Publications by authors named "Benjamin C James"

32 Publications

Can Cytologic and Sonographic Features Help Prevent Overtreatment of Bethesda V Thyroid Nodules?

J Surg Res 2021 Jul 20;268:112-118. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Surgery, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts. Electronic address:

Background: Although nearly half of thyroid nodules with Bethesda V cytology (suspicious for malignancy) may be benign or harbor low-grade neoplasms that can be sufficiently treated with lobectomy, many patients with Bethesda V cytology continue to be treated with total thyroidectomy. The objectives of this study were to establish whether cytomorphologic and ultrasonographic features can determine appropriate surgery for thyroid nodules with Bethesda V cytology and how often patients are overtreated with total instead of partial thyroidectomy.

Methods: Utilizing a 10-y prospective database starting January 1, 2004, cytomorphologic and ultrasonographic features of thyroid nodules with Bethesda V cytology were reviewed. Overtreatment was defined as total thyroidectomy when histopathology revealed benign nodule, noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP) or a unilateral < 4 cm low risk cancer.

Results: Sixty-three patients were included in the study. Seventeen (27%) had benign, 14 (22%) NIFTP, and 32 (51%) malignant nodules. On cytology, nuclear pseudoinclusions, and on ultrasound, taller-than-wide configuration, were more common in malignant than benign or NIFTP nodules. Among 56 patients who underwent total thyroidectomy, 14 and 11 had a benign or NIFTP nodule, respectively, and 13 had a unilateral < 4 cm low risk cancer, suggesting that 68% (38/56) were overtreated.

Conclusions: Total thyroidectomy for Bethesda V thyroid nodules may result in overtreatment in more than half of the patients. Although certain cytomorphologic and ultarsonographic features may be helpful in determining appropriate surgery for Bethesda V thyroid nodules, additional characteristics are needed to reduce overtreatment of these nodules.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2021.05.050DOI Listing
July 2021

Public perceptions of transoral endocrine surgery and their influence on choice of operative approach.

J Surg Res 2021 Jun 12;267:56-62. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA; Department of Surgery, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA. Electronic address:

Background: Transoral Endocrine Surgery (TES) represents an alternative to the open approach with no visible scar. Studies have shown TES has a safety profile similar to the open approach, but adoption has been limited. Public perception and preference for TES are factors associated with adoption that have not been explored. Here we aim to understand the perception of TES by the public and factors which influence decision making.

Materials And Methods: A 38-question survey was designed to assess factors which influence willingness to pursue TES. The survey was distributed utilizing Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk), a crowdsourcing marketplace in which individuals perform tasks virtually based on interest. Descriptive analyses, Pearson chi-squared tests, Student's t-tests, and multivariate logistic regression were performed to evaluate theoretical decision to pursue TES.

Results: Respondents (n = 795) were 47% female, 78% white, 70% held a college degree or higher, and had a mean age of 37. The majority (69%) preferred a mouth incision over a neck incision. Respondents were willing to pursue TES for a theoretical cancer despite increased cost (52%) and longer operative time (70%). Respondents top two most important surgical factors were safety and experience.

Conclusions: Our data suggest the general public is willing to pursue TES and factors thought to be barriers to choosing TES may not deter the public. An informed discussion with appropriately-selected patients should be had between the patient and surgeon regarding specific surgical and postoperative differences including risks, safety, and experience.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2021.04.041DOI Listing
June 2021

Patient-Reported Financial Burden in Thyroid Cancer.

J Surg Res 2021 May 14;266:160-167. Epub 2021 May 14.

Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts; Department of Surgery, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts. Electronic address:

Background: The incidence of thyroid cancer is increasing at a rapid rate. Prior studies have demonstrated financial burden and decreased quality of life in patients with thyroid cancer. Here, we characterize patient-reported financial burden in patients with thyroid cancer over a 28y period.

Materials And Methods: Patients who underwent thyroidectomy for thyroid cancer from 1990-2018 completed a phone survey assessing financial burden and its related psychological financial hardship. Descriptive statistics were performed to characterize these outcomes and correlation with sociodemographic data was assessed.

Results: Respondents (N = 147) were 73% female, 75% white, and had a median follow up of 7 y. The majority had a full-time job (59%) and private insurance (81%) at the time of diagnosis. Overall, 16% of respondents reported financial burden and 50% reported psychological financial hardship. Those reporting financial burden were disproportionately impacted by psychological financial hardship (87% versus 43%, P < 0.001). One in four (25%) respondents reported not being adequately informed about costs.

Conclusions: Financial burdens are important outcomes of thyroid cancer which occur even among patients with protective financial factors, suggesting an even greater impact on the general population of patients with thyroid cancer. Further research is needed to explore the intersection of financial burden, cost, and quality of life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2021.03.051DOI Listing
May 2021

Decreasing Surgical Management of Secondary Hyperparathyroidism in the United States.

J Surg Res 2021 Aug 10;264:444-453. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Surgery, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts; Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts. Electronic address:

Background: Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) commonly occurs in end-stage renal disease (ESRD), leading to vascular calcification and increased mortality. For SHPT refractory to medical management, parathyroidectomy improves symptoms and decreases mortality. Medical management has changed with the release of new guidelines and advent of novel medications. We investigate recent national trends in parathyroidectomy for SHPT.

Materials And Methods: We used the National/Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 2004 to 2016 to identify hospitalizations including parathyroidectomy for SHPT and calculated parathyroidectomy rates utilizing data from the United States Renal Data System. Subgroup analysis was conducted by race. Risk factors for in-hospital mortality were identified with purposeful selection and multivariable logistic regression.

Results: From 2004 to 2016, the rate of parathyroidectomies for SHPT per 1000 ESRD patients decreased from 6.07 (95% CI: 4.83-7.32) to 3.67 (95% CI: 3.33-4.00). Black patients underwent parathyroidectomy for SHPT at a 1.8-fold higher rate than white and Hispanic patients (5.59 versus 3.04 and 3.07). Almost all tracked comorbidities increased in prevalence. In-hospital mortality trended lower (1.5% to 0.8%, P = 0.051). Risk factors for in-hospital mortality included weight loss (OR 4.19, 95% CI: 2.00-8.78) and cardiac arrhythmia (OR 3.38, 95% CI: 1.66-6.91), while additional calendar year (OR = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.80-0.95) was protective.

Conclusions: The etiology of the declining parathyroidectomy rate for SHPT is unclear; possible factors include changing guidelines emphasizing medical management, widespread availability of cinacalcet, changing practice patterns, and inadequate surgical referral.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2021.03.013DOI Listing
August 2021

ASO Visual Abstract: Time to Surgery and Thyroid Cancer Survival in the United States.

Ann Surg Oncol 2021 Jul;28(7):3566

Department of Surgery, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-021-09834-xDOI Listing
July 2021

Time to Surgery and Thyroid Cancer Survival in the United States.

Ann Surg Oncol 2021 Jul 25;28(7):3556-3565. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Section of Endocrine Surgery, Department of Surgery, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Longer time to surgery worsens survival in multiple malignancies, including lung, colorectal, and breast cancers, but limited data exist for well-differentiated thyroid cancer. We sought to investigate the impact of time to surgery on overall survival in patients with papillary thyroid cancer.

Methods: In a retrospective cohort study of the National Cancer Database, we used Cox proportional hazard models to investigate overall survival as a function of time between diagnosis and surgery for adults with papillary thyroid cancer, adjusting for demographic, patient, and cancer-related variables. Time to surgery was investigated both as a continuous variable and as intervals of 0-90 days, 90-180 days, and > 180 days. Subgroup analyses were conducted by T stage.

Results: Overall, 103,812 adults with papillary thyroid cancer were included from 2004 to 2016. Median follow-up was 55.2 months (interquartile range 28.4-89.5). Increasing time to surgery was associated with increased mortality: delaying by 91-180 days increased the risk by 30% (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1.30, 95% CI 1.19-1.43) and delaying by over 180 days increased the risk by 94% (aHR 1.94, 95% CI 1.68-2.24). Five-year overall survival was 95.7% for 0-90 days, 93.0% for 91-180 days, and 87.9% for over 180 days. On subgroup analysis, increasing delay was associated with worse overall survival for T1, T2, and T3 tumors, but not T4 tumors.

Conclusions: Increasing time to surgery in papillary thyroid cancer is associated with reduced overall survival. Further research is necessary to assess the impact of surgical delay on disease-specific survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-021-09797-zDOI Listing
July 2021

ASO Author Reflections: Does Timely Surgery Matter in Papillary Thyroid Cancer?

Ann Surg Oncol 2021 Jul 23;28(7):3567. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Section of Endocrine Surgery, Department of Surgery, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-021-09799-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7986143PMC
July 2021

Overcoming a Hostile Work and Learning Environment in Academic Surgery-Tools for Change at Every Level.

J Surg Res 2020 08 18;252:281-284. Epub 2020 May 18.

Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Mistreatment has been documented as a negative factor in the learning environment for the past 30 y but little progress has been made to determine an effective way to significantly improve these interactions. Faculty may also be victims of a hostile work environment as well, although frequency has not been well-measured or reported. In fact, it may be difficult to identify and address mistreatment and hostility in the work place within the commonly established surgical culture. Thus, efforts to define, identify, and address workplace mistreatment or hostility are crucial to the success of the academic surgical environment. This article summarizes presentations and panel discussion that took place at the 2019 Academic Surgical Congress organized by the Association for Academic Surgery and the Society of University Surgeons. Definitions of mistreatment and hostility were provided, as well as information regarding occurrence. Tools for addressing mistreatment in the work environment and tips for creating a positive environment were presented and discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2019.12.055DOI Listing
August 2020

Adrenalectomy for Secondary Malignancy: Patients, Outcomes, and Indications.

Ann Surg 2020 May 18. Epub 2020 May 18.

Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Surgery, Boston MA.

Objective: The goal of this study was to examine a multi-institutional experience with adrenal metastases to describe survival outcomes and identify subpopulations who benefit from adrenal metastasectomy.

Background: Adrenalectomy for metastatic disease is well-described, although indications and outcomes are incompletely defined.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed of patients undergoing adrenalectomy for secondary malignancy (2002-2015) at 6 institutions. The primary outcomes were disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Analysis methods included Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards.

Results: Of 269 patients, mean age was 60.1 years; 50% were male. The most common primary malignancies were lung (n = 125, 47%), renal cell (n = 38, 14%), melanoma (n = 33, 12%), sarcoma (n = 18, 7%), and colorectal (n = 12, 5%). The median time to detection of adrenal metastasis after initial diagnosis of the primary tumor was 17 months (interquartile range: 6-41). Post-adrenalectomy, the median DFS was 18 months (1-year DFS: 54%, 5-year DFS: 31%). On multivariable analysis, lung primary was associated with longer DFS [hazard ratio (HR): 0.49, P = 0.008). Extra-adrenal oligometastatic disease at initial presentation (HR: 1.84, P = 0.016), larger tumor size (HR: 1.07, P = 0.013), chemotherapy as treatment of the primary tumor (HR: 2.07 P = 0.027) and adjuvant chemotherapy (HR: 1.95, P = 0.009) were associated with shorter DFS. Median OS was 53 months (1-year OS: 83%, 5-year OS: 43%). On multivariable analysis, extra-adrenal oligometastatic disease at adrenalectomy (HR: 1.74, P = 0.031), and incomplete resection of adrenal metastasis (R1 margins; HR: 1.62, P = 0.034; R2 margins; HR: 5.45, P = 0.002) were associated with shorter OS.

Conclusions: Durable survival is observed in patients undergoing adrenal metastasectomy and should be considered for subjects with isolated adrenal metastases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SLA.0000000000003876DOI Listing
May 2020

Identification of Specific Educational Targets to Improve the Student Surgical Clerkship Experience.

J Surg Res 2020 10 11;254:49-57. Epub 2020 May 11.

Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

Background: This study describes the relationship between medical student perception of surgery, frequency of positive surgery clerkship activities, and overall surgical clerkship experience.

Methods: Medical students at four academic hospitals completed pre- and post-clerkship surveys assessing 1) surgery clerkship activities/experiences and 2) perceptions of surgery during the 2017-2018 academic year.

Results: Ninety-one percent of students completed both a pre- and post-clerkship survey (n = 162 of 179). Student perception of surgery significantly improved across the clerkship overall (P < 0.0001) and for 7 of 21 specific items. Eighty-six percent of students agreed that the clerkship was a meaningful experience. Sixty-six percent agreed that the operating room was a positive learning environment. Multivariable logistic regression identified one-on-one mentoring from a resident (OR [95% CI] = 2.12 [1.11-4.04], P = 0.02) and establishing a meaningful relationship with a surgical patient (OR = 2.21 [1.12-4.37], P = 0.02) as activities predictive of student agreement that the surgical clerkship was meaningful. Making an incision (OR = 2.92 [1.54-5.56], P = 0.001) and assisting in dissection (OR = 1.67 [1.03-2.69], P = 0.035) were predictive of student agreement that the operating room was a positive learning environment. Positive student perception of surgery before the clerkship was associated with increased frequency of positive clerkship activities including operative involvement (r = 0.26, P = 0.001) and relationships with surgical attendings (r = 0.20, P = 0.01), residents (r = 0.41, P < 0.0001), and patients (r = 0.24, P = 0.003).

Conclusions: Interventions to improve surgery clerkship quality should target enhancing student relationships with residents and surgical patients as well as providing opportunity for student operative involvement beyond just suturing. In addition, fostering positive perceptions of surgery in the preclinical period may increase meaningfulness and experience with the later surgery clerkship.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2020.03.066DOI Listing
October 2020

Transoral endocrine surgery: Considerations for adopting a new technique.

J Surg Oncol 2020 Jul 25;122(1):36-40. Epub 2020 Apr 25.

Division of General Surgery, Department of Surgery, Section of Endocrine Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas.

Transoral endocrine surgery encompasses a group of operations whereby the thyroid or parathyroid gland is removed through the oral vestibule. This operation has the advantage of leaving no cutaneous scar and a risk profile similar to open surgery. Adoption of this technique has increased dramatically over the last several years. It is of paramount importance for surgeons to undergo adequate training before adopting this technique.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jso.25953DOI Listing
July 2020

Patient-Reported Quality-of-Life Outcome Measures in the Thyroid Cancer Population.

Thyroid 2020 10 14;30(10):1414-1431. Epub 2020 May 14.

Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

There is an escalating worldwide population of thyroid cancer (TC) survivors. In addition to conventional metrics of quality of care, quality-of-life (QoL) assessment in TC patients is imperative. TC survivors face unique impediments to health-related quality of life (HRQoL), including thyroid-specific symptoms and exposure to disease-related stressors-including fear of recurrence and financial toxicity-over a prolonged survival period. Survey instruments currently used to assess HRQoL in TC survivors may be insufficient to accurately capture the burden of disease in this population. We aimed to identify the HRQoL instruments in the literature, which have been applied in the TC survivor population, and to present the psychometric properties of the scales and indexes that have been used. We hypothesized that few instruments have shown evidence of validity in this population. Of the 927 articles identified by search criteria, only 28 studies using 15 HRQoL instruments met inclusion criteria. Of the 15 HRQoL instruments identified, 9 were psychometric health status instruments and 6 were preference-based indexes, but none had been validated in the TC survivor population. While the majority of reviewed studies demonstrated impaired psychological and emotional well-being in TC survivors, these findings were not uniformly demonstrated across studies, and the longevity of the impact of TC on HRQoL was variably reported. Discrepancies in the literature regarding the impact of TC survivorship on HRQoL emphasize the challenges of accurately assessing patient perspectives, reinforcing the importance of using well-constructed instruments to measure patient-reported outcomes in the target population. Care providers involved in the treatment of TC survivors should be aware of longitudinal effects on HRQoL, especially pertaining to chronic psychological debilitation. Further development and rigorous validation of TC-specific instruments will allow for better data gathering and understanding of the barriers to achieving high long-term HRQoL in TC survivors throughout their long postsurvival course.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/thy.2020.0038DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7583324PMC
October 2020

Financial burden of thyroid cancer in the United States: An estimate of economic and psychological hardship among thyroid cancer survivors.

Surgery 2020 02 22;167(2):378-384. Epub 2019 Oct 22.

Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA; Section of Endocrine Surgery, Department of Surgery, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA. Electronic address:

Background: Annual cancer-related healthcare expenditure in the United States is estimated to exceed $150 billion by 2020. As the prevalence of thyroid cancer increases worldwide, thyroid cancer survivorship is associated with increasing personal and cumulative costs. Few studies have examined the psychological and material economic costs experienced by thyroid cancer survivors. We seek to estimate the comparative prevalence of financial and psychological hardship among thyroid cancer and non-thyroid cancer patients in the United States.

Methods: The 2011 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Experiences with Cancer databank was queried to identify thyroid and non-thyroid (colon, breast, lung, prostate) cancer survivors. This survey includes assessments of financial stress, material hardship, and psychological financial hardship. Cancer incidence-based weighted estimates of responses were compared between thyroid and non-thyroid cancer survivors. Independent predictors of material and psychological financial burden were identified through separate multivariate regression models.

Results: Thyroid cancer survivors more frequently reported psychological financial burden compared to non-thyroid cancer (46.1% vs 24.0%, P = .04). Material financial hardship (28.1% vs 19.9%, P = .37) and concurrent material and psychological hardship (25.1% vs 12.5%, P = .09) were noted at similar frequencies between thyroid and non-thyroid cancer survivors. However, on multivariate analysis, only younger age and lack of health insurance coverage were independently associated with psychological financial hardship.

Conclusion: Thyroid cancer survivors report greater psychological financial hardship than non-thyroid cancer survivors. Because this financial burden may be underrecognized in the medical community, further studies should be conducted to aid physicians in better understanding the impact of a thyroid cancer diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surg.2019.09.010DOI Listing
February 2020

Papillary thyroid cancer with extrathyroidal extension of desmoid-type fibromatosis. A case report of an aggressive presentation of an uncommon pathologic entity.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2019 8;63:5-9. Epub 2019 Aug 8.

Department of Surgery, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States.

Introduction: Papillary thyroid cancer with desmoid-type fibromatosis (PTC-DTF) is an uncommon tumor characterized by extensive stromal proliferation of fibroblasts and myofibroblasts with a small component of PTC. We report a case of PTC-DTF with infiltration of the mesenchymal component of tumor into perithyroidal muscle and early recurrence of desmoid after thyroidectomy, an outcome previously not reported.

Presentation Of Case: A 20-year-old man underwent left hemithyroidectomy for a thyroid nodule. Pathology demonstrated a 4.2 cm tumor with PTC-DTF with the PTC comprising <10% of the tumor. The stromal component extended into adjacent skeletal muscle. After completion thyroidectomy, histopathology of the right thyroid lobe revealed no malignancy or fibromatosis. Neck MRI 16 months after the initial operation revealed a 10.5 cm tumor in the left thyroid bed. Core biopsy and open excisional biopsy showed desmoid-type fibromatosis without PTC. The patient is undergoing chemotherapy of his recurrent desmoid-type fibromatosis.

Discussion: In patients with PTC-DTF there is a risk of recurrence of the benign component of the tumor. In recent reports, the role of less aggressive surgery, or even non-surgical management, of patients with recurrent DTF has been emphasized, in particular when extensive surgery may be associated with high risk of functional loss. The management of our patient adheres to modern recommendations for the treatment of DTF.

Conclusion: Patients with PTC-DTF should be carefully monitored after thyroidectomy for both recurrent PTC and local recurrence of the fibrous component of the tumor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijscr.2019.08.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6734537PMC
August 2019

Hyperparathyroidism and parathyroidectomy in X-linked hypophosphatemia patients.

Bone 2019 10 2;127:386-392. Epub 2019 Jul 2.

Indiana University School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, United States of America; Indiana University School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, United States of America. Electronic address:

Background: X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) causes rickets, osteomalacia, skeletal deformities and growth impairment, due to elevated fibroblast growth factor 23 and hypophosphatemia. Conventional therapy requires high doses of phosphate salts combined with active vitamin D analogues. Risks of this regimen include nephrocalcinosis and secondary hyperparathyroidism or progression to tertiary (hypercalcemic) hyperparathyroidism.

Methods: The primary goals were to estimate the prevalence of hyperparathyroidism and to characterize parathyroidectomy outcomes regarding hypercalcemia among XLH patients. XLH patients attending our center from 1/2000 to 12/2017 were included in a retrospective chart review. Prevalence of nephrocalcinosis and eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73m was also assessed.

Results: Of 104 patients with XLH, 84 had concurrent measurements of calcium and PTH (40 adults and 44 children). Of these, 70/84 (83.3%), had secondary or tertiary hyperparathyroidism at any time point. Secondary hyperparathyroidism was persistent in 62.2% of those with data at multiple timepoints. Tertiary hyperparathyroidism had an overall prevalence of 14/84 (16.7%) patients. Parathyroidectomy was performed in 8/84 (9.5%) of the total population. After parathyroidectomy, persistent or recurrent tertiary hyperparathyroidism was detected in 6/8 (75%) patients at a median of 6 years (from 0 to 29 years). One patient had chronic post-surgical hypoparathyroidism and one patient remained normocalcemic 4 years after surgery. Nephrocalcinosis was more prevalent in patients with tertiary hyperparathyroidism than those without (60.0% vs 18.6%). Chronic kidney disease (eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73m) was also more prevalent in patients with tertiary hyperparathyroidism than those without (35.7% vs 1.5%).

Conclusion: The majority of patients with XLH develop secondary hyperparathyroidism during treatment with phosphate and active vitamin D. A significant proportion develops tertiary hyperparathyroidism and most have recurrence or persistence of hypercalcemia after surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2019.06.025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6836672PMC
October 2019

Words Matter: Removing the Word Pimp from Medical Education Discourse.

Am J Med 2019 12 17;132(12):e813-e814. Epub 2019 May 17.

Department of Surgery, Section of Endocrine Surgery, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Mass.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjmed.2019.04.033DOI Listing
December 2019

Changes in total thyroidectomy versus thyroid lobectomy for papillary thyroid cancer during the past 15 years.

Surgery 2019 07 21;166(1):41-47. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Indiana University School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Division of General Internal Medicine and Geriatrics, Indianapolis; Center for Health Information and Communication, US Department of Veterans Affairs, Veterans Health Administration, Health Services Research and Development Service, Richard L. Roudebush VA Medical Center, Indianapolis, IN; Regenstrief Institute, Inc, Indianapolis, IN.

Background: The incidence of papillary thyroid cancer has increased substantially during the past 15 years, which is likely related to an increased detection of small, nonlethal cancers. Studies have shown that patients may have a similar prognosis when undergoing less aggressive surgical intervention, such as thyroid lobectomy. The objective of this study is to determine whether surgical treatment patterns for papillary thyroid cancer have changed during the past 15 years.

Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study evaluating changes in the incidence and proportion of total thyroidectomy versus thyroid lobectomy for histologically confirmed papillary thyroid cancers, using the National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results cancer registries between 2000 and 2014.

Results: During the study period, 44,537 patients underwent surgical treatment for papillary thyroid cancer, of which 77% were female and 81.3% were white. The incidence of papillary thyroid cancer more than doubled: from 6.2 (5.9-6.5) to 13.0 (12.5-13.4) per 100,000. The proportion of total thyroidectomy among all papillary cases increased from 78.16% in 2000 to 85.67% in 2014, and the proportion of thyroid lobectomy dropped from 16.62% to 11.41%. When stratified by tumor size, we observed a sustained and increasing gap in the proportions of total thyroidectomy and thyroid lobectomy.

Conclusion: The incidence of total thyroidectomy has not decreased despite recommendations encouraging consideration of lobectomy for patients with small papillary thyroid cancers. Although these findings could be attributed to the lag between scientific evidence and clinical practice, further work is warranted to explore any additional patient and provider factors that may explain this lack of change.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surg.2019.01.007DOI Listing
July 2019

Using Individual Clinical Evaluations to Assess Residents' Clinical Judgment; Feasibility and Residents' Perception.

J Surg Educ 2018 Nov 4;75(6):e31-e37. Epub 2018 Oct 4.

Department of Surgery, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts. Electronic address:

Objective: In surgical training, most assessment tools focus on advanced clinical decision-making or operative skill. Available tools often require significant investment of resources and time. A high stakes oral examination is also required to become board-certified in surgery. We developed Individual Clinical Evaluation (ICE) to evaluate intern-level clinical decision-making in a time- and cost-efficient manner, and to introduce the face-to-face evaluation setting.

Design: Intern-level ICE consists of 3 clinical scenarios commonly encountered by surgical trainees. Each scenario was developed to be presented in a step-by-step manner to an intern by an attending physician or chief resident. The interns had 17 minutes to complete the face-to-face evaluation and 3 minutes to receive feedback on their performance. The feedback was transcribed and sent to the interns along with incorrect answers. Eighty percent correct was set as a minimum to pass each scenario and continue with the next one. Interns who failed were retested until they passed. Frequency of incorrect response was tracked by question/content area. After passing the 3 scenarios, interns completed a survey about their experience with ICE.

Setting: Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, an academic tertiary care facility located in Boston, Massachusetts.

Participants: All first-year surgery residents in our institution (n = 17) were invited to complete a survey.

Results: All 2016-2017 surgical interns (17) completed the ICEs. A total of $171 (US) was spent conducting the ICEs, and an average of 17 minutes was used to complete each evaluation. In total, 5 different residents failed 1 scenario, with the most common mistake being: failing to stabilize respiration before starting management. After completing the 3 clinical scenarios, more than 90% of respondents agreed or strongly agreed that the evaluations were appropriately challenging for training level, and that the evaluations helped to identify personal strengths and weaknesses in skill and knowledge. The majority believed their knowledge improved as a result of the ICE and felt better prepared to manage these scenarios (88% and 76%, respectively).

Conclusions: The ICE is an inexpensive and time efficient way to introduce interns to board type examinations and assess their preparedness for perioperative patient care issues. Common errors were identified which were able to inform educational efforts. ICEs were well accepted by residents. Next steps include extension of the ICE to PGY2 and PGY3 residents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsurg.2018.06.023DOI Listing
November 2018

Quality of life in thyroid cancer-assessment of physician perceptions.

J Surg Res 2018 06 15;226:94-99. Epub 2018 Feb 15.

Department of Surgery, Endocrine Surgery Research Program, University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois.

Background: Thyroid cancer is the fastest growing malignancy in the United States. Previous studies have shown a decrease in quality of life (QoL) after the treatment of thyroid cancer. To date, there have been no studies assessing physician perceptions regarding how a diagnosis of thyroid cancer affects QoL. Based on this and other findings from our study, we aim to assess physician perceptions on the effect of thyroid cancer on QoL.

Materials And Methods: Physicians were recruited from two national organizations comprised physicians focusing on thyroid cancer. A 37-question survey was administered evaluating physician's perceptions of thyroid cancer patient satisfaction in various aspects of treatment, complications, and overall effects on QoL. QoL responses were categorized into overall QoL, physical, psychological, social, and spiritual well-being.

Results: One hundred five physicians completed the survey. Physician's estimates of patient's overall QoL after thyroid cancer treatment was similar to overall QoL reported by patients. However, medical physicians overestimated the decrease in thyroid cancer survivor's QoL in several subcategories including physical, psychological, and social (P < 0.05). Both surgeons and medical physicians underestimated the percentage of patients with reported symptoms of temporary and permanent voice changes, temporary dry mouth, cold/heat sensitivity, and temporary and permanent hypocalcemia (P = 0.01-0.04).

Conclusions: Physicians have a varied estimation of the detrimental impact of thyroid cancer treatment on QoL. In addition, physicians underestimated the amount of physical symptoms associated with thyroid cancer treatments. Increased physician awareness of the detrimental effects of a thyroid cancer diagnosis on QoL should allow for a more accurate conversation about expected outcomes after thyroid cancer treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2017.11.069DOI Listing
June 2018

An update in international trends in incidence rates of thyroid cancer, 1973-2007.

Cancer Causes Control 2018 05 5;29(4-5):465-473. Epub 2018 Apr 5.

Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Chicago, 5841 S Maryland, Chicago, IL, 60637, USA.

Purpose: Over the past several decades, there has been a reported increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer in many countries. We previously reported an increase in thyroid cancer incidence across continents between 1973 and 2002. Here, we provide an update on the international trends in thyroid cancer between 2003 and 2007.

Methods: We examined thyroid cancer incidence data from the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents (CI5) database for the period between 1973 and 2007 from 24 populations in the Americas, Asia, Europe, Africa and Oceania, and report on the time trends as well as the distribution by histologic type and gender worldwide.

Results: The incidence of thyroid cancer increased during the period from 1998-2002 to 2003-2007 in the majority of populations examined, with the highest rates observed among women, most notably in Israel and the United States SEER registry, at over 14 per 100,000 people. This update suggests that incidence is rising in a similar fashion across all regions of the world. The histologic and gender distributions in the updated CI5 are consistent with the previous report.

Conclusions: Our analysis of the published CI5 data illustrates that the incidence of thyroid cancer increased between 1998-2002 and 2003-2007 in most populations worldwide, and rising rates continue in all regions of the world.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10552-018-1023-2DOI Listing
May 2018

Pediatric toxic polycystic thyroid.

J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2017 Jul;30(7):781-784

.

Background: Polycystic thyroid disease (PCTD) is a rare condition and has been described in adults in the setting of subclinical and clinical hypothyroidism. We present the first known case of a pediatric patient with diffuse macrocystic degeneration of the thyroid.

Clinical Presentation: A 6-year-old previously healthy patient was evaluated after presenting with a 16-month history of an enlarging polycystic thyroid and hyperthyroidism. Markers of autoimmune thyroid disease including thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin (TSI), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor antibody, thyroid peroxidase antibody and thyroglobulin antibody were negative. No family history of benign or malignant thyroid or cystic disease was present. The patient underwent a total thyroidectomy without perioperative complication. She remains euthyroid with thyroid hormone replacement therapy.

Summary: To our knowledge, this is the first report of PCTD in the pediatric population associated with hyperthyroidism without evidence of autoimmune disease. Somatic activating thyrotropin-receptor gene mutations are known to cause non-autoimmune hyperthyroidism in children, however it is unknown if similar mechanisms are responsible for pediatric PCTD.

Conclusions: Polycystic thyroid degeneration can occur in children and may result in a hyperthyroid state.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/jpem-2016-0443DOI Listing
July 2017

Association of Insurance Expansion With Surgical Management of Thyroid Cancer.

JAMA Surg 2017 Aug;152(8):734-740

Department of Surgery, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis.

Importance: To our knowledge, thyroid cancer incidence is increasing faster than any other cancer type and is currently the fifth most common cancer among women. While this rise is likely multifactorial, there has been scarce consideration of the effect of insurance statuses on the treatment of thyroid cancer.

Objective: We evaluate the association of insurance expansion with thyroid cancer treatment using the 2006 Massachusetts health reform, which serves as a unique natural experiment.

Design, Setting, And Participants: We used the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality State Inpatient Databases to identify patients with government-subsidized or self-pay insurance or private insurance who were admitted to a hospital with thyroid cancer and underwent a thyroidectomy between 2001 and 2011 in Massachusetts (n = 8534) and 3 control states (n = 48 047). Difference-in-differences models were used to evaluate an association between the 2006 Massachusetts health care reform and thyroid cancer treatment, and participants were controlled for age, sex, comorbidities, and secular trends.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Change in the thyroidectomy rate for thyroid cancer treatment was the primary outcome evaluated.

Results: The Massachusetts cohort consisted of 6443 women (75.5%) and 2091 men (24.5%), of whom 6388 (79.6%) were white, 391 (4.9%) were black, 527 (6.6%) were Hispanic, 424 (5.3%) were Asian/Pacific Islander, 63 (0.8%) were Native American, and 228 (2.8%) were other. The participants from control states included 36 818 women (76.6%) and 11 229 men (23.4%), of whom 30 432 (65.5%) were white, 3818 (8.2%) were black, 6462 (13.9%) were Hispanic, 2591 (5.6%) were Asian/Pacific Islander, 211 (0.5%) were Native American, and 2947 (6.3%) were other. Before the 2006 Massachusetts insurance expansion, patients with government-subsidized or self-pay insurance had lower thyroidectomy rates for thyroid cancer in Massachusetts and the control states compared with patients with private insurance. The Massachusetts insurance expansion was associated with a 26% increased rate of undergoing a thyroidectomy (incident rate ratio, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.04-1.52; P = .02) and a 22% increased rate of neck dissection (incident rate ratio, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.07-1.37; P = .002) for treating cancer compared with control states.

Conclusions And Relevance: The 2006 Massachusetts health reform, which is a model for the Affordable Care Act, was associated with a 26% increased rate of thyroidectomy for treating thyroid cancer. Our study suggests that insurance expansion may be associated with increased access to the surgical management of thyroid cancer. Further studies need to be conducted to evaluate the effect of healthcare expansion at a national level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamasurg.2017.0461DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5831462PMC
August 2017

Ultrasonic, bipolar, and integrated energy devices: comparing heat spread in collateral tissues.

J Surg Res 2017 01 5;207:249-254. Epub 2016 Jul 5.

Endocrine Surgery Research Program, Department of Surgery, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois. Electronic address:

Background: Integrated devices incorporating ultrasonic and bipolar technology have been used in laparoscopic surgery, however, are not yet incorporated into open operations. Here, we compare thermal spread and recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) functional data of the integrated THUNDERBEAT Open Fine Jaw device, the bipolar Ligasure Small Jaw, and the ultrasonic Harmonic Focus for open thyroidectomy.

Materials And Methods: The three energy devices were compared in a live porcine model using three tissue types including liver, muscle, and thyroid. The devices were fired three times on each energy setting, and the thermal spread was measured by thermocouples that were inserted in surrounding tissues at 1-mm intervals. To determine RLN injury, devices were fired at successive 1-mm increments from the RLN until the monitor signal was lost.

Results: When comparing heat generated across these devices at 1 mm, the peak temperature (Celsius) reached in liver tissue was observed with the ultrasonic device (115.4 ± 86.7), in muscle tissue with the integrated device (104.2 ± 82.1), and in thyroid with the bipolar device (81.4 ± 41.3). Temperatures generated at individual settings on each device were similar (P = 0.11-0.81). RLN injury occurred after firing on manually approximated tissue 1-mm away from the RLN for all devices; however, there was no signal loss at ≥2 mm.

Conclusions: Heat transfer was similar among all devices with the exception of the ultrasonic device when used in the liver, which showed higher temperatures. Liver tissue showed the most consistent results. RLN injury did not occur if the devices were fired on manually approximated tissue ≥2 mm from the nerve.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2016.06.077DOI Listing
January 2017

Thyroid Surgery in a Resource-Limited Setting.

Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2017 03 27;156(3):464-471. Epub 2016 Dec 27.

6 Department of Surgery, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA.

Objective The present study reviews a series of patients who underwent thyroid surgery in Eldoret, Kenya, to demonstrate the feasibility of conducting long-term (>1 year) outcomes research in a resource-limited setting, impact on the quality of life of the recipient population, and inform future humanitarian collaborations. Study Design Case series with chart review. Setting Tertiary public referral hospital in Eldoret, Kenya. Subjects and Methods Twenty-one patients were enrolled during the study period. A retrospective chart review was performed for all adult patients who underwent thyroid surgery during humanitarian trips (2010-2015). Patients were contacted by mobile telephone. Medical history and physical examination, including laryngoscopy, were performed, and the SF-36 was administered (a quality-of-life questionnaire). Laboratory measurements of thyroid function and neck ultrasound were obtained. Results The mean follow-up was 33.6 ± 20.2 months after surgery: 37.5% of subtotal thyroidectomy patients and 15.4% of lobectomy patients were hypothyroid postoperatively according to serologic studies. There were no cases of goiter recurrence or malignancy. All patients reported postoperative symptomatic improvement and collectively showed positive pre- and postoperative score differences on the SF-36. Conclusion Although limited by a small sample size and the retrospective nature, our study demonstrates the feasibility of long-term surgical and quality-of-life outcomes research in a resource-limited setting. The low complication rates suggest minimal adverse effects of performing surgery in this context. Despite a considerable rate of postoperative hypothyroidism, it is in accordance with prior studies and emphasizes the need for individualized, longitudinal, and multidisciplinary care. Quality-of-life score improvements suggest benefit to the recipient population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0194599816684097DOI Listing
March 2017

One-hour PTH after thyroidectomy predicts symptomatic hypocalcemia.

J Surg Res 2016 Apr 24;201(2):473-479. Epub 2015 Nov 24.

Endocrine Surgery Research Group in the Department of Surgery, The University of Chicago Medicine 5841 S. Maryland Ave MC 4052, Chicago IL 60637.

Background: A major morbidity after total thyroidectomy is hypocalcemia. Although many clinical factors and laboratory studies have been correlated with both biochemical and symptomatic hypocalcemia, the ideal use and timing of these tests remain unclear. We hypothesize 1-h (PACU) parathyroid hormone (PTH) will identify patients at risk for symptomatic hypocalcemia.

Methods: This prospective study evaluated 196 patients undergoing total thyroidectomy. Serum calcium and PTH levels were measured 1 h after surgery and on postoperative day 1 (POD1). Performance of a central compartment lymph node dissection, parathyroid autotransplantation, indication for procedure, pathology, and presence of parathyroid tissue in the pathology specimen were recorded.

Results: Of 196 patients, nine (4.6%) developed symptomatic hypocalcemia. Thirty four (17.3%) had a 1-h PACU PTH ≤10 pg/dL, whereas 31 (15.8%) had a POD1 PTH of ≤10. Five (56%) of the nine symptomatic patients underwent central compartment lymph node dissection, four (44%) had parathyroid autotransplantation, and four (44%) had a PACU PTH ≤10. PACU and POD1 PTH levels were correlated (R(2) = 0.682). Multivariate regression identified central compartment dissection, autotransplantation, and PACU or POD1 PTH correlated with symptomatic hypocalcemia. PACU PTH, POD1 PTH, PACU Ca, malignant final pathology, and age ≤45 y correlated with biochemical hypocalcemia.

Conclusions: A 1-h postoperative PACU PTH is equivalent to POD1 PTH in predicting the development of symptomatic hypocalcemia. Biochemical hypocalcemia was not predictive of symptoms in the immediate postoperative period. Lymph node dissection and parathyroid autotransplantation correlated with symptomatic hypocalcemia and improve the sensitivity of biochemical screening alone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2015.11.028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4812830PMC
April 2016

Quality of Life in Thyroid Cancer is Similar to That of Other Cancers with Worse Survival.

World J Surg 2016 Mar;40(3):551-61

Division of Epidemiology, Department of Health Studies, The University of Chicago, 5841 S. Maryland Ave. MC 2007, N112, Chicago, IL, 60637, USA.

Background: The incidence of thyroid cancer is increasing. As such, the number of survivors is rising, and it has been shown that their quality of life (QOL) is worse than expected. Using results from the North American Thyroid Cancer Survivorship Study (NATCSS), a large-scale survivorship study, we aim to compare the QOL of thyroid cancer survivors to the QOL of survivors of other types of cancer.

Methods: The NATCSS assessed QOL overall and in four subcategories: physical, psychological, social, and spiritual well-being using the QOL-Cancer Survivor (QOL-CS) instrument. Studies that used the QOL-CS to evaluate survivors of other types of cancers were compared to the NATCSS findings using two-tailed t tests.

Results: We compared results from NATCSS to QOL survivorship studies in colon, glioma, breast, and gynecologic cancer. The mean overall QOL in NATCSS was 5.56 (on a scale of 0-10, where 10 is the best). Overall QOL of patients with thyroid cancer was similar to that of patients with colon cancer (mean 5.20, p = 0.13), glioma (mean 5.96, p = 0.23), and gynecologic cancer (mean 5.59, p = 0.43). It was worse than patients surveyed with breast cancer (mean 6.51, p < 0.01).

Conclusions: We found the self-reported QOL of thyroid cancer survivors in our study population is overall similar to or worse than that of survivors of other types of cancer surveyed with the same instrument. This should heighten awareness of the significance of a thyroid cancer diagnosis and highlights the need for further research in how to improve care for this enlarging group of patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00268-015-3300-5DOI Listing
March 2016

The Incidence and Survival of Rare Cancers of the Thyroid, Parathyroid, Adrenal, and Pancreas.

Ann Surg Oncol 2016 Feb;23(2):424-33

Purpose: With the exception of papillary and follicular thyroid cancer, malignant cancers of the thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, and endocrine pancreas are uncommon. These rare malignancies present a challenge to both the clinician and patient, because few data exist on their incidence or survival. We analyzed the incidence and survival of these rare endocrine cancers (RECs), as well as the trends in incidence over time.

Methods: We used the NCI's SEER 18 database (2000-2012) to investigate incidence and survival of rare cancers of the thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, and endocrine pancreas. Cancers were categorized using the WHO classification systems. We collected data on incidence, gender, stage, size, and survival. Time trends were evaluated from 2000-2002 to 2010-2012.

Results: We identified 36 types of rare cancers in the endocrine organs captured in the SEER database. RECs of the thyroid had the highest combined incidence rate (IR8.26), followed by pancreas (IR 3.24), adrenal (IR 2.71), and parathyroid (IR 0.41). The incidence rate for all rare endocrine organs combined increased 32.4 % during the study period. The majority of the increase was attributable to rare cancers of thyroid, which increased in not only microcarcinomas, but in all sizes. The mean 5-year survival for RECs is 59.56 % (range 2.49–100 %).

Conclusions: This study is a comprehensive analysis ofthe incidence and survival for rare malignant endocrine cancers. There has been an increase in incidence rate of almost all RECs and their survival is low. We hope that our data will serve as a source of information for clinicians as well as bring awareness regarding these uncommon cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-015-4901-9DOI Listing
February 2016

What's in a Name? Providing Clarity in the Definition of Minimally Invasive Parathyroidectomy: Reply.

World J Surg 2015 Nov;39(11):2842-3

The Endocrine Surgery Research Program, University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00268-015-3243-xDOI Listing
November 2015

A novel, ultrarapid parathyroid hormone assay to distinguish parathyroid from nonparathyroid tissue.

Surgery 2014 Dec 11;156(6):1638-43. Epub 2014 Nov 11.

Endocrine Surgery Research Program, Department of Surgery, Pritzker School of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL. Electronic address:

Background: Frozen section is the gold standard for distinguishing parathyroid tissue from lymph nodes, thyroid nodules, or fat during parathyroidectomy and thyroidectomy. Although a very accurate procedure, it can be time-consuming and costly. We hypothesize that the extremely high concentrations of parathyroid hormone (PTH) in parathyroid tissue allow for modification of a standard PTH assay that would distinguish parathyroid from nonparathyroid tissue in substantially less time than frozen section or any currently available PTH assay.

Methods: A prospective, single-institution study using a modified PTH assay protocol and a manual luminometer was undertaken by testing 20 parathyroid adenomas and 9 control tissues. Analyses were performed simultaneously by the modified PTH protocol and the conventional intraoperative PTH assay.

Results: PTH luminescence values from parathyroid tissue and control tissue aspirates were significantly different at 60 seconds (P = .015). ROC curve analysis showed the assay to be 100% sensitive and 100% specific in differentiating parathyroid from nonparathyroid tissue.

Conclusion: Our novel PTH assay accurately and reliably differentiates parathyroid from nonparathyroid tissue within 60 seconds of measurement onset. This assay provides a great advantage in time savings compared with frozen section as well as any currently existing PTH assays.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surg.2014.08.081DOI Listing
December 2014

What's in a name?: Providing clarity in the definition of minimally invasive parathyroidectomy.

World J Surg 2015 Apr;39(4):975-80

Endocrine Surgery Research Program, Department of Surgery, University of Chicago, 5841 S. Maryland Avenue MC4052, Chicago, IL, 60637, USA,

Background: In recent years minimally invasive parathyroidectomy has become the procedure of choice for many surgeons, but the meaning of the term is unclear. This is confusing for both the medical community and patients. We hypothesize that because the definition of minimally invasive parathyriodectomy in the literature is so variable this term has little meaning.

Methods: We performed a Pubmed search using the terms: parathyroidectomy, minimally invasive, localized, focused, unilateral, radio-guided, video-assisted, and endoscopic. Data were collected for: author, journal title, year published, and all described aspects of parathyroidectomy.

Results: We analyzed 443 (44%) articles after applying the exclusion criteria. Eighteen words were used in 75 different combinations to describe minimally invasive parathyroidectomy. We established four categories that encompassed all 75 definitions: 1. operative approach (incision size, describing as open; endoscopic; robotic; or video-assisted), 2. number of glands explored, 3. operative adjuncts, and 4. anesthesia type. Operative approach was the most commonly described attribute and was mentioned in 47% (n = 207) of the articles (mean incision size was found to be 2.2 cm), followed by number of glands explored, operative adjuncts, and anesthesia type.

Conclusions: The finding that there are 75 different definitions for minimally invasive parathyroidectomy confirms that this term is too generic to be useful. We propose a new taxonomic format to describe minimally invasive parathyroidectomy based on the four descriptive categories identified: (operative approach), (# of glands explored), parathyroidectomy using (operative adjuncts) under (anesthesia type). For example, "2 cm, single gland parathyroidectomy using intraoperative parathyroid hormone measurement, under general anesthesia".
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00268-014-2902-7DOI Listing
April 2015
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