Publications by authors named "Benjamin R Buchanan"

9 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Physiologic effects of nasopharyngeal administration of supplemental oxygen at various flow rates in healthy neonatal foals.

Am J Vet Res 2010 Sep;71(9):1081-8

Section of Equine Medicine, Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA.

Objective: To evaluate the effects of various flow rates of oxygen administered via 1 or 2 nasal cannulae on the fraction of inspired oxygen concentration (FIO2) and other arterial blood gas variables in healthy neonatal foals.

Animals: 9 healthy neonatal (3- to 4-day-old) foals.

Procedures: In each foal, a nasal cannula was introduced into each naris and passed into the nasopharynx to the level of the medial canthus of each eye; oxygen was administered at 4 flow rates through either 1 or both cannulae (8 treatments/foal). Intratracheal FIO2, intratracheal end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide, and arterial blood gas variables were measured before (baseline) and during unilateral and bilateral nasopharyngeal delivery of 50, 100, 150, and 200 mL of oxygen/kg/min.

Results: No adverse reactions were associated with administration of supplemental oxygen except at the highest flow rate, at which the foals became agitated. At individual flow rates, significant and dose-dependent increases in FIO2, PaO2, and oxygen saturation of hemoglobin (SaO2) were detected, compared with baseline values. Comparison of unilateral and bilateral delivery of oxygen at similar cumulative flow rates revealed no differences in evaluated variables.

Conclusions And Clinical Relevance: Results indicated that administration of supplemental oxygen via nasal cannulae appeared to be a highly effective means of increasing FIO2, PaO2, and SaO2 in neonatal foals. These findings may provide guidance for implementation of oxygen treatment in hypoxemic neonatal foals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.71.9.1081DOI Listing
September 2010

Effects of long-term oral administration of levothyroxine sodium on serum thyroid hormone concentrations, clinicopathologic variables, and echocardiographic measurements in healthy adult horses.

Am J Vet Res 2008 Jan;69(1):68-75

Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA.

Objective: To determine the effects of long-term oral levothyroxine sodium (L-T(4)) administration on serum thyroid hormone concentrations, thyroid gland function, clinicopathologic variables, and echocardiographic examination measurements in adult euthyroid horses.

Animals: 6 healthy adult mares.

Procedures: Horses received L-T(4) (48 mg/d) orally for 48 weeks. Every 4 weeks, physical examinations were performed; blood samples were collected for CBC, plasma biochemical analyses, and assessments of serum total triiodothyronine (tT(3)) and thyroxine (tT(4)) concentrations. Plasma creatine kinase MB activity and cardiac troponin I concentration were also measured. Echocardiographic examinations were performed before and at 16, 32, and 48 weeks during the treatment period.

Results: During the treatment period, mean body weight decreased significantly; heart rate varied significantly, but the pattern of variation was not consistent. Significant time effects were detected for certain clinicopathologic variables, but mean values remained within reference ranges. Cardiac troponin I was only detectable in 8 of 24 plasma samples (concentration range, 0.01 to 0.03 ng/mL). Serum creatine kinase MB activity did not change significantly over time. Compared with the pretreatment value, 5.4-, 4.0-, and 3.7-fold increases in mean serum tT(4) concentrations were detected at 16, 32, and 48 weeks, respectively. Some cardiac measurements changed significantly over time, but mean values remained within published reference ranges. Mean fractional shortening was lower than the pretreatment mean value at 16 and 32 weeks.

Conclusions And Clinical Relevance: In horses, long-term oral administration of 48 mg of L-T(4)/d significantly increased serum tT(4) concentrations and did not appear to adversely affect health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.69.1.68DOI Listing
January 2008

In vitro effects of hydrochloric acid and various concentrations of acetic, propionic, butyric, or valeric acids on bioelectric properties of equine gastric squamous mucosa.

Am J Vet Res 2006 Nov;67(11):1873-82

Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA.

Objective: To compare the effects of hydrochloric acid (HCl) and various concentrations of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) on tissue bioelectric properties of equine stomach nonglandular (NG) mucosa.

Sample Population: Gastric tissues obtained from 48 adult horses.

Procedures: NG gastric mucosa was studied by use of Ussing chambers. Short-circuit current (Isc) and potential difference (PD) were measured and electrical resistance (R) and conductance calculated for tissues after addition of HCl and VFAs (5, 10, 20, and 40 mM) in normal Ringer's solution (NRS).

Results: Mucosa exposed to HCl in NRS (pH of 1.5 and, to a lesser extent, 4.0) had a significant decrease in Isc, PD, and R, whereas tissues exposed to acetic acid at a pH of < 4.0, propionic and butyric acids at a pH of
Conclusions And Clinical Relevance: The VFAs, especially acetic acid, in the presence of HCl at a pH of
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.67.11.1873DOI Listing
November 2006

Effects of intravenously administrated omeprazole on gastric juice pH and gastric ulcer scores in adult horses.

J Vet Intern Med 2006 Sep-Oct;20(5):1202-6

Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville 37996, USA.

The study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of omeprazole powder in sterile water, administered intravenously, on gastric juice pH in adult horses with naturally occurring gastric ulcers. Omeprazole (0.5 mg/kg, IV) was administered once daily for 5 days to 6 adult horses with gastric ulcers. Gastric juice was aspirated through the biopsy channel of an endoscope and pH was measured before and 1 hour after administration of omeprazole on day 1, and then before and after administration of omeprazole on day 5. Gastric ulcer scores were recorded on day 1 before administration of omeprazole and on day 5, 23 hours after the 4th daily dose. Gastric juice pH and ulcer scores were compared between the times. When compared with the pre-injection value (2.01 +/- 0.42), mean +/- SD gastric juice pH was significantly higher when measured 1 hour after administration of the initial dose (4.35 +/- 2.31), and before (5.27 +/- 1.74) and 1 hour after (7.00 +/- 0.25) administration of omeprazole on day 5. Nonglandular gastric ulcer number score significantly decreased from a mean +/- SD of 3.2 +/- 0.80 to 2.0 +/- 1.1, but nonglandular gastric ulcer severity score remained the same. Few glandular ulcers were seen in the study, and scores did not change. Because of its potent and long duration of action on gastric juice pH, this intravenous formulation of omeprazole may show promise for treatment of equine gastric ulcer syndrome (EGUS) in horses with dysphagia, gastric reflux, or other conditions that restrict oral intake of omeprazole paste. Aspiration of gastric juice and measurement of pH can be of use to determine whether the desired pH > 4.0 has been reached after omeprazole treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1892/0891-6640(2006)20[1202:eoiaoo]2.0.co;2DOI Listing
November 2006

Use of a multivariable model to estimate the probability of discharge in hospitalized foals that are 7 days of age or less.

J Am Vet Med Assoc 2006 Jun;228(11):1748-56

Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA.

Objective: To create a mathematical model to assist in early prediction of the probability of discharge in hospitalized foals < or= 7 days old.

Study Design: Prospective study.

Animals: 1,073 foals.

Procedures: Medical records from 910 hospitalized foals < or = 7 days old for which outcome was recorded as died or discharged alive were reviewed. Thirty-four variables including historical information, physical examination findings, and laboratory results were examined for association with survival. Variables associated with being discharged alive were entered into a multivariable logistic regression model. Accuracy of the model was validated prospectively on data from 163 foals.

Results: Factors in the final model included age group, ability to stand, presence of a suckle reflex, WBC count, serum creatinine concentration, and anion gap. Sensitivity and specificity of the model to predict live discharge were 92% and 74%, respectively, in the retrospective population and 90% and 46%, respectively, in the prospective population. Accuracy of an equine clinician's initial prediction of the foal being discharged alive was 83%, and accuracy of the model's prediction was 81%. Combining the clinician's prediction of probability of live discharge with that of the model significantly increased (median increase, 12%) the accuracy of the prediction for foals that were discharged and nonsignificantly decreased (median decrease, 9%) the accuracy of the predication for nonsurvivors.

Conclusions And Clinical Relevance: Combining the clinician's initial predication of the probability of a foal being discharged alive with that of the model appeared to provide a more precise early estimate of the probability of live discharge for hospitalized foals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/javma.228.11.1748DOI Listing
June 2006

Otoscopic, cytological, and microbiological examination of the equine external ear canal.

Vet Dermatol 2006 Jun;17(3):175-81

Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, C247 VTH, University of Tennessee College of Veterinary Medicine, Knoxville, 37996-4544, USA.

Otoscopic examination and cytology of the equine ear would be beneficial in diseases such as head trauma, headshaking, otitis externa secondary to otitis media, vestibular disease, aural neoplasia and aural pruritus secondary to parasites. In practice, otic examinations of horses are rarely done due to the perceived difficulty in visualizing the equine external ear canal and tympanic membrane, as well as the need for chemical restraint. In this study, the proximal external ear canal was examined in live horses using a handheld otoscope and in cadaver heads using video otoscopy. Visualization of the proximal ear canal of the sedated horse could be done with a handheld otoscope, but more sedation or general anaesthesia and a video otoscope would be required to adequately visualize the tympanic membrane in the live horse. The proximal ear canals of 18 horses were examined cytologically and cultured aerobically. In three horses, both ears were sampled. No cells or organisms were seen on cytological examination of 11/21 ears. Nine of the 21 ears were sterile when cultured. Ten of the 21 ears had mixed growth with low numbers of organisms (Corynebacterium sp. being most common). Two of the 21 ears had heavy growth of a single organism (Corynebacterium sp. and Staphylococcus intermedius, respectively). Equine cadaver heads were examined in cross-section by computed tomography (CT) imaging and histopathology in order to further understand the anatomy of the equine external ear canal. Equine practitioners should be aware that otic examination is possible and may provide important diagnostic information.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3164.2006.00515.xDOI Listing
June 2006

What is your diagnosis? Pyloric-duodenal intussusception.

J Am Vet Med Assoc 2006 May;228(9):1339-40

Brazos Valley Equine Hospital, 6999 Hwy 6, Navasota, TX 77868, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/javma.228.9.1339DOI Listing
May 2006

Effect of a 24-hour infusion of an isotonic electrolyte replacement fluid on the renal clearance of electrolytes in healthy neonatal foals.

J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005 Oct;227(7):1123-9

Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA.

Objective: To determine the effects of a 24-hour infusion of an isotonic electrolyte replacement fluid (IERF) on weight, serum and urine electrolyte concentrations, and other clinicopathologic variables in healthy neonatal foals.

Animals: 4 healthy 4-day-old foals.

Design: Prospective study.

Procedure: An IERF was administered to each foal at an estimated rate of 80 mL/kg/d (36.4 mL/lb/d) for 24 hours. Body weight was measured before and after the infusion period. Urine was collected via catheter during 4-hour periods; blood samples were collected at 4-hour intervals. Variables including urine production; urine and serum osmolalities; sodium, potassium, and chloride concentrations in urine and serum; urine and serum creatinine concentrations; urine osmolality-to-serum osmolality ratio (OsmR); transtubular potassium gradient (TTKG); and percentage creatinine clearance (Cr(cl)) of electrolytes were recorded at 0, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24 hours during the infusion period. Immediately after the study period, net fluid and whole-body electrolyte changes from baseline values were calculated.

Results: Compared with baseline values, urine and serum sodium and chloride serum concentrations, urine and serum osmolalities, OsmR, and percentage Cr(cl) of sodium and chloride were significantly increased at various time points during the infusion; urine production did not change significantly. After 24 hours, weight, TTKG, serum creatinine concentration, and whole-body potassium had significantly decreased from baseline values.

Conclusions And Clinical Relevance: Results suggest that administration of an IERF containing a physiologic concentration of sodium may not be appropriate for use in neonatal foals that require maintenance fluid therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/javma.2005.227.1123DOI Listing
October 2005

Treatment and prevention of equine gastric ulcer syndrome.

Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 2003 Dec;19(3):575-97

Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, The University of Tennessee College of Veterinary Medicine, Knoxville 37996, USA.

EGUS is a common problem in horses and foals. Acids are the important causative factors and current therapy targets the suppression of gastric HCl and creation of a permissive environment for ulcer healing. Diagnosis is based on history, clinical signs, gastroscopy, and response to treatment. Of the products available, only GastroGard (FDA approved) and ranitidine have been shown to be efficacious in the treatment of EGUS. Ranitidine is often associated with treatment failure as a result of incorrect dosing and lack of owner compliance, because of the three times daily dosing required. Also, EGUS occurs in critically ill neonatal foals, but the pathogenesis may be different than in adult horses and acid-suppressive therapy may not be as effective.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cveq.2003.08.012DOI Listing
December 2003
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