Publications by authors named "Benjamin S Thompson"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Quantifying net loss of global mangrove carbon stocks from 20 years of land cover change.

Nat Commun 2020 08 26;11(1):4260. Epub 2020 Aug 26.

Singapore-ETH Centre, ETH Zurich, Singapore, Singapore.

Mangrove forests hold some of the highest densities of carbon recorded in any ecosystem, but have experienced widespread deforestation through conversion to aquaculture and agriculture. Alongside deforestation, mangroves have shown simultaneous natural expansion in some parts of the world, and considerable investments have been made into restoration programmes. Here we estimate net changes in the global mangrove carbon stock due to land cover change between 1996 and 2016, using data on mangrove deforestation and forestation, and proportional changes in carbon stock during processes of mangrove loss and gain. The global mangrove carbon stock declined by 158.4 Mt (95% CI = -156.8-525.9 Mt); a reduction of 1.8% of the stock present in 1996. Efforts to conserve and restore mangroves appear to have had some success, and - along with natural forestation - have contributed to relatively low net losses of mangrove carbon stocks over two decades.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-18118-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7450071PMC
August 2020

Climate change mitigation potential of wetlands and the cost-effectiveness of their restoration.

Interface Focus 2020 Oct 14;10(5):20190129. Epub 2020 Aug 14.

Department of Geography, National University of Singapore, Singapore.

The cost-effective mitigation of climate change through nature-based carbon dioxide removal strategies has gained substantial policy attention. Inland and coastal wetlands (specifically boreal, temperate and tropical peatlands; tundra; floodplains; freshwater marshes; saltmarshes; and mangroves) are among the most efficient natural long-term carbon sinks. Yet, they also release methane (CH) that can offset the carbon they sequester. Here, we conducted a meta-analysis on wetland carbon dynamics to (i) determine their impact on climate using different metrics and time horizons, (ii) investigate the cost-effectiveness of wetland restoration for climate change mitigation, and (iii) discuss their suitability for inclusion in climate policy as negative emission technologies. Depending on metrics, a wetland can simultaneously be a net carbon sink (i.e. boreal and temperate peatlands net ecosystem carbon budget = -28.1 ± 19.13 gC m y) but have a net warming effect on climate at the 100 years time-scale (i.e. boreal and temperate peatland sustained global warming potential = 298.2 ± 100.6 gCO eq m y). This situation creates ambivalence regarding the effect of wetlands on global temperature. Moreover, our review reveals high heterogeneity among the (limited number of) studies that document wetland carbon budgets. We demonstrate that most coastal and inland wetlands have a net cooling effect as of today. This is explained by the limited CH emissions that undisturbed coastal wetlands produce, and the long-term carbon sequestration performed by older inland wetlands as opposed to the short lifetime of CH in the atmosphere. Analysis of wetland restoration costs relative to the amount of carbon they can sequester revealed that restoration is more cost-effective in coastal wetlands such as mangroves (US$1800 ton C) compared with inland wetlands (US$4200-49 200 ton C). We advise that for inland wetlands, priority should be given to conservation rather than restoration; while for coastal wetlands, both conservation and restoration may be effective techniques for climate change mitigation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsfs.2019.0129DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7435041PMC
October 2020

Stakeholder preferences for payments for ecosystem services (PES) versus other environmental management approaches for mangrove forests.

J Environ Manage 2019 Mar 31;233:636-648. Epub 2018 Dec 31.

Department of Geography, National University of Singapore, 1 Arts Link, Singapore, 117570, Singapore.

Choosing from a range of environmental management options can be more effective when considering stakeholder preferences. This is particularly true in the coastal tropics, where numerous actors and institutions intersect to shape environmental governance. Here, we investigate stakeholder preferences for an array of options regarding the sustainable development and conservation of mangrove forests. These include: payments for ecosystem services (PES), ecotourism, selling non-timber forest products, bio-charcoal production, and forest restoration financed via corporate social responsibility (CSR). Empirical studies from two socio-ecological settings in Thailand reveal the preferences of government agencies, corporations, municipal and village heads, and several community associations (fishers, senior citizens, housewives, environmentalists, salt-flat workers, oil palm plantation owners). Interviews and participatory multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) elicited preferences based on the likelihood of achieving favourable environmental, economic, and social outcomes. Findings reveal (1) PES was favoured - although motivations were not driven solely by the prospect of financial gain, but by the land tenure security, collaborations, and long-term ecological benefits that were perceived to occur as a result; (2) PES for local services (water quality) were preferred over global services (climate change mitigation); (3) criteria related to wellbeing, livelihoods, and environmental stewardship are influenced by broad cultural and political ideologies, rather than site-specific characteristics; and (4) clear tensions both between private and public actors, and between national and local actors. Our study highlights the importance of involving all informed stakeholders in the decision-making process in order to understand the complex reasons driving environmental management preferences, and to gain greater acceptance of biodiversity conservation and natural resource management actions. We also call for greater transparency in MCDA studies by presenting more of the qualitative data used to subjectively construct the quantitative criteria.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2018.12.032DOI Listing
March 2019

Policy challenges and approaches for the conservation of mangrove forests in Southeast Asia.

Conserv Biol 2016 10 20;30(5):933-49. Epub 2016 Aug 20.

Institute for Marine Research and Observation, Ministry of Fisheries and Marine Affairs, Jalan Baru Perancak, Negara-Jembrana, Bali, 82251, Indonesia.

Many drivers of mangrove forest loss operate over large scales and are most effectively addressed by policy interventions. However, conflicting or unclear policy objectives exist at multiple tiers of government, resulting in contradictory management decisions. To address this, we considered four approaches that are being used increasingly or could be deployed in Southeast Asia to ensure sustainable livelihoods and biodiversity conservation. First, a stronger incorporation of mangroves into marine protected areas (that currently focus largely on reefs and fisheries) could resolve some policy conflicts and ensure that mangroves do not fall through a policy gap. Second, examples of community and government comanagement exist, but achieving comanagement at scale will be important in reconciling stakeholders and addressing conflicting policy objectives. Third, private-sector initiatives could protect mangroves through existing and novel mechanisms in degraded areas and areas under future threat. Finally, payments for ecosystem services (PES) hold great promise for mangrove conservation, with carbon PES schemes (known as blue carbon) attracting attention. Although barriers remain to the implementation of PES, the potential to implement them at multiple scales exists. Closing the gap between mangrove conservation policies and action is crucial to the improved protection and management of this imperiled coastal ecosystem and to the livelihoods that depend on them.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cobi.12784DOI Listing
October 2016

Author reply: To PMID 23622875.

Ophthalmology 2014 Mar 23;121(3):e14-5. Epub 2014 Jan 23.

Department of Optometry and Vision Science, Faculty of Science, The University of Auckland, New Zealand.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ophtha.2013.10.038DOI Listing
March 2014

How best to assess suppression in patients with high anisometropia.

Optom Vis Sci 2013 Feb;90(2):e47-52

State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Purpose: We have recently described a rapid technique for measuring suppression using a dichoptic signal/noise task. Here, we report a modification of this technique that allows for accurate measurements to be made in amblyopic patients with high levels of anisometropia. This was necessary because aniseikonic image size differences between the two eyes can provide a cue for signal/noise segregation and, therefore, influence suppression measurement in these patients.

Methods: Suppression was measured using our original technique and with a modified technique whereby the size of the signal and noise elements was randomized across the stimulus to eliminate size differences as a cue for task performance. Eleven patients with anisometropic amblyopia, five with more than 5 diopters (D) spherical equivalent difference (SED), six with less than 5 D SED between the eyes, and 10 control observers completed suppression measurements using both techniques.

Results: Suppression measurements in controls and patients with less than 5 D SED were constant across the two techniques; however, patients with more than 5 D SED showed significantly stronger suppression on the modified technique with randomized element size. Measurements made with the modified technique correlated with the loss of visual acuity in the amblyopic eye and were in good agreement with previous reports using detailed psychophysical measurements.

Conclusions: The signal/noise technique for measuring suppression can be applied to patients with high levels of anisometropia and aniseikonia if element size is randomized. In addition, deeper suppression is associated with a greater loss of visual acuity in patients with anisometropic amblyopia.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/OPX.0b013e31827d072cDOI Listing
February 2013
-->