Publications by authors named "Bennur Esen"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

The role of serum E-selectin level and E-selectin gene S128R polymorphism on the enlargement of renal cyst in patients with polycystic kidney disease: Genetic background of renal cyst growth

Clin Nephrol 2020 Jan;93(1):34-49

Background: To determine the role of E-selectin gene S128R polymorphism on the enlargement of renal cysts in patients with polycystic kidney disease (PKD).

Materials And Methods: 76 PKD patients with no comorbidity were enrolled in the study. Serum E-selectin levels were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA). E-selectin gene S128R (561 A>C, rs: 5361) polymorphism was examined by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length (PCR-RFLP). Magnetic resonance imaging was performed at baseline evaluation and at the end of the 1 year to determine cyst enlargement and total kidney volume (TKV).

Results: No significant difference was identified between AA genotype and AC or CC variants of E-selectin gene S128R polymorphism in terms of age, disease duration, baseline cyst volume, cyst volume at the 12 month, baseline dominant cyst volume, and dominant cyst volume at the 12 month. In contrast, a significant difference was determined between the groups with regard to the change of TKV (2.9 ± 13.4 vs. 5.2 ± 16.3 mm; respectively, p = 0.01). In the correlation analysis, the serum E-selectin level was significantly correlated to glucose, alanine transaminase, creatinine, calcium, phosphorus, total protein, albumin, and end diastolic volume (p = 0.0001, p = 0.001, p = 0.03, p = 0.021, p = 0.023, p = 0.002, p = 0.003, and p = 0.047, respectively). Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated a 1.32-fold higher risk of cyst enlargement in patients with CC polymorphism when compared to AA genotype (p = 0.052), but not between AA and AC genotypes or CC and AC genotypes.

Conclusion: PKD patients with CC variants of the E-selectin gene S128R polymorphism are at greater risk of cyst enlargement. The results of the present study should be confirmed with further studies with large sample size and longer duration of follow-up.
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January 2020

The Role of Duration of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy on Lung Injury: An Experimental Study Lung Injury and Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy.

Turk Thorac J 2018 Apr 1;19(2):61-65. Epub 2018 Apr 1.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Dicle University School of Medicine, Diyarbakır, Turkey.

Objectives: We aim to histopathologically analyze the effect of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy in the lung tissue.

Material And Methods: A total of 21 rabbits were divided into three groups, with each containing seven rabbits. Group 1 was the control group. Group 2 underwent HBO of 3 atmosphere absolute (ATA) for 90 min/day for 7 days. In group 3, HBO at 3 ATA was administered 90 min/day for 28 days. Oxygen saturation (SpO) was determined by pulse oximetry before and after administration of HBO. Rabbits were sacrificed, and the apex of the right lung was excised.

Results: SpO was 98-100% in all rabbits before HBO administration. After the procedure, the mean SpO was 92% and 83% in groups 2 and 3, respectively. As expected, histopathologic examination in group 1 was normal. In group 2, congestion in the lung vessels, mononuclear cell infiltration in the bronchial mucosa, interstitial edema, and alveolar dilation were evident. Histopathologic examination in group 3 indicated diffuse alveolar edema, peribronchial mononuclear cell infiltration, thickening of the alveolar and vessel wall, and intraalveolar hemorrhage.

Conclusion: There is a strict relationship between duration of HBO administration and severity of lung injury.
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April 2018

Alterations in biomechanical properties of the cornea among patients with polycystic kidney disease.

Int Ophthalmol 2018 Aug 29;38(4):1559-1564. Epub 2017 Jun 29.

Ophthalmology Department, Medipol University, Istanbul, Turkey.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the corneal biomechanical features in polycystic kidney disease (PKD) patients and compare them with the healthy individuals.

Methods: Totally 81 patients with a mean age of 48.46 ± 14.51 years and 60 control cases with a mean age of 44.68 ± 12.69 years were included in the study. All of the subjects underwent a complete ophthalmological examination, including visual acuity testing, biomicroscopic anterior and posterior segment examinations. Corneal hysteresis (CH), corneal resistance factor (CRF), Goldmann-correlated intraocular pressure (IOPg) and corneal-compensated intraocular pressure (IOPcc) were evaluated with the ocular response analyzer, and the central corneal thickness was evaluated with Sirius corneal topography.

Results: PKD patients had significantly increased CH values, without any alterations in IOP or CCT values, compared with the control cases (p:0.001). Among PKD patients, 23 were having liver cysts accompanying renal cysts. There was not any statistically significant difference between PKD patients with or without liver cysts regarding biomechanical properties of the cornea. However, both patient groups had statistically significantly increased CH values compared with the control cases.

Conclusion: Patients with PKD present with higher CH values than age-matched controls. Larger studies are warranted to elucidate the alterations in corneal biomechanical properties and their clinical relevance in PKD patients.
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August 2018

Serum ICAM-1 level and ICAM-1 gene 1462A>G (K469E) polimorphism on microalbuminuria in nondiabetic, nonhypertensive and normolipidemic obese patients: Genetical background of microalbuminuria in obesity.

Nefrologia 2017 Jul - Aug;37(4):381-388. Epub 2017 May 30.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Marmara University School of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey.

Background: A growing body of evidence suggest that obese individuals are under risk of renal parenchymal disorders when compared to nonobese counterparts. Microalbuminuria is the early marker of renal involvement. Although most of obese patients carries multiple risk factors for microalbuminuria, some obese individuals without risk factor may progress to microalbuminuria. The present study was performed to examine the role of ICAM-1 gene 1462A>G (K469E) polymorphism on microalbuminuria in obese subjects without diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hiperlipidemia and older age.

Methods: Ninety eight obese and 96 nonobese individuals without a comorbidity enrolled into the study. Serum ICAM-1 level was measured by enzyme linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA) method. ICAM-1 gene 1462A>G (K469E) polymorphism was examined by restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (RFLP-PCR). Nepholometric method was used to examine urinary albumin loss, and microalbuminuria was measured by albumin to creatinine ratio.

Results: Obese individuals had significantly higher microalbuminuria and proteinuria level compared to nonobese subjects (p: 0.043 and p: 0.011; respectively). GG genotype of ICAM-1 carriers have significantly higher microalbuminuria compared to individuals with AA or AG genotype carriers (p: 0.042). Serum ICAM-1 level was significantly correlated with creatinine and microalbuminuria (p: 0.002 and p: 0.03; respectively). Logistic regression analysis indicated a 7.39 fold increased risk of microalbuminuria in individuals with GG genotype of ICAM-1 gene 1462A>G (K469E) polymorphism.

Conclusions: GG genotype of ICAM-1 gene K469E polymorphism is associated with increased microalbuminuria in obese individuals without another metabolic risk factor.
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May 2017

Serum α-Hydroxybutyrate: A Candidate Marker of Insulin Resistance Is Associated with Deterioration in Anthropometric Measurements in Individuals with Low Diabetes Risk.

J Appl Lab Med 2017 Mar;1(5):562-567

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Yeditepe University Medical Faculty, Istanbul, Turkey.

Background: α-Hydroxybutyrate (α-HB) is a marker of insulin resistance (IR) and lipid oxidation, both of which precede the development of diabetes and cardiovascular disorders. We aimed to analyze the relation of α-HB levels with anthropometric measurements in individuals without metabolic risk factors.

Methods: A total of 82 nonobese individuals [body mass index (BMI) <30 kg/m2] without an accompanying chronic disorder were enrolled into the study. The entire cohort of participants underwent physical examination. Biochemical and hormonal parameters were analyzed. The BMI was calculated as weight/height2 (kg/m2). An ELISA method was used to analyze serum α-HB level. The relation of variables was analyzed by correlation analysis.

Results: The mean age, BMI, body fat ratio, and waist/hip ratio of participants were 36 (9) years, 24.9 (2.2), 39.2 (3.9), and 0.82 (0.06), respectively. The mean fasting glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) levels, total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, and LDL levels were 90.7 (5.1) mg/dL, 9.8 (1.5) IU/mL, 2.2 (0.3), 193.2 (32.6) mg/dL, 119.3 (60.3) mg/dL, 54.6 (12.2) mg/dL, and 114.2 (30.4) mg/dL, respectively. Serum α-HB level was significantly correlated with age, BMI, body fat ratio, waist circumference, waist/hip ratio, fasting glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, HDL, total cholesterol, and triglyceride.

Conclusions: Serum α-HB, a strong marker of insulin resistance, is well correlated with deterioration of anthropometric parameters such as an increase in BMI and body fat distribution in patients with low diabetes risk.
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March 2017

The relation of anthropometric measurements and insulin resistance in patients with polycystic kidney disease.

J Transl Int Med 2016 Sep 23;4(3):127-134. Epub 2016 Sep 23.

Bagcilar Education and Research Hospital, Internal Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey.

Objective: To examine the frequency of insulin resistance (IR) and its relation with anthropometric measurements in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD).

Material And Methods: Nonobese 82 patients with ADPKD and 58 age matched healthy controls were enrolled into the study. None of participants were diabetic or receiving renal replacement therapies (RRT). IR was determined by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) formula. Tanita body composition analyzer was used for anthropometric measurements. Creatinine clearance of participant were assessed by the modification of diet in renal diseases (MDRD).

Results: Patients with ADPKD had significantly higher level of urea and creatinine, microalbuminuria, and lower level of MDRD. Body fat distribution and HOMA-IR in both the groups were similar. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure of patients were higher than those of controls.

Conclusion: We failed to determine a higher frequency of IR among patients with ADPKD.
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September 2016

Decreased Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D Level Causes Interventricular Septal Hypertrophy in Patients on Peritoneal Dialysis: Cardiovascular Aspects of Endogenous Vitamin D Deficiency.

Int J Nephrol 2016 27;2016:2464953. Epub 2016 Nov 27.

Department of Internal Medicine and Nephrology, Cerrahpasa School of Medicine, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey.

. In the present study, we aimed to analyze the relation of vitamin D with echocardiographic indexes in patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) receiving renal replacement therapy (RRT). . A total of 98 patients, 64 patients on hemodialysis (HD) (29F/35M, mean age 56.75 ± 18.63 years) and 34 age matched patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) (21F/13M, mean age 58.11 ± 10.63 years), with similar duration of ESRD and RRT were enrolled into this cross-sectional study. Echocardiographic examination was performed after dialysis session at normovolemic status. Fasting blood samples were obtained before dialysis session. . Patients on PD and female patients in both groups had significantly lower level of 25-OH-D3 level when compared to patients on HD or male patients (: 0.0001 and : 0.0001). When all participants were considered, there was no significant association between 25-OH-D3 and echocardiographic parameters; however, in patients on PD, a significant negative correlation was determined between 25-OH-D3 and diastolic blood pressure, interventricular septal hypertrophy (ISH), and left ventricular mass index (LVMI) (: -0.424, : 0.012; : -0.508, : 0.004; : 0.489, : 0.04, resp.). . Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels is associated with ISH and LVMI in PD patients.
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November 2016

Burnout Syndrome Among Hemodialysis and Peritoneal Dialysis Nurses.

Iran J Kidney Dis 2016 Nov;10(6):395-404

Nephrology Department, Bakirkoy Dr Sadi Konuk Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey.

Introduction: Burnout, a syndrome with 3 dimensions of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduction of personal accomplishment, is very common among hemodialysis nurses, while data are scarce regarding the prevalence of burnout syndrome (BS) among peritoneal dialysis (PD) nurses. This study aimed to assess and compare demographic and professional characteristics and burnout levels in hemodialysis and PD nurses, and to investigate factors that increase the level of burnout in dialysis nurses.

Materials And Methods: A total of 171 nurses from 44 dialysis centers in Turkey were included in a cross-sectional survey study. Data were collected using a questionnaire defining the social and demographic characteristics and working conditions of the nurses as well as the Maslach Burnout Inventory for assessment of burnout level.

Results: There was no significant difference in the level of burnout between the hemodialysis and PD nurses groups. Emotional exhaustion and depersonalization scores were higher among the shift workers, nurses who had problems in interactions with the other team members, and those who wanted to leave the unit, as well as the nurses who would not attend training programs. In addition, male sex, younger age, limited working experience, more than 50 hours of working per week, and working in dialysis not by choice were associated with higher depersonalization scores. Personal accomplishment score was lower among the younger nurses who had problems in their interactions with the doctors, who would not regularly attend training programs, and who felt being medically inadequate.

Conclusions: Improving working conditions and relations among colleagues, and also providing further dialysis education are necessary for minimizing burnout syndrome. Burnout reduction programs should mainly focus on younger professionals.
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November 2016

Evaluation of serum Spondin 2 levels in the different stages of Type 2 diabetic nephropathy.

Nephrology (Carlton) 2015 Oct;20(10):721-726

Department of Internal Medicine, Bursa Sevket Yilmaz Training and Research Hospital, Bursa, Turkey.

Aim: We aimed to determine whether serum SPON2 is a useful biomarker in the detection of Diabetic Nephropathy (DN) and to compare serum SPON2 levels with 24-hour urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) in patients with DN at different stages.

Methods: The cohort included 80 adult patients with T2D and 20 healthy controls. The patients with T2D were divided into four groups according to UAER and serum creatinine (sCr) levels. Group 1 consisted of patients with normoalbuminuria (n = 20), Group 2 with microalbuminuria (n = 20), Group 3 with macroalbuminuria (n = 20) and Group 4 with albuminuria and sCr > 1.5 mg/dL (n = 20).

Results: There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of demographic data, C-reactive protein, HbA1c, lipids, serum uric acid levels and leukocyte counts. SPON2 levels were observed to increase linearly with increasing severity of diabetic nephropathy levels. The SPON2 levels of Group 4 were significantly higher than Group 1 and the controls, and SPON2 levels of Group 3 were significantly higher than Group 1. Blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and UAER were significantly positively correlated with SPON2; serum total protein and calcium levels were negatively correlated with SPON2 in patients with DN.

Conclusion: We observed a linear and significant increase in SPON2 levels of patients with T2D as the stage of DN increased, but serum SPON2 level was not as effective as microalbuminuria in reflecting nephropathy. Also, serum SPON2 level was not as good as urine and tissue levels of SPON2 in detection of renal damage in DN.
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October 2015

Relation of Complementary-Alternative Medicine use with glomerular filtration rate and depression in patients with chronic kidney disease at predialysis stage.

Nephrology (Carlton) 2015 Oct;20(10):671-678

Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Bagcilar Education and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey.

Aim: Complementary and alternative medicine is a broad field of health including all health care practices and methods, and their accompanying theories and beliefs. In the present study, we aimed to examine the frequency of complementary-alternative medicine use, and its relation with glomerular filtration rate and depression in patients with chronic kidney disease at predialysis stage.

Methods: A total of 1053 predialysis patients; 518 female and 535 male, that were followed up with chronic kidney disease for at least 3 months were enrolled into the study. Demographic features, biochemical parameters and findings of physical examination were recorded. Their compliance to diet, and knowledge about disease were questioned. Beck depression inventory and questionnaire regarding complementary-alternative medicine use were performed.

Results: The overall frequency of complementary-alternative medicine use was 40.3% . Total ratio of herbal products was 46%. Complementary-alternative medicine use was significantly more frequent in female or single patients, and patients that informed about chronic kidney disease or under strict diet (P = 0.007, P = 0.016, P = 0.02, P = 0.016, respectively). When glomerular filtration rate of participants were considered, complementary-alternative medicine use was similar in different stages of kidney disease. Depression was observed in 41.9% of patients and significantly frequent in patients with alternative method use (P = 0.002). Depression score was higher as creatinine increases and glomerular filtration rate decreases (P = 0.002; r = 0.093).

Conclusion: We determined that complementary-alternative medicine use gradually increases at predialysis stage as glomerular filtration rate decreases and there is a strict relation between complementary-alternative medicine use and depression or female gender. Disorder related stressors may lead to seeking of alternative methods.
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October 2015

The relation of mean platelet volume with microalbuminuria and glomerular filtration rate in obese individuals without other metabolic risk factors: the role of platelets on renal functions.

Clin Nephrol 2015 Jun;83(6):322-9

Introduction: Mean platelet volume (MPV) is an indirect indicator of platelet activity that plays a major role in the pathogenesis of endothelial injury. Obese individuals have higher microalbuminuria which is the initial step of renal endothelial injury. We aimed to analyze the relation of microalbuminuria and MPV in obese individuals without metabolic risk factors.

Methods: A total of 290 obese individuals (body mass index (BMI)>30 kg/m2) without an accompanying chronic disorder, and 204 nonobese healthy subjects were enrolled into the study. All participants underwent physical examination. Biochemical, hemogram, and hormonal parameters along with urine albumin analysis were performed. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was measured by Cockcroft-Gault (GFRC&G), modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD). The BMI was calculated as weight/height2 (kg/m2). Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze relation of variables.

Results: The patient group consisted of 171 (59%) female (mean age: 37.15±8.05 years) and 119 (41%) male (mean age 38.98±10.68 years) obese individuals. 130 (63.7%) age matched female (mean age 36.18±8.26 years) and 74 (36.3%) age matched male (mean age 36.49±10.25 years) controls were assigned to the control group. There was a significant difference between groups with regard to BMI, spot microalbuminuria, spot urine microalbuminuria/creatinine ratio but not with to MPV and spot urine creatinine (p: 0.01, 0.004, 0.002; respectively). GFR measured by MDRD and Cockcroft-Gault formula were significantly higher in the obese group (p<0.001 for both). Correlation analysis revealed a significant correlation between BMI and spot urine microalbuminuria, spot urine microalbuminuria/creatinine ratio, GFR (Cockcroft-Gault Formula), Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), insulin, C-peptide, diastolic blood pressure, glucose, uric acid, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, c-reactive protein (CRP), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), leukocyte count, platelet count. MPV was inversely and significantly correlated with spot urine creatinine, systolic blood pressure, triglyceride, C-peptide, and platelet count. Mean urea, creatinine, uric acid, triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, insulin, C-peptide, HOMA-IR were significantly higher in obese male individuals while obese female individuals had higher levels of mean high density lipoprotein (HDL), CRP, TSH, platelet count, spot urine microalbumin/creatinine rate, and GFR measured by MDRD.

Conclusions: Obese individuals have higher microalbuminuria and nonsignificantly elevated MPV, however, urine albumin loss is independent of MPV.
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June 2015

Is hemodialysis a reason for unresponsiveness to hepatitis B vaccine? Hepatitis B virus and dialysis therapy.

World J Hepatol 2015 Apr;7(5):761-8

Dede Sit, Bennur Esen, Ahmet Engin Atay, Hasan Kayabaşı, Department of Internal Medicine and Nephrology, Bagcilar Education and Research Hospital, Istanbul 34200, Turkey.

Impaired renal function is associated with a high risk of chronicity of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Patients on hemodialysis (HD) or peritoneal dialysis are at an increased risk of viral transmission due to frequent necessity of blood product transfer as well as use of contaminated dialysate or dialysis materials. Additionally, health professionals may cause viral spread via contaminated hands and carelessness against hygiene rules. The frequency of chronic HBV infection may be as high as 80% in patients on renal replacement therapies. This is because HBV vaccination is essential to eliminate chronic HBV infection. However, response rates of HD patients to HBV vaccination vary between 10%-50%. Dialysis adequacy and early vaccination before the onset of dialysis therapy seem to be major determinants of high seroconversion rates. Older age, male gender, duration of dialysis therapy and nutritional status are other well-known factors associated with seroconversion rate. There are controversial reports regarding the role of the presence of diabetes mellitus, HCV positivity, erythropoietin resistance, hyperparathyroidism, and vitamin D inadequacy. The role of genetic alteration in the functions or production of cytokines still needs to be elucidated.
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April 2015

Evaluation of relationship between sexual functions, depression and quality of life in patients with chronic kidney disease at predialysis stage.

Ren Fail 2015 Mar 18;37(2):262-7. Epub 2014 Dec 18.

Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Bagcilar Research and Training Center , Istanbul , Turkey .

Aim: The relation of chronic kidney disease (CKD) with metabolic, psychiatric and endocrinologic disorder is well-known. Depressive mood and sexual dysfunction are frequently observed as renal functions deteriorate. We aimed to analyze the relationship of sexual dysfunction, depressive mood and life quality in patients with CKD at predialysis stage.

Patients And Methods: Fifty-three patients; 27 female and 26 male with CKD who had estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) between 15 and 90 mL/min and followed up in the Nephrology Department, Bursa Sevket Yılmaz Education and Research Hospital, were enrolled. Age- and sex-matched 20 female and 20 male healthy control subjects were assigned to the control group. Detailed medical and sexual history was obtained by using Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), Erectile Function International Evaluation Form (IEFF), Short form (SF) 36 Form and Beck Depression Questionnaire (BDI). Biochemical and hormonal parameters including urea, creatinine, uric acid, sedimentation rate, c-reactive protein, total testosterone, DHEA-S, FSH, LH, TSH, estradiol and prolactin were analyzed.

Findings: Depression was observed in 12 male (46%) and 14 female (51%) patients. The frequency of depression among male patients and control subjects was similar, however, significantly higher in female patients than female controls (p=0.036). Physical function score, physical role score and pain score in SF 36 of entire patients were significantly lower than controls (p=0.0001, 0.0001, 0.001, respectively). The frequency of depression was similar between patients and controls (p>0.05). When SF 36 tests of male and female patients were compared, general health status, vitality and mental health status were significantly better in male patients (p=0.005, 0.016, 0.035, respectively). SF 36 scores of female patients were significantly lower than female controls (p=0.0001). The frequency of erectile dysfunction (ED) was similar between male patients (84%) and controls (75%) (p=0.62). On the other hand, sexual dysfunction was significantly higher in female patients when compared to female controls (92% vs. 30%; p=0.0001).

Conclusion: We showed that sexual dysfunction and depression are more frequent among female patients with CKD at predialysis stage; however, it does not have significant impact on life quality. When life quality of female and male patients was compared, general health status, vitality and mental health status of female patients were poorer. We failed to demonstrate a relationship between sexual dysfunction and sex hormone level.
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March 2015

The association of endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene G894T polymorphism and serum nitric oxide concentration with microalbuminuria in patients with gestational diabetes.

Clin Nephrol 2014 Feb;81(2):105-11

Department of Internal Medicine, Bagcılar Education and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Department of Medical Biology, Medical School of Harran University, Sanlıurfa, Department of Physiology, Medical School of Mustafa Kemal University, Hatay, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Suleymaniye Education and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical Faculty of Harran University, Sanlıurfa, and Department of Medical Biology and Genetics, Medical Faculty of Dicle University, Diyarbakir, Turkey.

Aim: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a glucose intolerant condition that affects 14% of all pregnancies. Diabetes mellitus (DM) occurs in 30 - 70% of patients with GDM after delivery. DM and GDM are associated with structural and functional deterioration of the renovascular system. Our aim is to investigate the association Glu- 298Asp polymorphism of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene with serum nitric oxide levels and microalbuminuria in patients with GDM and healthy pregnancies.

Material And Methods: Serum nitric oxide (NO) levels, urinary excretion of albumin and Glu298Asp polymorphism of the eNOS gene were analyzed in 68 patients with GDM and 73 healthy controls. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-Griess) method was used to analyze serum NO levels. Microalbuminuria was evaluated by rate nephelometry method. The Glu298Asp polymorphism of the eNOS gene was determined by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP).

Results: Nitric oxide, glucose, creatinine, and microalbuminuria were significantly different between the patients and the control subjects (p = 0.001, p = 0.001, p = 0.002, and p = 0.005, respectively). There was a significant difference between groups in terms of the ratio of GG/GT+TT of eNOS gene Glu- 298Asp (p = 0.02). The patients with GT+TT genotype had significantly higher microalbuminuria levels and lower NO concentrations (22.16 vs. 9.51, p = 0.005, and 10.56 vs. 12.73, p = 0.021, respectively). The presence of T allele of eNOS gene is an independent predictor of microalbuminuria (OR: 2.346, 95% confidence interval: 1.247 - 5.238, p = 0.02) as well as serum glucose and NO concentration.

Conclusion: The G894T polymorphism of eNOS gene and decreased NO concentration seem to be independent predictors of increased urinary excretion of albumin in patients with GDM. Determining the frequency of eNOS gene G894T polymorphism may help to identify pregnancies at increased risk of microalbuminuria.
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February 2014