No dose adjustment is required for osimertinib when treating patients with mild or moderate hepatic impairment. No apparent differences in the safety of osimertinib were found between patients with normal hepatic function and mild or moderate hepatic impairment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/jpet.118.255919DOI Listing
May 2019

[Management of epithelial ovarian cancer. Short text drafted from the French joint recommendations of FRANCOGYN, CNGOF, SFOG, GINECO-ARCAGY and endorsed by INCa].

Bull Cancer 2019 Apr 6;106(4):354-370. Epub 2019 Mar 6.

AP-HP, institut universitaire de cancérologie Sorbonne université, service de gynécologie-obstétrique et médecine de la reproduction, hôpital Tenon, UMRS-938, 4, rue de La Chine, 75020 Tenon, France.

Faced to an undetermined ovarian mass on ultrasound, an MRI is recommended and the ROMA score (combining CA125 and HE4) can be proposed (grade A). In case of suspected early stage ovarian or fallopian tube cancer, omentectomy (at least infracolonic), appendectomy, multiple peritoneal biopsies, peritoneal cytology (grade C) and pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy are recommended (grade B) for all histological types, except for the expansive mucinous subtype where lymphadenectomy may be omitted (grade C). Minimally invasive surgery is recommended for early stage ovarian cancer, if there is no risk of tumor rupture (grade B). Adjuvant chemotherapy with carboplatin and paclitaxel is recommended for all high-grade ovarian or Fallopian tube cancers, stage FIGO I-IIA (grade A). In case of ovarian, Fallopian tube or primitive peritoneal cancer of FIGO III-IV stages, thoraco-abdomino-pelvic CT scan with injection (grade B) is recommended. Laparoscopic exploration for multiple biopsies (grade A) and to evaluate carcinomatosis score (at least using the Fagotti score) (grade C) are recommended to estimate the possibility of a complete surgery (i.e. no macroscopic residue). Complete medial laparotomy surgery is recommended for advanced cancers (grade B). It is recommended in advanced cancers to perform para-aortic and pelvic lymphadenectomy in case of clinical or radiological suspicion of metastatic lymph node (grade B). In the absence of clinical or radiological lymphadenopathy and in case of complete peritoneal surgery during an initial surgery for advanced cancer, it is possible not to perform a lymphadenectomy because it does not modify the medical treatment and the overall survival (grade B). Primary surgery is recommended when no tumor residue is possible (grade B). After a complete first surgery, it is recommended to deliver 6 cycles of intravenous (grade A) or to propose intraperitoneal (grade B) chemotherapy, to be discussed with patient, according to the benefit/risk ratio. After a complete interval surgery for a FIGO III stage, the hyperthermic intra peritoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) can be proposed in the same conditions of the OV-HIPEC trial (grade B). In case of tumor residue after surgery or FIGO stage IV, chemotherapy associated with bevacizumab is recommended (grade A).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bulcan.2019.01.014DOI Listing
April 2019

Changes in the Use of Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment in Clinical Trials for Older Patients with Cancer over Time.

Oncologist 2019 08 1;24(8):1089-1094. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Medical Oncology Department, Hospices Civils de Lyon (IC-HCL), Pierre-Bénite, France.

Background: The objective of this study was to describe the implementation of comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) in clinical trials dedicated to older patients before and after the creation of the International Society of Geriatric Oncology in the early 2000s.

Subjects, Materials, And Methods: All phase I, II, and III trials dedicated to the treatment of cancer among older patients published between 2001 and 2004 and between 2011 and 2014 were reviewed. We considered that a CGA was performed when the authors indicated an intention to do so in the Methods section of the article. We collected each geriatric domain assessed using a validated tool even in the absence of a clear CGA, including nutritional, functional, cognitive, and psychological status, comorbidity, comedication, overmedication, social status and support, and geriatric syndromes.

Results: A total of 260 clinical trials dedicated to older patients were identified over the two time periods: 27 phase I, 193 phase II, and 40 phase III trials. CGA was used in 9% and 8% of phase II and III trials, respectively; it was never used in phase I trials. Performance status was reported in 67%, 79%, and 75% of phase I, II, and III trials, respectively. Functional assessment was reported in 4%, 11%, and 13% of phase I, II, and III trials, respectively. Between the two time periods, use of CGA increased from 1% to 11% ( = .0051) and assessment of functional status increased from 3% to 14% ( = .0094).

Conclusion: The use of CGA in trials dedicated to older patients increased significantly but remained insufficient.

Implications For Practice: This article identifies the areas in which research efforts should be focused in order to offer physicians well-addressed clinical trials with results that can be extrapolated to daily practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1634/theoncologist.2018-0493DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6693722PMC
August 2019

A systematic review of adverse events in randomized trials assessing immune checkpoint inhibitors.

Int J Cancer 2019 08 4;145(3):639-648. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Department of Medical Oncology, Institut de Cancérologie des Hospices Civils de Lyon (IC-HCL), Pierre-Bénite, France.

The advent of immune checkpoint-inhibitors (CPI) has transformed treatment for several cancer types. This review was performed to assess the rate of adverse events (AEs) associated with the use of CPI, alone or in combinations. A review of AEs reporting quality was also performed. All publications of Randomized Clinical Trials (RCTs) assessing CPI published before December 2017 were included. To investigate the quality of AEs reporting, a set of items was defined based on the 2004 CONSORT harms extension statement. Rates of Grade 5, serious, and study-withdrawal related AEs were collected in each treatment category. Specific immune related AEs (irAEs) were also collected when available. Pooled estimates of adverse event rates were calculated by using generalized linear mixed model. A total of 35 RCTs including 16,485 patients were included. The overall quality of AEs reporting was satisfactory, but items pertaining to methods of data collection and analysis were infrequently reported. Grade ≥ 3 AEs were reported for 14% (95% CI 12-16) of patients treated with PD(L)-1 inhibitors, 34% (95% CI 27-42) of patients treated with CTLA-4 inhibitors, 55% (95% CI 51-59) of patients on CPI combinations and 46% (95% CI 40-53) of patients on immunotherapy-chemotherapy combination. The profile of irAEs was different among the treatment categories. The use of CPI, especially in combination, is associated with significant rates of Grade ≥ 3 AEs. Healthcare planning should anticipate the expected high number of patients presenting with irAEs in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.32132DOI Listing
August 2019

Pure Seminoma and Concurrent Aggressive Lymphoma: Case Report of a Patient With Persistent Müllerian Duct Syndrome.

Clin Genitourin Cancer 2019 04 5;17(2):e369-e371. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Medical Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Institut de cancérologie des Hospices Civils de Lyon (IC-HCL), Pierre-Bénite, France; UMR INSERM 1052, CNRS 5286, Centre de recherche en cancérologie de Lyon (CRCL), Lyon, France. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clgc.2018.11.019DOI Listing
April 2019

Non-pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (NPLD, Myocet®) + carboplatin in patients with platinum sensitive ovarian cancers: A ARCAGY-GINECO phase IB-II trial.

Gynecol Oncol 2019 01 14;152(1):68-75. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

CITOHL, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Institut de Cancérologie des Hospices Civils de Lyon (IDCRC-HCL), 69310 Pierre-Bénite, France; EMR UCBL/HCL 3738, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Lyon, France. Electronic address:

Background: Carboplatin and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin combination is a standard regimen in platinum-sensitive recurrent ovarian cancer patients. The pegylated liposomal doxorubicin shortage from 2011 to 2013 urged assessment of the efficacy and tolerance of non-pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in combination with carboplatin.

Methods: MYCA was a multicenter 2-step phase Ib-II single arm trial meant to assess the safety and efficacy of carboplatin AUC 5 mg/min.mL combined with non-pegylated liposomal (dose escalation from 40 to 50 mg/m during phase Ib step; and 50 mg/m2 during phase II step), every 4 weeks in patients with platinum-sensitive relapse. The primary objective was disease control rate (DCR) at 12 months.

Results: From 2012 to 2014, 87 patients were enrolled. They were treated as second (78%) or third line (22%) treatment. Total of 67 patients (78%) completed 6 cycles. G-CSF support was prescribed to 58% patients. The DCR at 12 months was 30.0% (95% CI, 20.3-39.7); the median PFS was 10.0 months (95% CI, 8.6-11.0). The median overall survival was 28.1 months (95% CI, 22.3-32.5); and the objective response rate was 58% (95% CI, 47-68). Grade 3-4 neutropenia, anemia and thrombocytopenia were observed in 17%, 13% and 1%, respectively; febrile neutropenia in 6%. One patient who did not receive GCSF support died from febrile neutropenia.

Conclusion: Non-pegylated liposomal doxorubicin-carboplatin combination exhibits an acceptable safety profile, with GCSF prophylaxis. Acknowledging the lack of direct comparison, efficacy in terms of 12 month DCR was comparable with standard treatments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygyno.2018.10.043DOI Listing
January 2019

Outcome of First-Line Hysterectomy for Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasia in Patients No Longer Wishing to Conceive and Considered With Isolated Lung Metastases: A Series of 30 Patients.

Int J Gynecol Cancer 2018 11;28(9):1766-1771

Pôle Information Médicale Evaluation Recherche, Equipe d'Accueil 4129, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon.

Objective: This study aimed to assess the outcome of first-line hysterectomy in patients diagnosed as having gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) whose postoperative imaging showed lung images considered as metastases.

Methods: From 1999 to 2016, patients no longer wishing to conceive, treated by their initial physician by hysterectomy, and whose postoperative imaging workup showed lung images considered as metastasis were identified in the French Trophoblastic Disease Reference Center database. We sought to identify significant predictive factors of requiring salvage chemotherapy.

Results: Thirty patients were identified with a maximum number of 2 visible lung nodules and a median largest size of 14 mm on chest x-ray. Nine of these patients had an International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics score of higher than 6, and there were no postterm GTN. Twenty-two patients (73.33%; 95% confidence interval, 54.11-87.72; P = 0.0053) normalized their human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) without salvage chemotherapy, whereas 7 received 1 line of salvage monochemotherapy (8-day methotrexate) and 1 required 2 lines of monochemotherapy (5-day actinomycin D after failure of methotrexate). After a 12.45-month median follow-up (range, 3-48.4 months) since the first normalized hCG, none of these patients died. The median interval between successful hysterectomy and hCG normalization was 3.15 months (range, 1.6-8.7 months). Patients who required salvage chemotherapy had a median size of the largest lung metastasis on chest computed tomography of 4 mm larger than those cured by hysterectomy (P = 0.0455).

Conclusions: For GTN patients no longer wishing to conceive with lung metastases discovered postoperatively, treated by hysterectomy, and whose hCG is decreasing, it is reasonable to expect and to inform patients that approximately 27% will require salvage chemotherapy. However, in patients with lung metastases discovered preoperatively, evidence to recommend first-line hysterectomy is insufficient and these patients should receive first-line chemotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/IGC.0000000000001367DOI Listing
November 2018

Over-adherence to capecitabine: a potential safety issue in breast and colorectal cancer patients.

Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2018 08 15;82(2):319-327. Epub 2018 Jun 15.

EMR3738, Ciblage Thérapeutique en Oncologie, Faculté de Médecine et de Maïeutique Lyon-Sud Charles Mérieux, Université Claude Bernard, Oullins, France.

Purpose: The aim of the OCTO clinical study was to measure patients' adherence to capecitabine-based treatment.

Methods: A cohort of ambulatory patients treated with capecitabine monotherapy for either locally advanced or metastatic, breast or colorectal cancer was monitored for 6 cycles. Adherence was assessed in all patients by self-completed questionnaires on disease, pill-count and pharmacological dosage of FBAL (metabolite of capecitabine); and in half of the cohort by electronic medication event monitoring systems (MEMS™) recording the opening times of the device.

Results: Forty patients were enrolled between November 2008 and September 2011 and treated by capecitabine for an average of 4.75 cycles (range 1-6). Hand-foot syndrome (HFS) was the most frequently reported toxicity (35% patients), and to a lesser extent fatigue and/or asthenia (21%), nausea and/or vomiting (13%) and diarrhea (11%). In the MEMS™ cohort, 20 patients were included. Patients' adherence was excellent with very few missing occasions (23/2272 records). Close analysis of MEMS™ data revealed unexpected medication patterns, such as patients taking extra days of medication beyond planned cycle, patients taking extra doses per day and patients missing a day of dosing and "compensating" by taking extra the following day (N = 7, 18%). A trend was found between over-adherence and high-grade toxicity (grades 3 and/or 4): OR 4.74 [0.65-45.2], p = 0.13 and higher AUC (p = 0.16). There was a trend towards increased AUC of FBAL in over-adherent patients (p = 0.16).

Conclusion: Adherence to oral anticancer chemotherapy was found excellent in this population suggesting over-adherence to capecitabine and potential safety implications for outpatients' drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00280-018-3612-xDOI Listing
August 2018

First-line hysterectomy for women with low-risk non-metastatic gestational trophoblastic neoplasia no longer wishing to conceive.

Gynecol Oncol 2018 08 8;150(2):282-287. Epub 2018 Jun 8.

University of Lyon 1, University Hospital Lyon Sud, Department of Gynecological Surgery and Oncology, Obstetrics, Pierre Bénite, France; French Center for Trophoblastic Diseases, University Hospital Lyon Sud, Pierre Bénite, France. Electronic address:

Background: Low-risk gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) patients (FIGO score ≤6) are generally treated with single agent chemotherapy (methotrexate or dactinomycin) resulting in a 5-year mortality rate of 0.3%. However, despite these encouraging survival rates, chemotherapy is associated with significant adverse events in most patients. Although it is generally accepted that patients who no longer wish to conceive may be treated by hysterectomy for a hydatidiform mole, the evidence to support this strategy in low-risk GTN patients is lacking.

Objectives: To describe the survival, efficacy, and tolerance associated with first-line hysterectomy in low-risk non-metastatic GTN patients.

Study Design: Seventy-four of 1072 low-risk GTN patients treated in the French Center underwent first-line hysterectomy. Patients data with successful first-line hysterectomy were retrospectively compared to those requiring further salvage chemotherapy.

Results: First-line hysterectomy was followed by hCG normalization in 61 patients (82.4%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 71.8-90.3) without any further salvage chemotherapy, whereas 13 patients required salvage chemotherapy. After multivariate analysis, a FIGO score of 5-6 (exact OR 8.961, 95%CI 1.60-64.96), and the presence of choriocarcinoma (exact OR 14.295, 95%CI 1.78-138.13) were associated with the risk of requiring salvage chemotherapy.

Conclusion: Hysterectomy as a first-line treatment is effective without salvage chemotherapy in 82.4% of women with low-risk non-metastatic GTN and can be presented as an alternative to single-agent chemotherapy when childbearing considerations have been fulfilled. In young patients, this therapeutic option should not be considered because single-agent chemotherapies are curative in nearly 100% of patients while maintaining fertility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygyno.2018.05.030DOI Listing
August 2018

Efficacy and Safety of Second-Line 5-Day Dactinomycin in Case of Methotrexate Failure for Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasia.

Int J Gynecol Cancer 2018 06;28(5):1038-1044

French Centre for Trophoblastic Diseases, University Hospital Lyon Sud, Pierre Bénite.

Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the characteristics and outcomes of patients treated for gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) with second-line 5-day dactinomycin after failed first-line 8-day methotrexate.

Methods: From 1999 to 2017, patients with methotrexate resistant GTN treated with second line dactinomycin were identified at the French Trophoblastic Disease Reference Center. Using univariate and multivariate analysis, we identified significant predictive factors of second line dactinomycin failure.

Results: A total of 877 GTN patients were treated with first-line 8-day methotrexate, of which 103 required second-line 5-day dactinomycin for methotrexate failure. Complete response was observed in 78 patients (75.7% [95% confidence interval, 66.3-83.6]; P < 0.0001), whereas 25 needed third-line treatment, 13 for dactinomycin resistance and 12 for post-dactinomycin relapse. Overall survival of patients treated with dactinomycin was 100%. An interval of greater than or equal to 7 months between antecedent pregnancy termination and methotrexate initiation was a predictive factor significantly associated with second-line dactinomycin failure in multivariate analysis (exact odds ratio, 9.17 [95% confidence interval, 1.98-50.70]; P = 0.0029). No grades 4 and 5 adverse effects were experienced and the most common toxicity being grade 1 nausea (14.6%).

Conclusion: Given a 75.7% complete response rate in methotrexate failed low-risk GTN patients treated with second-line dactinomycin and an overall survival rate of 100% after third-line treatment, the use of dactinomycin should be favored as second-line, regardless of human chorionic gonadotropin level at the time of dactinomycin initiation. However, an interval between the termination of the antecedent pregnancy and methotrexate initiation longer than 6 months should encourage considering alternative therapeutic strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/IGC.0000000000001248DOI Listing
June 2018