Publications by authors named "Benjamin Besse"

290 Publications

First-line pembrolizumab with or without platinum doublet chemotherapy in non-small-cell lung cancer patients with PD-L1 expression ≥50.

Future Oncol 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Pneumology & Thoracic Oncology, CH Annecy-Genevois, 74370, Metz-Tessy, France.

Pembrolizumab plus chemotherapy is currently used in the first-line treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer without mutations or rearrangements, regardless of PD-L1 expression status. A study comparing chemotherapy plus pembrolizumab versus pembrolizumab alone has never been performed in patients with PD-L1 ≥50%. The aim of this trial is to perform such a comparison as first-line treatment in patients not eligible for locally advanced treatment who have expression of PD-L1 on ≥50% of tumor cells. The expected results are a reduction in the risk of early progression. A higher objective tumor response is also expected with the combination of chemotherapy and pembrolizumab compared with pembrolizumab alone. The study will allow a direct comparison of the proportion of patients who derive long-term benefit from the treatment. EudraCT (2020-002626-86); ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04547504).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/fon-2020-1202DOI Listing
June 2021

Pralsetinib for RET fusion-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (ARROW): a multi-cohort, open-label, phase 1/2 study.

Lancet Oncol 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Investigational Cancer Therapeutics, Division of Cancer Medicine, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

Background: Oncogenic alterations in RET have been identified in multiple tumour types, including 1-2% of non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). We aimed to assess the safety, tolerability, and antitumour activity of pralsetinib, a highly potent, oral, selective RET inhibitor, in patients with RET fusion-positive NSCLC.

Methods: ARROW is a multi-cohort, open-label, phase 1/2 study done at 71 sites (community and academic cancer centres) in 13 countries (Belgium, China, France, Germany, Hong Kong, Italy, Netherlands, Singapore, South Korea, Spain, Taiwan, the UK, and the USA). Patients aged 18 years or older with locally advanced or metastatic solid tumours, including RET fusion-positive NSCLC, and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-2 (later limited to 0-1 in a protocol amendment) were enrolled. In phase 2, patients received 400 mg once-daily oral pralsetinib, and could continue treatment until disease progression, intolerance, withdrawal of consent, or investigator decision. Phase 2 primary endpoints were overall response rate (according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours version 1·1 and assessed by blinded independent central review) and safety. Tumour response was assessed in patients with RET fusion-positive NSCLC and centrally adjudicated baseline measurable disease who had received platinum-based chemotherapy or were treatment-naive because they were ineligible for standard therapy. This ongoing study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03037385, and enrolment of patients with treatment-naive RET fusion-positive NSCLC was ongoing at the time of this interim analysis.

Findings: Of 233 patients with RET fusion-positive NSCLC enrolled between March 17, 2017, and May 22, 2020 (data cutoff), 92 with previous platinum-based chemotherapy and 29 who were treatment-naive received pralsetinib before July 11, 2019 (efficacy enrolment cutoff); 87 previously treated patients and 27 treatment-naive patients had centrally adjudicated baseline measurable disease. Overall responses were recorded in 53 (61%; 95% CI 50-71) of 87 patients with previous platinum-based chemotherapy, including five (6%) patients with a complete response; and 19 (70%; 50-86) of 27 treatment-naive patients, including three (11%) with a complete response. In 233 patients with RET fusion-positive NSCLC, common grade 3 or worse treatment-related adverse events were neutropenia (43 patients [18%]), hypertension (26 [11%]), and anaemia (24 [10%]); there were no treatment-related deaths in this population.

Interpretation: Pralsetinib is a new, well-tolerated, promising, once-daily oral treatment option for patients with RET fusion-positive NSCLC.

Funding: Blueprint Medicines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(21)00247-3DOI Listing
June 2021

Paving the Way for Long-Term Survival in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

J Clin Oncol 2021 Jun 8:JCO2100760. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Cancer Medicine, Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.21.00760DOI Listing
June 2021

Sotorasib for Lung Cancers with p.G12C Mutation.

N Engl J Med 2021 Jun 4;384(25):2371-2381. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

From the University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston (F.S.), and U.S. Oncology Research, the Woodlands (A. Spira) - both in Texas; Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center and Weill Cornell Medicine (B.T.L.) and Thoracic Medical Oncology, Perlmutter Cancer Center, New York University (V.V.), New York, and Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo (G.K.D.) - all in New York; the Queen Elizabeth Hospital and University of Adelaide, Woodville, SA, Australia (T.J.P.); Sarah Cannon Research Institute at HealthONE, Denver (G.S.F.); Department I of Internal Medicine, Center for Integrated Oncology, University Hospital Cologne, Cologne (J.W.), the West German Cancer Center, University Hospital Essen, University Duisburg-Essen, Essen (M.S.), and the German Cancer Consortium, Heidelberg (M.S.) - all in Germany; the Early Phase Trials and Sarcoma Units, Bergonie Cancer Institute, Bordeaux (A.I.), and Gustave Roussy Institute, Villejuif (F.B., B.B.) - both in France; Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia (H.B.); Kanagawa Cancer Center, Yokohama (T.K.), and the Division of Thoracic Oncology, Shizuoka Cancer Center, Shizuoka (T.T.) - both in Japan; the Department of Medical Oncology and Hematology, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland (A.C.-F.); Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto (A. Sacher); Virginia Cancer Specialists, Fairfax (A. Spira); Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore (A. Spira); Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University, Atlanta (S.S.R.); Amgen, Thousand Oaks, CA (A. Anderson, A. Ang, Q.T., O.M., H.H., G.N., G.F.); and the Alvin J. Siteman Cancer Center, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis (R.G.).

Background: Sotorasib showed anticancer activity in patients with p.G12C-mutated advanced solid tumors in a phase 1 study, and particularly promising anticancer activity was observed in a subgroup of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

Methods: In a single-group, phase 2 trial, we investigated the activity of sotorasib, administered orally at a dose of 960 mg once daily, in patients with p.G12C-mutated advanced NSCLC previously treated with standard therapies. The primary end point was objective response (complete or partial response) according to independent central review. Key secondary end points included duration of response, disease control (defined as complete response, partial response, or stable disease), progression-free survival, overall survival, and safety. Exploratory biomarkers were evaluated for their association with response to sotorasib therapy.

Results: Among the 126 enrolled patients, the majority (81.0%) had previously received both platinum-based chemotherapy and inhibitors of programmed death 1 (PD-1) or programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1). According to central review, 124 patients had measurable disease at baseline and were evaluated for response. An objective response was observed in 46 patients (37.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 28.6 to 46.2), including in 4 (3.2%) who had a complete response and in 42 (33.9%) who had a partial response. The median duration of response was 11.1 months (95% CI, 6.9 to could not be evaluated). Disease control occurred in 100 patients (80.6%; 95% CI, 72.6 to 87.2). The median progression-free survival was 6.8 months (95% CI, 5.1 to 8.2), and the median overall survival was 12.5 months (95% CI, 10.0 to could not be evaluated). Treatment-related adverse events occurred in 88 of 126 patients (69.8%), including grade 3 events in 25 patients (19.8%) and a grade 4 event in 1 (0.8%). Responses were observed in subgroups defined according to PD-L1 expression, tumor mutational burden, and co-occurring mutations in , , or .

Conclusions: In this phase 2 trial, sotorasib therapy led to a durable clinical benefit without new safety signals in patients with previously treated p.G12C-mutated NSCLC. (Funded by Amgen and the National Institutes of Health; CodeBreaK100 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03600883.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2103695DOI Listing
June 2021

Intracranial Efficacy of Selpercatinib in Fusion-Positive Non-Small Cell Lung Cancers on the LIBRETTO-001 Trial.

Clin Cancer Res 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York.

Purpose: We report the intracranial efficacy of selpercatinib, a highly potent and selective RET inhibitor, approved in the United States for fusion-positive non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC).

Patients And Methods: In the global phase 1/2 LIBRETTO-001 trial (NCT03157128) in advanced -altered solid tumors, selpercatinib was dosed orally (160 mg twice every day) in 28-day cycles. Patients with baseline intracranial metastases had MRI/CT scans every 8 weeks for 1 year (12 weeks thereafter). In this pre-planned analysis of patients with fusion-positive NSCLC with baseline intracranial metastases, the primary endpoint was independently assessed intracranial objective response rate (ORR) per RECIST 1.1. Secondary endpoints included intracranial disease control rate, intracranial duration of response, and intracranial progression-free survival (PFS) independently reviewed.

Results: Eighty patients with NSCLC had brain metastases at baseline. Patients were heavily pretreated (median = 2 systemic therapies, range = 0-10); 56% of patients received ≥1 course of intracranial radiation (14% whole brain radiotherapy, 45% stereotactic radiosurgery). Among 22 patients with measurable intracranial disease at baseline, intracranial ORR was 82% [95% confidence interval (CI), 60-95], including 23% with complete responses. Among all intracranial responders (measurable and nonmeasurable, = 38), median duration of intracranial response was not reached (95% CI, 9.3-NE) at a median duration of follow-up of 9.5 months (IQR = 5.7, 12.0). At 12 months, 55% of intracranial responses were ongoing. In all 80 patients, median intracranial PFS was 13.7 months (95% CI, 10.9-NE) at a median duration of follow-up of 11.0 months (IQR = 7.4, 16.5). No new safety signals were revealed in patients with brain metastases compared with the full NSCLC trial population.

Conclusions: Selpercatinib has robust and durable intracranial efficacy in patients with fusion-positive NSCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-21-0800DOI Listing
June 2021

Lincp21-RNA as Predictive Response Marker for Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy in Rectal Cancer.

J Pers Med 2021 May 16;11(5). Epub 2021 May 16.

Molecular Oncology and Embryology Laboratory, Human Anatomy Unit, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Barcelona, IDIBAPS, 08036 Barcelona, Spain.

Preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is a standard treatment for locally advanced rectal cancer (RC) patients, but its use in non-responders can be associated with increased toxicities and resection delay. LincRNA-p21 is a long non-coding RNA involved in the p53 pathway and angiogenesis regulation. We aimed to study whether lincRNA-p21 expression levels can act as a predictive biomarker for neoadjuvant CRT response. We analyzed RNAs from pretreatment biopsies from 70 RC patients treated with preoperative CRT. Pathological response was classified according to the tumor regression grade (TRG) Dworak classification. LincRNA-p21 expression was determined by RTqPCR. The results showed that lincRNA-p21 was upregulated in stage III tumors ( = 0.007) and in tumors with the worst response regarding TRG ( = 0.027) and downstaging ( = 0.016). ROC curve analysis showed that lincRNA-p21 expression had the capacity to distinguish a complete response from others (AUC:0.696; = 0.014). LincRNA-p21 was shown as an independent marker of preoperative CRT response ( = 0.047) and for time to relapse (TTR) ( = 0.048). In conclusion, lincRNA-p21 is a marker of advanced disease, worse response to neoadjuvant CRT, and shorter TTR in locally advanced RC patients. The study of lincRNA-p21 may be of value in the individualization of pre-operative CRT in RC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jpm11050420DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8156811PMC
May 2021

Predicting immunotherapy outcomes under therapy in patients with advanced NSCLC using dNLR and its early dynamics.

Eur J Cancer 2021 Jul 19;151:211-220. Epub 2021 May 19.

Department Pulmonology, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

Background: dNLR at the baseline (B), defined by neutrophils/[leucocytes-neutrophils], correlates with immune-checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) outcomes in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (aNSCLC). However, dNLR is dynamic under therapy and its longitudinal assessment may provide data predicting efficacy. We sought to examine the impact of dNLR dynamics on ICI efficacy and understand its biological significance.

Patients And Methods: aNSCLC patients receiving ICI at 17 EU/US centres were included [Feb/13-Jun/18]. As chemotherapy-only group was evaluated (NCT02105168). dNLR was determined at (B) and at cycle2 (C2) [dNLR≤3 = low]. B+C2 dNLR were combined in one score: good = low (B+C2), poor = high (B+C2), intermediate = other situations. In 57 patients, we prospectively explored the immunophenotype of circulating neutrophils, particularly the CD15+CD244-CD16cells (immature) by flow cytometry.

Results: About 1485 patients treatment with ICI were analysed. In ICI-treated patients, high dNLR (B) (~1/3rd) associated with worse progression-free (PFS)/overall survival (OS) (HR 1.56/HR 2.02, P < 0.0001) but not with chemotherapy alone (N = 173). High dNLR at C2 was associated with worse PFS/OS (HR 1.64/HR 2.15, P < 0.0001). When dNLR at both time points were considered together, those with persistently high dNLR (23%) had poor survival (mOS = 5 months (mo)), compared with high dNLR at one time point (22%; mOS = 9.2mo) and persistently low dNLR (55%; mOS = 18.6mo) (P < 0.0001). The dNLR impact remained significant after PD-L1 adjustment. By cytometry, high rate of immature neutrophils (B) (30/57) correlated with poor PFS/OS (P = 0.04; P = 0.0007), with a 12-week death rate of 49%.

Conclusion: The dNLR (B) and its dynamics (C2) under ICI associate with ICI outcomes in aNSCLC. Persistently high dNLR (B+C2) correlated with early ICI failure. Immature neutrophils may be a key subpopulation on ICI resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2021.03.011DOI Listing
July 2021

EPAC-lung: European pooled analysis of the prognostic value of circulating tumour cells in small cell lung cancer.

Transl Lung Cancer Res 2021 Apr;10(4):1653-1665

Service de Biostatistique et d'Épidémiologie, Gustave Roussy, Université Paris-Saclay, Villejuif, France.

Background: Circulating tumour cell (CTC) number is an independent prognostic factor in patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC) but there is no consensus on the CTC threshold for prognostic significance. We undertook a pooled analysis of individual patient data to clinically validate CTC enumeration and threshold for prognostication.

Methods: Four European cancer centres, experienced in CellSearch CTC enumeration for SCLC provided pseudo anonymised data for patients who had undergone pre-treatment CTC count. Data was collated, and Cox regression models, stratified by centre, explored the relationship between CTC count and survival. The added value of incorporating CTCs into clinico-pathological models was investigated using likelihood ratio tests.

Results: A total of 367 patient records were evaluated. A one-unit increase in log-transformed CTC counts corresponded to an estimated hazard ratio (HR) of 1.24 (95% CI: 1.19-1.29, P<0.0001) for progression free survival (PFS) and 1.23 (95% CI: 1.18-1.28, P<0.0001) for overall survival (OS). CTC count of ≥15 or ≥50 was significantly associated with an increased risk of progression (CTC ≥15: HR 3.20, 95% CI: 2.50-4.09, P<0.001; CTC ≥50: HR 2.56, 95% CI: 2.01-3.25, P<0.001) and an increased risk of death (CTC ≥15: HR 2.90, 95% CI: 2.28-3.70, P<0.001; CTC ≥50: HR 2.47, 95% CI: 1.95-3.13, P<0.001). There was no significant inter-centre heterogeneity observed. Addition of CTC count to clinico-pathological models as a continuous log-transformed variable, offers further prognostic value (both likelihood ratio P<0.001 for OS and PFS).

Conclusions: Higher pre-treatment CTC counts are a negative independent prognostic factor in SCLC when considered as a continuous variable or dichotomised counts of ≥15 or ≥50. Incorporating CTC counts, as a continuous variable, improves clinic-pathological prognostic models.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/tlcr-20-1061DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8107738PMC
April 2021

Can MRI differentiate surrounding vertebral invasion from reactive inflammatory changes in superior sulcus tumor?

Eur Radiol 2021 May 15. Epub 2021 May 15.

Department of Radiology, Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus, 114 Rue Edouard Vaillant, Villejuif, 94800, Paris, France.

Objectives: Vertebral invasion is a key prognostic factor and a critical aspect of surgical planning for superior sulcus tumors. This study aims to further evaluate MRI features of vertebral invasion in order to distinguish it from reactive inflammatory changes.

Methods: Between 2000 and 2016, a retrospective study was performed at a single institution. All patients with superior sulcus tumors undergoing surgery, including at least two partial vertebrectomies, were included. An expert radiologist evaluated qualitative and quantitative MRI signal intensity characteristics (contrast-to-noise ratio [CNR]) of suspected involved and non-involved vertebrae. A comparison of CNR of invaded and sane vertebrae was performed using non-parametric tests. Imaging data were correlated with pathological findings.

Results: A total of 92 surgical samples of vertebrectomy were analyzed. The most specific sequences for invasion were T1 and T2 weighted (92% and 97%, respectively). The most sensitive sequences were contrast enhanced T1 weighted fat suppressed and T2 weighted fat suppressed (100% and 80%). Loss of extrapleural paravertebral fat on the T1-weighted sequence was highly sensitive (100%) but not specific (63%). Using quantitative analysis, the optimum cut-off (p < 0.05) to distinguish invasion from reactive inflammatory changes was CNR > 11 for the T2-weighted fat-sat sequence (sensitivity 100%), CNR > 9 for contrast-enhanced T1-weighted fat-suppressed sequence (sensitivity 100%), and CNR < - 30 for the T1-weighted sequence (specificity 97%). Combining these criteria, 23 partial vertebrectomies could have been avoided in our cohort.

Conclusion: Qualitative and quantitative MRI analyses are useful to discriminate vertebral invasion from reactive inflammatory changes.

Key Points: • Abnormal signal intensity in a vertebral body adjacent to a superior sulcus tumor may be secondary to direct invasion or reactive inflammatory changes. • Accurate differentiation between invasion and reactive inflammatory changes significantly impacts surgical planning. T1w and T2w are the best sequences to differentiate malignant versus benign bone marrow changes. The use of quantitative analysis improves MRI specificity. • Using contrast media improves the sensitivity for the detection of tumor invasion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-021-08001-wDOI Listing
May 2021

[Impact of the use of systemic corticosteroid therapy on the effectiveness of immune checkpoint inhibitors].

Bull Cancer 2021 Jun 20;108(6):635-642. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Gustave-Roussy, hôpital de jour, département de médecine oncologique, 114, rue Édouard-Vaillant, 94805 Villejuif, France; Gustave-Roussy, département d'innovation thérapeutique et essais précoces (DITEP), 114, rue Édouard-Vaillant, 94805 Villejuif, France. Electronic address:

Immunotherapy, which consists in using molecules targeting the immune system, has existed for many years in oncology (vaccines, interleukins, monoclonal antibodies) but has recently expanded due to the development of immune checkpoint inhibitors. These monoclonal antibodies help to restore the immunity against cancer by specifically targeting some immune checkpoints such as CTLA-4, PD-1 and PD-L1. Furthermore, in oncology, it is common to use systemic corticosteroids in the management of symptoms linked to the natural history of the disease (pain, spinal cord compression, cerebral edema) and toxicities linked to anticancer treatment. The impact of corticosteroids on the efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors is still poorly understood and they should be used cautiously. According to previously published studies, there seems to be a deleterious effect of corticosteroid therapy on the efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors when administered before or at the initiation of immunotherapy, while this effect does not seem present when corticosteroids are administered to patients already undergoing immunotherapy. The aim of this work is to analyze the existing data evaluating the impact of corticosteroid use of on the efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bulcan.2021.01.015DOI Listing
June 2021

Tumor mutation burden testing: a survey of the International Quality Network for Pathology (IQN Path).

Virchows Arch 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Cell Biology and Biotherapy Unit, Istituto Nazionale Tumori - IRCCS - "Fondazione G. Pascale", Via Mariano Semola, 80131, Napoli, Italy.

While tumour mutation burden (TMB) is emerging as a possible biomarker for immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICI), methods for testing have not been standardised as yet. In April 2019, the International Quality Network for Pathology (IQN Path) launched a survey to assess the current practice of TMB testing. Of the 127 laboratories that replied, 69 (54.3%) had already introduced TMB analysis for research purposes and/or clinical applications. Fifty laboratories (72.5%) used targeted sequencing, although a number of different panels were employed. Most laboratories tested formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded material (94.2%), while 18/69 (26%) tested also cell-free DNA. Fifty-five laboratories used both single nucleotide variants and indels for TMB calculation; 20 centers included only non-synonymous variants. In conclusion, the data from this survey indicate that multiple global laboratories were capable of rapidly introducing routine clinical TMB testing. However, the variability of testing methods raises concerns about the reproducibility of results among centers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00428-021-03093-7DOI Listing
April 2021

Meningeal "Lazarus Response" to Lorlatinib in a ROS1-Positive NSCLC Patient Progressing to Entrectinib.

Cancer Manag Res 2021 26;13:2805-2810. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Université Paris-Saclay, Faculté de Médecine, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France.

Background: ROS1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have showed activity and efficacy in -rearranged non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In the clinical practice, besides the utilization of crizotinib, less is known about the best treatment strategies involving additional, new-generation TKIs for the sequential treatment of ROS1-positive NSCLC patients.

Case Presentation: A patient suffering from a -rearranged lung adenocarcinoma, after receiving cisplatin-pemetrexed chemotherapy, was treated with entrectinib, a new-generation ALK/ROS1/NTRK inhibitor. After 16 months, central nervous system (CNS) metastases appeared, without extra-cerebral disease progression. Stereotactic brain radiotherapy was performed and entrectinib was maintained, due to the global systemic disease control. Approximately one month after radiotherapy, thoracic and meningeal progressions were detected, the latter highly symptomatic with neurocognitive disorders, visual hallucinations and worsening of psycho-motor impairment. A lumbar puncture was positive for tumor cells and for an fusion. The administration of lorlatinib (a third-generation ALK/ROS1 inhibitor) prompted an extremely rapid improvement of clinical conditions, anticipating the positive results observed at radiologic evaluation that confirmed the disease response still ongoing after nine months since treatment start.

Discussion: With the expanding availability of targeted agents with differential activity on resistance mechanism and on CNS disease, choosing wisely the best treatment strategies is pivotal to assure the best clinical outcomes in oncogene-addicted NSCLC patients. Here we have reported lorlatinib reverted an almost fatal meningeal carcinomatosis developing during entrectinib in a ROS1-positive NSCLC patient.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CMAR.S292730DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8009349PMC
March 2021

Pleural effusion is a negative prognostic factor for immunotherapy in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC): The pluie study.

Lung Cancer 2021 05 24;155:114-119. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Medical and Thoracic Oncology Department, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou AP-HP, Université de Paris, France. Electronic address:

Background: Pleural effusion (PE) is a common metastatic site of NSCLC, associated with poor outcomes. As very few data are available about immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) and PE, we aimed to assess the clinical outcome of PE in NSCLC treated with ICI.

Method: Multicenter international retrospective study of patients with metastatic NSCLC treated with ICI, between 2012 and 2019. Stratification according to the presence of PE at ICI baseline or appearance under ICI treatment (PE group) versus no history of PE (non-PE group). Primary endpoints were overall survival (OS) and early death rate (EDR, OS ≤ 3 months).

Results: A total of 538 patients were included: 196 in the PE group and 342 in the non-PE group. In the PE group, median age was 64, 31.6 % were female, 77.6 % had non-squamous histology, PD-L1 was ≥50 % in 38.6 % of cases (95 missing). PE was more likely associated with >2 metastatic sites (70.4 % vs. 50 %) and worse performance status (PS ≥ 2, 30.8 % vs 23.1 %). Globally, the overall median OS was 9.7 months [95 %CI: 8.1-11.8]; 6.3 [95 % CI: 4.0-8.6] in PE vs. 11.4 [95 %CI: 9.7-13.8] in the non-PE respectively, P = 0.002. Overall the EDR was 31.4 %; higher in the PE group (38.3 % vs. 27.5 %; OR 1.63, 95 %CI: 1.13-2.37, P = 0.01). In the PE PD-L1≥50 % group, EDR was 33.3 %. In multivariate analysis, after adjustment on PS, liver/intracranial/bone metastasis, ICI line and dNLR, PE remained an independent prognostic factor for OS [HR: 1.38, 95 %CI: 1.09-1.74, P = 0.007]. In the PE group, PE appeared under ICI for 31 patients (16.4 %). We observed lower EDR in this group compared to patients whom PE was already present (29.0 % vs 40.5 %, P = 0.2).

Conclusion: PE is associated with worse immunotherapy outcomes in NSCLC treated with ICI, including in patients with ≥50 % PD-L1 tumors. Thus, in these patients, combination strategies should be explored.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lungcan.2021.03.015DOI Listing
May 2021

A Phase 1-2 Study of Rovalpituzumab Tesirine in Combination With Nivolumab Plus or Minus Ipilimumab in Patients With Previously Treated Extensive-Stage SCLC.

J Thorac Oncol 2021 Feb 27. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France; Espace Technologique, Paris-Saclay University, Saint-Aubin, France.

Introduction: This open-label, phase 1-2 study evaluated the safety and efficacy of rovalpituzumab tesirine (Rova-T), an antibody-drug conjugate targeting DLL3, plus immune checkpoint inhibitors nivolumab plus or minus ipilimumab in previously treated extensive-stage SCLC (ES SCLC).

Methods: Patients with histologically or cytologically confirmed, previously treated (two or more lines of therapy) ES SCLC were enrolled into two cohorts. Cohort 1 received 0.3 mg/kg Rova-T (once every 6 wk for two cycles) plus 360 mg nivolumab (two 3-wk cycles beginning on week 4). Cohort 2 received the same dosage of Rova-T as cohort 1 plus 1 mg/kg nivolumab (four 3-wk cycles) and 1 mg/kg ipilimumab (beginning week 4). Both cohorts received 480 mg nivolumab every 4 weeks starting at week 10. Key objectives were to evaluate safety and tolerability and efficacy (per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors version 1.1). The response-related results are based on centrally read data.

Results: A total of 42 patients received therapy: cohort 1, n = 30; cohort 2, n = 12. Overall, 43% received two or more previous lines of therapy. All patients experienced one or more treatment-emergent adverse event (TEAE); 41 patients reported AEs considered related to the study drug by the investigator. The most frequent TEAE was pleural effusion (n = 20, 48%); most common grade greater than or equal to 3 was anemia (n = 9, 21%). Three grade 5 TEAEs considered related to the study drug were reported (cohort 1): pneumonitis (n = 2), acute kidney injury (n = 1). The objective response rate was 30% (12 of 40): cohort 1, 27.6% (8 of 29); cohort 2, 36.4% (4 of 11); all partial responses.

Conclusions: Despite encouraging antitumor activity in previously treated ES SCLC, combination therapy with Rova-T and nivolumab plus or minus ipilimumab was not well tolerated at the dose levels and administration schedules evaluated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtho.2021.02.022DOI Listing
February 2021

Micronodular thymic carcinoma with lymphoid hyperplasia: relevance of immunohistochemistry with a small panel of antibodies for diagnosis-a RYTHMIC study.

Virchows Arch 2021 Feb 24. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Pathology, AP-HP.5, University of Paris, Paris, France.

Micronodular thymic carcinoma with lymphoid hyperplasia (MNTCLH) is a rare form of thymic carcinoma. We present the experience of RYTHMIC, the French national network devoted to the treatment of thymic epithelial tumors through multidisciplinary tumor boards with a review of all tumors by pathologists for classification and staging. Six cases of MNTCLH were diagnosed during a review of 1007 thymic epithelial tumors. Histologically, epithelial cells with atypia and mitoses formed micronodules that were surrounded by an abundant lymphoid background with follicles. There was neither obvious fibro-inflammatory stroma nor necrosis. Spindle cells areas were common. Initial diagnosis was micronodular thymoma in two cases, cellular atypia being overlooked, eclipsed by the micronodular pattern. Immunohistochemistry with a panel of five antibodies showed that cytokeratins (AE1-AE3) and p63-positive epithelial cells also expressed CD5 and that there was no TdT-positive cells within the tumors. CD20 highlighted the lymphoid hyperplasia. Additionally epithelial cells also expressed CD117 and diffusely Glut 1. Twenty-seven micronodular thymomas with lymphoid stroma diagnosed during the same period did not show the CD5 and CD117 positivities seen in MNTCLH and contained TdT-positive lymphocytes. Three of the 6 patients with MNTCLH had adjuvant radiotherapy. Three patients with follow-up information were alive without recurrence at 38, 51, and 95 months. Our study shows that immunohistochemistry, such as that used in the RYTHMIC network with a small panel of antibodies, may easily help to confirm the correct diagnosis of MNTCLH, a rare and low-aggressive form of thymic carcinoma, and avoid the misdiagnosis of micronodular thymoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00428-021-03044-2DOI Listing
February 2021

Intercontinental Multidisciplinary Oncology Videoconferencing for Rare and Complex Cancer: An Alternative to Systematic Transfer.

JCO Oncol Pract 2021 Feb 23:OP2000525. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Department of Medical Oncology, Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France.

Purpose: To report our experience of intercontinental multidisciplinary oncology videoconferencing between the French mainland and South Pacific to discuss rare and/or complex cancer cases.

Methods: On the first and third Friday of each month, all participants connected between 6:30 am and 8:00 am GMT to discuss using a web conference service.

Results: Between November 2019 and April 2020, 99 cases concerning 78 patients were discussed. Oncology subspecialties required were sarcoma (n = 36), digestive (n = 29), dermatology (n = 5), gynecology (n = 5), breast (n = 5), urology (n = 5), hematology (n = 5), ENT (n = 3), thoracic (n = 3), thyroid (n = 2), and pediatric (n = 1). Median patient age was 58 years, 41 were female (53%), 37 were male (47%), and 43 had a metastatic disease (55%). Following discussion, 16 patients (21%) were transferred to the French mainland. Reasons for transfer were requirement for complex surgery (n = 11) and need for specialized diagnostic biopsy (n = 5). Fifty-six patients were treated locally, with systemic chemotherapy (n = 36), surveillance (n = 8), surgery (n = 8), radiotherapy (n = 3), or endoscopy (n = 1). Direct benefits for patients treated in their local facility included strategy changes (surveillance or surgery contraindication, n = 9), targeted therapy decision (n = 14), immunotherapy decision (n = 9), and diagnostic or metastatic status corrections (n = 4). Six patients are still awaiting decision.

Conclusion: Using real-time intercontinental multidisciplinary oncology videoconferencing to discuss complex or rare cancer cases is reliable and effective for decision making. This concept helped to limit to 21% the need for transfers to the mainland.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/OP.20.00525DOI Listing
February 2021

Tumour-infiltrating lymphocyte density is associated with favourable outcome in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer treated with immunotherapy.

Eur J Cancer 2021 Mar 27;145:221-229. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Pathology Department, Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France. Electronic address:

Background: The established role of morphological evaluation of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is unknown. We aimed to determine TIL association with the outcome for ICIs and for chemotherapy in advanced NSCLC.

Methods: This is a multicenter retrospective study of a nivolumab cohort of 221 patients treated between November 2012 and February 2017 and a chemotherapy cohort of 189 patients treated between June 2009 and October 2016. Patients with available tissue for stromal TIL evaluation were analysed. The presence of a high TIL count (high-TIL) was defined as ≥10% density. The primary end-point was overall survival (OS).

Results: Among the nivolumab cohort, 64% were male, with median age of 63 years, 82.3% were smokers, 77% had performance status ≤1 and 63% had adenocarcinoma histology. High-TIL was observed in 22% patients and associated with OS (hazard ratio [HR] 0.48; 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 0.28-0.81) and progression-free survival [PFS] (HR = 0.40; 95% CI: 0.25-0.64). Median PFS was 13.0 months (95% CI: 5.0-not reached) with high-TIL versus 2.2 months (95% CI: 1.7-3.0) with the presence of a low TIL count (low-TIL). Median OS for high-TIL was not reached (95% CI: 12.2-not reached) versus 8.4 months (95% CI: 5.0-11.6) in the low-TIL group. High-TIL was associated with the overall response rate (ORR) and disease control rate (DCR) (both, P < .0001). Among the chemotherapy cohort, 69% were male, 89% were smokers, 86% had performance status ≤1 and 90% had adenocarcinoma histology. High-TIL was seen in 37%. Median PFS and OS were 5.7 months (95% CI: 4.9-6.7) and 11.7 months (95% CI: 9.3-13.0), respectively, with no association with TILs.

Conclusions: High-TIL was associated with favourable outcomes in a real-world immunotherapy cohort of patients with NSCLC, but not with chemotherapy, suggesting that TILs may be useful in selecting patients for immunotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2020.10.017DOI Listing
March 2021

Cannabis use and lung cancer: time to stop overlooking the problem?

Eur Respir J 2021 May 20;57(5). Epub 2021 May 20.

Thoracic Surgery and Pneumology Dept, Marie Lannelongue Hospital, Paris Saint Joseph Hospital and Paris Saclay University, Le Plessis-Robinson, France

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1183/13993003.04132-2020DOI Listing
May 2021

Chronic Plasma Exposure to Kinase Inhibitors in Patients with Oncogene-Addicted Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Dec 14;12(12). Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Cancer Medicine Department, Gustave Roussy, 94805 Villejuif, France.

Kinase inhibitors (KI) have dramatically improved the outcome of treatment in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), which harbors an oncogene addiction. This study assesses KI plasma levels and their clinical relevance in patients chronically exposed to KIs. Plasma samples were collected in NSCLC patients receiving erlotinib, gefitinib, osimertinib, crizotinib, or dabrafenib (with or without trametinib) for at least three months between November 2013 and February 2019 in a single institution. KI drug concentrations were measured by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry and compared to published data defining optimal plasma concentration. The main outcome was the rate of samples with suboptimal KI plasma concentrations. Secondary outcomes included its impact on mutation emergence in patients receiving a first-generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) KI. Fifty-one samples were available from 41 patients with advanced NSCLC harboring driver genetic alterations, including , v-Raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B (), anaplastic lymphoma kinase () or ROS proto-oncogene 1 (), and who had an available evaluation of chronic KI plasma exposure. Suboptimal plasma concentrations were observed in 51% (26/51) of cases. In -mutant cases failing first-generation KIs, exon 20 p.T790M mutation emergence was detected in 31% (4/13) of samples in optimal vs. none in suboptimal concentration (0/5). Suboptimal plasma concentrations of KIs are frequent in advanced NSCLC patients treated with a KI for at least three months and might contribute to treatment failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12123758DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7764991PMC
December 2020

Impact of expert pathologic review of thymic epithelial tumours on diagnosis and management in a real-life setting: A RYTHMIC study.

Eur J Cancer 2021 01 11;143:158-167. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

Department of Cancer Medicine, Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France.

Background: Classification of thymic epithelial tumours (TETs) is known to be challenging; however, the level of discordances at a nationwide level between initial and expert diagnosis and their clinical consequences are currently unknown. RYTHMIC is a national network dedicated to the management of TET based on initial histological diagnosis, followed by an additional expert review of all cases. Our aim was to evaluate the discordances between initial and expert diagnoses and whether they would have led to different clinical management.

Patients And Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of the cohort of patients discussed at RYTHMIC tumour board from January 2012 to December 2016. Assessment of disagreement was made for histological typing and for staging. The discordances were classified as major or minor based on whether they would have changed or not the proposed therapeutic strategy, respectively. Follow-up of the patients with major discordances was conducted until December 2018.

Results: Four hundred sixty-seven patients were reviewed, and 183 (39%) discordances were identified either related to histological subtype (132) and/or stage (72). Major discordances were identified in 27 patients (6%). They included 16 patients with TET for whom treatment recommendation based on the central review would have been post-operative radiotherapy, whereas it had not been the case. However, follow-up did not show any progression among the 15 patients with high-grade histology and/or stage resected thymomas. On the other hand, among the remaining 11 patients including 7 with a diagnosis other than TET, the overall management or follow-up would have been completely different with the expert diagnosis.

Conclusion: Our real-life cohort reveals a high level of discordances considering TET diagnosis and supports expert review for optimal clinical management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2020.11.011DOI Listing
January 2021

[Thymoma and squamous thymic carcinoma diagnosis; experience from the RYTHMIC network].

Ann Pathol 2021 Apr 10;41(2):154-165. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

Inserm U1163, service d'anatomie pathologique, institut imagine, université de Paris, hôpital universitaire Necker-Enfants malades, AP-HP centre, 149, rue de Sèvres, 75015 Paris, France. Electronic address:

The RYTHMIC network, supported by the French National Cancer Institute is dedicated to the management of patients with thymic epithelial tumors through regional and national multidisciplinary tumor boards. Tumor board decisions are based on the initial pathology diagnoses. However, following clinical inclusion in the network, a central pathology review is organized, implicating a panel of pathologists, for histotype and stage classification, which is different from a classical second opinion from pathologist to pathologist for a difficult case. Thanks to the participation of all French pathologists, more than 1000 cases have been reviewed by the panel. The aim of this review is to share with the French pathology community, the experience of the group. It underlines the importance of macroscopy and surgeon-pathologist involvement to allow a good central review, the main histopathological and immunophenotypical patterns of the most frequent thymomas and thymic carcinoma types, the differential diagnoses, as well as the difficulties for the panel to reproducibly assess on slides, stage, for some cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.annpat.2020.11.002DOI Listing
April 2021

Integrating Circulating Biomarkers in the Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Treatment in Lung Cancer.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Dec 3;12(12). Epub 2020 Dec 3.

Laboratory of Immunomonitoring in Oncology, Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus, CNRS-UMS 3655 and INSERM-US23, F-94805 Villejuif, France.

Immune checkpoint inhibitors are now a cornerstone of treatment for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Tissue-based assays, such as Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-L1) expression or mismatch repair deficiency/microsatellite instability (MMRD/MSI) status, are approved as treatment drivers in various settings, and represent the main field of research in biomarkers for immunotherapy. Nonetheless, responses have been observed in patients with negative PD-L1 or low tumor mutational burden. Some aspects of biomarker use remain poorly understood and sub-optimal, in particular tumoral heterogeneity, time-evolving sampling, and the ability to detect patients who are unlikely to respond. Moreover, tumor biopsies offer little insight into the host's immune status. Circulating biomarkers offer an alternative non-invasive solution to address these pitfalls. Here, we summarize current knowledge on circulating biomarkers while using liquid biopsies in patients with lung cancer who receive treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors, in terms of their potential as being predictive of outcome as well as their role in monitoring ongoing treatment. We address host biomarkers, notably circulating immune cells and soluble systemic immune and inflammatory markers, and also review tumor markers, including blood-based tumor mutational burden, circulating tumor cells, and circulating tumor DNA. Technical requirements are discussed along with the current limitations that are associated with these promising biomarkers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12123625DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7761725PMC
December 2020

Clarification of Definitions of Hyperprogressive Disease During Immunotherapy-Reply.

JAMA Oncol 2021 Jan;7(1):137

Cancer Medicine Department, Gustave Roussy, Université Paris-Saclay, Villejuif, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2020.5591DOI Listing
January 2021

CD103CD8 T Cells Accumulate in Tumors of Anti-PD-1-Responder Lung Cancer Patients and Are Tumor-Reactive Lymphocytes Enriched with Tc17.

Cell Rep Med 2020 Oct 20;1(7):100127. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

INSERM UMR 1186, Integrative Tumor Immunology and Immunotherapy, Gustave Roussy, Faculté de Médecine, Université Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 94805 Villejuif, France.

Accumulation of CD103CD8 resident memory T (T) cells in human lung tumors has been associated with a favorable prognosis. However, the contribution of T to anti-tumor immunity and to the response to immune checkpoint blockade has not been clearly established. Using quantitative multiplex immunofluorescence on cohorts of non-small cell lung cancer patients treated with anti-PD-(L)1, we show that an increased density of CD103CD8 lymphocytes in immunotherapy-naive tumors is associated with greatly improved outcomes. The density of CD103CD8 cells increases during immunotherapy in most responder, but not in non-responder, patients. CD103CD8 cells co-express CD49a and CD69 and display a molecular profile characterized by the expression of PD-1 and CD39. CD103CD8 tumor T, but not CD103CD8 tumor-infiltrating counterparts, express Aiolos, phosphorylated STAT-3, and IL-17; demonstrate enhanced proliferation and cytotoxicity toward autologous cancer cells; and frequently display oligoclonal expansion of TCR-β clonotypes. These results explain why CD103CD8 T are associated with better outcomes in anti-PD-(L)1-treated patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.xcrm.2020.100127DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7659589PMC
October 2020

Antitumor activity of lurbinectedin in second-line small cell lung cancer patients who are candidates for re-challenge with the first-line treatment.

Lung Cancer 2020 12 10;150:90-96. Epub 2020 Oct 10.

Ospedale Santa Maria delle Croci, Ravenna, Italy.

Introduction: The National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines recommend re-challenge with the first-line treatment for relapsed small cell lung cancer (SCLC) with chemotherapy-free interval (CTFI)≥180 days. A phase II study (NCT02454972) showed remarkable antitumor activity in SCLC patients treated with lurbinectedin 3.2 mg/m 1 -h intravenous infusion every 3 weeks as second-line therapy. We report results for the pre-planned subset of patients with CTFI ≥ 180 days.

Material And Methods: Twenty patients aged ≥18 years with pathologically proven SCLC diagnosis, pretreated with only one prior platinum-containing line, no CNS metastases, and with CTFI ≥ 180 days were evaluated. The primary efficacy endpoint was the overall response rate (ORR) assessed by the Investigators according to RECIST v1.1.

Results: ORR was 60.0 % (95 %CI, 36.1-86.9), with a median duration of response of 5.5 months (95 %CI, 2.9-11.2) and disease control rate of 95.0 % (95 %CI, 75.1-99.9). Median progression-free survival was 4.6 months (95 %CI, 2.6-7.3). With a censoring of 55.0 %, the median overall survival was 16.2 months (95 %CI, 9.6-upper level not reached). Of note, 60.9 % and 27.1 % of patients were alive at 1 and 2 years, respectively. The most common grade 3/4 adverse events and laboratory abnormalities were hematological disorders (neutropenia, 55.0 %; anemia; 10.0 % thrombocytopenia, 10.0 %), fatigue (10.0 %) and increased liver function tests (GGT, 10 %; ALT and AP, 5.0 % each). No febrile neutropenia was reported.

Conclusion: Lurbinectedin is an effective treatment for platinum-sensitive relapsed SCLC, especially in patients with CTFI ≥ 180 days, with acceptable safety and tolerability. These encouraging results suggest that lurbinectedin can be another valuable therapeutic option rather than platinum re-challenge.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lungcan.2020.10.003DOI Listing
December 2020

Perspectives on cancer care in older patients in France.

Ecancermedicalscience 2020 15;14:1103. Epub 2020 Sep 15.

Senior Oncology Unit, Medical Oncology Department, Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus, Chevilly-Larue 94550, France.

In France, cancer is the leading cause of death. Its incidence is increasing due to the growing population and longer life expectancy. Although older adults represent most new cases, they remain underrepresented in clinical trials. Their prognosis is often worse due to delayed diagnosis and multimorbidities. Geriatric oncology has made great strides worldwide, highlighted by important studies implementing geriatric assessment in clinical research and supported by the successive national cancer plans. This paper reviews the most important actions taken in France during the last decade to improve the management of older patients with cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3332/ecancer.2020.1103DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7532034PMC
September 2020

Impact of Intercurrent Introduction of Steroids on Clinical Outcomes in Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) Patients under Immune-Checkpoint Inhibitors (ICI).

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Sep 30;12(10). Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Cancer Medicine Department, Gustave Roussy, 94805 Villejuif, France.

Background: Baseline steroids before ICI have been associated with poor outcomes, particularly when introduced due to cancer symptoms.

Methods: Retrospective analysis of advanced NSCLC patients treated with ICI. We collected the use of intercurrent steroids (≥10 mg of prednisone-equivalent) within the first eight weeks of ICI. We correlated steroid use with patient outcomes according to the indications.

Results: 413 patients received ICI, 299 were steroids-naïve at baseline. A total of 49 patients received intercurrent steroids (16%), of whom 38 for cancer-related symptoms and 11 for other indications, such as immune-related events. Overall, median (m) progression-free survival (PFS) was 1.9 months (mo.) [95% CI, 1.8-2.4] and overall survival (OS) 10 mo. [95% CI, 8.1-12.9]. Intercurrent steroids under ICI correlated with a shorter PFS/OS (1.3 and 2.3 mo. respectively, both < 0.0001). Intercurrent steroids for cancer-related symptoms correlated with poorest mPFS [1.1 mo.; 95% CI, 0.9-1.5] and mOS [1.9 mo.; 95%CI, 1.5-2.4; < 0.0001)]. No mOS and mPFS differences were found between cancer-unrelated-steroid group and no-steroid group. Steroid use for cancer-related symptoms was an independent prognostic factor for poor PFS [HR 2.64; 95% CI, 1.2-5.6] and OS [HR 4.53; 95% CI, 1.8-11.1], both < 0.0001.

Conclusion: Intercurrent steroids during ICI had no detrimental prognostic impact if the indication was unrelated to cancer symptoms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12102827DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7599488PMC
September 2020

To Continue or Not to Continue? That Is the Question.

J Clin Oncol 2020 11 30;38(33):3830-3832. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche "Mario Negri"-Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, Milano, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.02191DOI Listing
November 2020

EGFR exon 20 insertions in advanced non-small cell lung cancer: A new history begins.

Cancer Treat Rev 2020 Nov 14;90:102105. Epub 2020 Sep 14.

Gustave Roussy, Department of Cancer Medicine, Villejuif, France; Université Paris-Saclay, Orsay, France.

Although targeted therapy is standard of care in a large subset of oncogenic addicted non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC), until recently, this therapeutic approach has not been feasible for all genomic alterations such as for those tumors harboring Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) exon 20 insertion (ex20ins) mutations. Despite being the third most common EGFR mutation, a limited efficacy of first- and second-generation EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) exists. This is related to the heterogeneity at the molecular level in EGFR ex20ins mutation variants and the finding that this mutation promotes active kinase conformation but does not increase the affinity for EGFR TKI. As a result, the prognosis of this population is diminished. Therefore, chemotherapy remained the most suitable strategy in this subset of EGFR mutant NSCLC patients. Recently, new treatment strategies have been reported in this landscape, either with new EGFR TKI or bispecific antibodies, which may establish a new standard of care in the coming future for these patients. Future research should focus on elucidating the oncogenic degree of all EGFR ex20ins variants, the potential role of combination strategies either with chemotherapy or immune checkpoint inhibitors, and the most appropriate first-line treatment strategy in this subgroup. Finally, the knowledge of mechanisms of acquired resistance to these new agents upon progression is a priority for personalising treatment at that time. It is in this framework, that we provide a thorough overview on this subject.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ctrv.2020.102105DOI Listing
November 2020