Publications by authors named "Benjamin Sames"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Investigating Mesozoic Climate Trends and Sensitivities With a Large Ensemble of Climate Model Simulations.

Paleoceanogr Paleoclimatol 2021 Jun 5;36(6):e2020PA004134. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Department of Geology University of Vienna Vienna Austria.

The Mesozoic era (∼252 to 66 million years ago) was a key interval in Earth's evolution toward its modern state, witnessing the breakup of the supercontinent Pangaea and significant biotic innovations like the early evolution of mammals. Plate tectonic dynamics drove a fundamental climatic transition from the early Mesozoic supercontinent toward the Late Cretaceous fragmented continental configuration. Here, key aspects of Mesozoic long-term environmental changes are assessed in a climate model ensemble framework. We analyze so far the most extended ensemble of equilibrium climate states simulated for evolving Mesozoic boundary conditions covering the period from 255 to 60 Ma in 5 Myr timesteps. Global mean temperatures are generally found to be elevated above the present and exhibit a baseline warming trend driven by rising sea levels and increasing solar luminosity. Warm (Triassic and mid-Cretaceous) and cool (Jurassic and end-Cretaceous) anomalies result from pCO changes indicated by different reconstructions. Seasonal and zonal temperature contrasts as well as continental aridity show an overall decrease from the Late Triassic-Early Jurassic to the Late Cretaceous. Meridional temperature gradients are reduced at higher global temperatures and less land area in the high latitudes. With systematic sensitivity experiments, the influence of paleogeography, sea level, vegetation patterns, pCO, solar luminosity, and orbital configuration on these trends is investigated. For example, long-term seasonality trends are driven by paleogeography, but orbital cycles could have had similar-scale effects on shorter timescales. Global mean temperatures, continental humidity, and meridional temperature gradients are, however, also strongly affected by pCO.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2020PA004134DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8251552PMC
June 2021

New record of podocopid ostracods from Cretaceous amber.

PeerJ 2020 26;8:e10134. Epub 2020 Oct 26.

School of Geography, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom.

Burmese Cretaceous amber (∼99 Ma, Myanmar) is famous for the preservation of a wide range of fauna and flora, including representatives of marine, freshwater and terrestrial groups. Here, we report on three ostracod specimens, that came visible as syninclusions to an aquatic isopod. The three specimens represent three different taxa, that were found preserved in a single piece of amber. One of the described specimens was studied using µCT scanning data. On the basis of general carapace morphology we assign all three to the group Podocopida, and (tentatively) its ingroup Cypridocopina. A lack of visibility of more particular diagnostic features such as adductor muscle scars and details of the marginal zone precludes a further identification, but we discuss possible affinities with either the marine-brackish group Pontocypridoidea or the non-marine group Cypridoidea. The taphonomy indicates that the studied ostracods had been subject to limited (if any) post-mortem transport, which could be consistent with marginal marine environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.10134DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7594633PMC
October 2020

A gigantic marine ostracod (Crustacea: Myodocopa) trapped in mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber.

Sci Rep 2018 01 22;8(1):1365. Epub 2018 Jan 22.

State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing, 100083, China.

The mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber (~99 Ma, Myanmar), widely known for exquisite preservation of theropods, also yields microfossils, which can provide important contextual information on paleoenvironment and amber formation. We report the first Cretaceous ostracod in amber-the gigantic (12.9 mm) right valve of an exclusively marine group (Myodocopa: Myodocopida) preserved in Burmese amber. Ostracods are usually small (0.5-2 mm), with well-calcified carapaces that provide an excellent fossil record extending to at least the Ordovician (~485 million years ago), but they are rarely encountered in amber. The new specimen effectively doubles the age of the ostracod amber record, offering the first representative of the Myodocopa, a weakly calcified group with a poor fossil record. Its carapace morphology is atypical and likely plesiomorphic. The preserved valve appears to be either a moulted exuvium or a dead and disarticulated specimen, and subsequent resin flows contain forest floor inclusions with terrestrial arthropods, i.e., fragmentary remains of spiders, and insect frass. These features resolve an enigmatic taphonomic pathway, and support a marginal marine setting for resin production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-19877-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5778021PMC
January 2018

Middle to Late Eocene paleoenvironmental changes in a marine transgressive sequence from the northern Tethyan margin (Adelholzen, Germany).

Austrian J Earth Sci 2013;106(2):45-72

Geologische Bundesanstalt, Neulinggasse 38, A-1030 Wien, Austria ; Universität Wien, Institut für Paläontologie, Althanstraße 14, A-1090 Wien, Austria.

The northern Tethyan margin is a key region for determining environmental changes associated with the collision of continental and oceanic tectonic plates and Alpine orogeny. Herein we investigated Middle to Late Eocene neritic to bathyal sediments deposited during an interval of unstable climatic conditions. In order to quantify paleoenvironmental changes, we developed a detailed age model based on biozonations of planktic foraminifera, calcareous nannoplankton, and larger benthic foraminifera. The section at Adelholzen covers the almost complete Lutetian Stage (calcareous nannoplankton zones NP15a-16, planktic foraminifera zones E8-11, shallow benthic (foraminifera) zones SBZ13-15) and large parts of the Priabonian Stage (NP18-20, E14/15), while the intermediate Bartonian Stage (NP17) is completely missing. Foraminiferal, calcareous nannoplankton, and macrofossil assemblages were analyzed for changes in paleo-water depth, mixing and stratification, paleo-primary productivity (pPP), food supply, and bottom water oxygenation. Paleo-water depth estimates range from 50 m (middle neritic, early Lutetian) to nearly 500 m (upper bathyal, late Priabonian). The combination of assemblage composition, planktic and benthic foraminiferal accumulation rates, and derived parameters (carbon-flux to sea floor, pPP) enabled us to identify a series of distinct paleoceanographic events of at least regional significance. Such events are characterized by considerable changes in primary productivity or reduced bottom water ventilation. Calculated pPP-values indicate oligotrophic conditions throughout.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4558959PMC
January 2013
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