Publications by authors named "Benjamin Thompson"

292 Publications

Why mutation is not as random as we thought.

Nature 2022 Jan 19. Epub 2022 Jan 19.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/d41586-022-00142-2DOI Listing
January 2022

Contrast Sensitivity and Stereoacuity in Successfully Treated Refractive Amblyopia.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2022 01;63(1)

State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Purpose: To assess whether monocular contrast sensitivity and stereoacuity impairments remain when visual acuity is fully recovered in children with refractive amblyopia.

Methods: A retrospective review of 487 patients diagnosed with refractive amblyopia whose visual acuity improved to 0.08 logMAR or better in both eyes following optical treatment was conducted. Measurements of monocular contrast sensitivity and stereoacuity had been made when visual acuity normalized. All patients had been treated with refractive correction for approximately 2 years following diagnosis. No other treatments were provided. Monocular contrast sensitivity was measured using the CSV-1000E chart for children 6 years of age or younger and a psychophysical technique called the quick contrast sensitivity function in older children. Stereoacuity was measured using the Random Dot Test that includes monocular cues and the Randot Stereoacuity Test that does not have monocular cues.

Results: Statistically significant interocular differences in contrast sensitivity were observed. These differences tended to occur at higher spatial frequencies (12 and 18 cycles per degree). Stereoacuity within the age-specific normal range was achieved by 47.4% of patients for the Random Dot Test and only 23.1% of patients for the Randot Stereoacuity Test.

Conclusions: Full recovery of visual acuity following treatment for refractive amblyopia does not equalize interocular contrast sensitivity or restore normal stereopsis. Alternative therapeutic approaches that target contrast sensitivity and/or binocular vision are required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/iovs.63.1.6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8742522PMC
January 2022

Science in 2022: what to expect this year.

Nature 2022 Jan 5. Epub 2022 Jan 5.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/d41586-022-00008-7DOI Listing
January 2022

The Nature Podcast annual holiday spectacular.

Nature 2021 Dec 22. Epub 2021 Dec 22.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/d41586-021-03784-wDOI Listing
December 2021

Delayed induction of type I and III interferons mediates nasal epithelial cell permissiveness to SARS-CoV-2.

Nat Commun 2021 12 7;12(1):7092. Epub 2021 Dec 7.

Translational and Clinical Research Institute, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.

The nasal epithelium is a plausible entry point for SARS-CoV-2, a site of pathogenesis and transmission, and may initiate the host response to SARS-CoV-2. Antiviral interferon (IFN) responses are critical to outcome of SARS-CoV-2. Yet little is known about the interaction between SARS-CoV-2 and innate immunity in this tissue. Here we apply single-cell RNA sequencing and proteomics to a primary cell model of human nasal epithelium differentiated at air-liquid interface. SARS-CoV-2 demonstrates widespread tropism for nasal epithelial cell types. The host response is dominated by type I and III IFNs and interferon-stimulated gene products. This response is notably delayed in onset relative to viral gene expression and compared to other respiratory viruses. Nevertheless, once established, the paracrine IFN response begins to impact on SARS-CoV-2 replication. When provided prior to infection, recombinant IFNβ or IFNλ1 induces an efficient antiviral state that potently restricts SARS-CoV-2 viral replication, preserving epithelial barrier integrity. These data imply that the IFN-I/III response to SARS-CoV-2 initiates in the nasal airway and suggest nasal delivery of recombinant IFNs to be a potential chemoprophylactic strategy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-27318-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8651658PMC
December 2021

Audio long-read: The chase for fusion energy.

Nature 2021 Nov 29. Epub 2021 Nov 29.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/d41586-021-03501-7DOI Listing
November 2021

Sea squirts teach new lessons in evolution.

Nature 2021 Nov 17. Epub 2021 Nov 17.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/d41586-021-03475-6DOI Listing
November 2021

Hindbrain Administration of Oxytocin Reduces Food Intake, Weight Gain and Activates Catecholamine Neurons in the Hindbrain Nucleus of the Solitary Tract in Rats.

J Clin Med 2021 Oct 29;10(21). Epub 2021 Oct 29.

VA Puget Sound Health Care System, Office of Research and Development Medical Research Service, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Seattle, WA 98108, USA.

Existing studies show that CNS oxytocin (OT) signaling is important in the control of energy balance, but it is unclear which neurons may contribute to these effects. Our goals were to examine (1) the dose-response effects of acute OT administration into the third (3V; forebrain) and fourth (4V; hindbrain) ventricles to assess sensitivity to OT in forebrain and hindbrain sites, (2) the extent to which chronic 4V administration of OT reduces weight gain associated with the progression of diet-induced obesity, and (3) whether nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) catecholamine neurons are downstream targets of 4V OT. Initially, we examined the dose-response effects of 3V and 4V OT (0.04, 0.2, 1, or 5 μg). 3V and 4V OT (5 μg) suppressed 0.5-h food intake by 71.7 ± 6.0% and 60 ± 12.9%, respectively. 4V OT (0.04, 0.2, 1 μg) reduced food intake by 30.9 ± 12.9, 42.1 ± 9.4, and 56.4 ± 9.0%, respectively, whereas 3V administration of OT (1 μg) was only effective at reducing 0.5-h food intake by 38.3 ± 10.9%. We subsequently found that chronic 4V OT infusion, as with chronic 3V infusion, reduced body weight gain (specific to fat mass) and tended to reduce plasma leptin in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed rats, in part, through a reduction in energy intake. Lastly, we determined that 4V OT increased the number of hindbrain caudal NTS Fos (+) neurons (156 ± 25) relative to vehicle (12 ± 3). The 4V OT also induced Fos in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH; marker of catecholamine neurons) (+) neurons (25 ± 7%) relative to vehicle (0.8 ± 0.3%). Collectively, these findings support the hypothesis that OT within the hindbrain is effective at reducing food intake, weight gain, and adiposity and that NTS catecholamine neurons in addition to non-catecholaminergic neurons are downstream targets of CNS OT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10215078DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8584350PMC
October 2021

Relationship between visual and neurodevelopmental measures at 2 years with visual acuity and stereopsis at 4.5 years in children born at risk of neonatal hypoglycaemia.

Ophthalmic Physiol Opt 2022 Jan 8;42(1):195-204. Epub 2021 Nov 8.

School of Optometry and Vision Science, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.

Purpose: Mild to moderate vision loss affects many children and can negatively impact a child's early literacy and academic achievement. Nevertheless, there is no consensus on which factors present in early childhood indicate the need for long-term ophthalmic follow up, particularly in children with a history of perinatal adversity. This study identified the relationship between visual, cognitive, motor and demographic factors at 2 years of age and visual acuity (VA) and stereoacuity at 4.5 years of age.

Methods: Five hundred sixteen children identified as being at risk of neonatal hypoglycaemia were recruited soon after birth. At 2 years of age, binocular VA, stereoacuity and non-cycloplegic refraction were measured and a clinical neuro-developmental assessment with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development III (BSID-III) was conducted by a trained examiner. Monocular VA and stereoacuity were measured at 4.5 years of age.

Results: Three hundred twenty-eight children completed both the 2 and 4.5 year vision and neurodevelopmental assessments. Multiple linear regression showed oblique astigmatism and motor function at 2 years were significantly associated with VA at 4.5 years of age, while spherical equivalent refraction, motor scores and stereoacuity at 2 years were significantly associated with stereoacuity at 4.5 years of age. BSID-III motor scores had the best sensitivity (81.8%) and specificity (51.5%) for identifying impaired stereoacuity at 4.5 years. However, all measures at 2 years were poorly associated with VA at 4.5 years old.

Conclusion: Vision and neurodevelopmental measures at 2 years were poorly associated with visual function at 4.5 years of age. However, lower scores on tests of motor function at 2 years may be associated with vision abnormalities, particularly reduced stereopsis, at 4.5 years of age and referral for comprehensive vision assessment for these children may be warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/opo.12910DOI Listing
January 2022

Podcast special: onboard the climate train to COP26.

Nature 2021 Nov 3. Epub 2021 Nov 3.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/d41586-021-03039-8DOI Listing
November 2021

Beta-Cell Ion Channels and Their Role in Regulating Insulin Secretion.

Compr Physiol 2021 10 12;11(4):1-21. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Department of Pharmacology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.

Beta cells of the pancreatic islet express many different types of ion channels. These channels reside in the β-cell plasma membrane as well as subcellular organelles and their coordinated activity and sensitivity to metabolism regulate glucose-dependent insulin secretion. Here, we review the molecular nature, expression patterns, and functional roles of many β-cell channels, with an eye toward explaining the ionic basis of glucose-induced insulin secretion. Our primary focus is on K and voltage-gated Ca channels as these primarily regulate insulin secretion; other channels in our view primarily help to sculpt the electrical patterns generated by activated β-cells or indirectly regulate metabolism. Lastly, we discuss why understanding the physiological roles played by ion channels is important for understanding the secretory defects that occur in type 2 diabetes. © 2021 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 11:1-21, 2021.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cphy.c210004DOI Listing
October 2021

Audio long-read: What animals really think.

Nature 2020 Oct 9. Epub 2020 Oct 9.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/d41586-020-02822-3DOI Listing
October 2020

Orienting of covert attention by neutral and emotional gaze cues appears to be unaffected by mild to moderate amblyopia.

J Vis 2021 Oct;21(11)

Department of Optometry and Vision Science, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Canada.

Amblyopia is a developmental disorder of vision associated with higher-order visual attention deficits. We explored whether amblyopia affects the orienting of covert spatial attention by measuring the magnitude of the gaze cueing effect from emotional faces. Gaze and emotion cues are key components of social attention. Participants with normal vision (n = 30), anisometropic (n = 7) or strabismic/mixed (n = 5) amblyopia performed a cued peripheral target detection task under monocular and binocular viewing conditions. The cue consisted of a centrally presented face with left or right gaze (50% validity to target location) and a fearful, happy, or neutral expression. The magnitude of spatial cueing was computed as the reaction time difference between congruent and incongruent trials for each expression. Fearful facial expressions oriented spatial attention significantly more than happy or neutral expressions. The magnitude of the gaze cueing effect in our cohort of mild-to-moderate amblyopia was comparable to that in normal vision and was not correlated with the severity of amblyopia. There were no statistical group or amblyopia subtype differences for reaction time in any viewing condition. These results place constraints on the range of attentional mechanisms affected by amblyopia and possibly suggest normal covert processing of emotional face stimuli in mild and moderate amblyopia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/jov.21.11.5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8504194PMC
October 2021

Trump vs. Biden: what's at stake for science?

Nature 2020 Oct 7. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/d41586-020-02838-9DOI Listing
October 2020

Continuous theta burst TMS of area MT+ impairs attentive motion tracking.

Eur J Neurosci 2021 11 12;54(9):7289-7300. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

School of Optometry and Vision Science, Faculty of Science, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.

Attentive motion tracking deficits measured using multiple object tracking (MOT) tasks have been identified in a number of neurodevelopmental disorders such as amblyopia and autism. These deficits are often attributed to the abnormal development of high-level attentional networks. However, neuroimaging evidence from amblyopia suggests that reduced MOT performance can be explained by impaired function in motion-sensitive area MT+ alone. To test the hypothesis that a subtle disruption of MT+ function could cause MOT impairment, we assessed whether continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) of MT+ influenced MOT task accuracy in individuals with normal vision. The MOT stimulus consisted of four target and four distractor dots and was presented at ±10° eccentricity (right/left hemifield). fMRI-guided cTBS was applied to left MT+. Participants (n = 13, age: 27 ± 3) attended separate active and sham cTBS sessions where the MOT task was completed before, 5-min post- and 30-min post-cTBS. Active cTBS significantly impaired MOT task accuracy relative to baseline for the right (stimulated) hemifield 5-min (10 ± 2% reduction) and 30-min (14 ± 3% reduction) post-stimulation. No impairment occurred within the left (control) hemifield after active cTBS or for either hemifield after sham cTBS. These results highlight the importance of lower level motion processing for MOT, suggesting that a minor disruption of MT+ function alone is sufficient to cause a deficit in MOT performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejn.15480DOI Listing
November 2021

The floating sensors inspired by seeds.

Nature 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/d41586-021-02591-7DOI Listing
September 2021
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