Publications by authors named "Benedicte Kirkøen"

5 Publications

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Common Elements of Practice, Process and Implementation in Out-of-School-Time Academic Interventions for At-risk Children: a Systematic Review.

Prev Sci 2020 05;21(4):545-556

Norwegian Center for Child Behavioral Development, Regional Centre for Child and Adolescent Mental Health, Eastern and Southern Norway, Oslo, Norway.

Academic achievement is a strong preventive factor against marginalization. Children at risk of academic failure and drop out can benefit from out-of-school-time academic (OSTA) interventions. Wide-scaled implementation and sustainment of effective interventions remain a struggle across education, welfare, and health. The need for approaches to increase implementability, effectiveness, and efficiency of interventions is pressing. Advancements in the field of education and mental health suggest identifying and studying discrete elements that are common across interventions for the purpose of hypothesis generation, intervention optimization, design improvement, and implementation. This review identified OSTA interventions for primary school children at risk of academic failure. Common elements methodology was used to code practice elements (n = 62), process elements (n = 49), and implementation elements (n = 36) in 30 effective and six ineffective OSTA interventions in matrices. Based on frequency counts, common practice, process, and implementation elements across the interventions were identified, and given frequency count values (FV) reflecting how often elements were included in effective studies as opposed to in ineffective studies. The five common practice elements with the highest FVs were homework support, training in positive parental school involvement, positive reinforcement, structured tutoring, and psychoeducation. The most common process element was regular support to intervention receiver, and the most common implementation element was quality monitoring. Common combinations of elements were also identified and given FVs. Results from this review can inform efforts to design or optimize OSTA interventions, and inform education, implementation, and practice to improve academic achievement for children at risk.
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May 2020

Acceptability of two colorectal cancer screening tests: pain as a key determinant in sigmoidoscopy.

Endoscopy 2017 Nov 22;49(11):1075-1086. Epub 2017 Sep 22.

Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

 Participants' experience with a screening test can influence adherence, and therefore the efficacy of screening programs. We compared screening with unsedated flexible sigmoidoscopy and fecal immunochemical testing (FIT) for participants' satisfaction with the decision and for willingness to repeat colorectal cancer screening.  In a prospective, randomized trial 3257 individuals (50 - 74 years) were invited to either flexible sigmoidoscopy or FIT (1:1), of whom 1650 took up the offer (52.6 %). In total, 1497 screening participants completed at least one questionnaire, either before screening, and/or at three time points in the following year, that measured willingness to repeat screening, willingness to recommend screening, and satisfaction with decision to attend. There were 769 and 728 responders in the flexible sigmoidoscopy and FIT group, respectively. Additionally, 581 flexible sigmoidoscopy participants also completed a pain questionnaire.  1 year later, 10 % of the flexible sigmoidoscopy participants were not willing to repeat screening, compared to 5 % of FIT participants. A higher percentage of women compared to men would not repeat flexible sigmoidoscopy screening (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.52, 95 % confidence interval [95 %CI] 1.48 to 4.28). Notably, 22 % of women reported pain during flexible sigmoidoscopy compared to 5 % of men. When we added pain to the statistical model, pain was significantly associated with unwillingness to repeat flexible sigmoidoscopy (OR 3.15, 95 %CI 1.68 to 5.87), while gender was no longer associated (OR 1.53, 95 %CI 0.82 to 2.88).  Acceptability for flexible sigmoidoscopy and for FIT was high among Norwegian screening participants, though FIT participants were more willing to repeat screening. Women were less willing to repeat screening with flexible sigmoidoscopy compared to men. This gender difference seemed partly due to pain, and therefore preventable.This study is registered at NCT01538550.
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November 2017

Psychological effects of colorectal cancer screening: Participants individuals not invited.

World J Gastroenterol 2016 Nov;22(43):9631-9641

Benedicte Kirkøen, Paula Berstad, Edoardo Botteri, Geir Hoff, Thomas de Lange, Department of bowel cancer screening, Cancer Registry of Norway, Majorstuen, 0304 Oslo, Norway.

Aim: To investigate the possible long-term psychological harm of participating in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening in Norway.

Methods: In a prospective, randomized trial, 14294 participants (aged 50-74 years) were invited to either flexible sigmoidoscopy (FS) screening, or a faecal immunochemical test (FIT) (1:1). In total, 4422 screening participants (32%) completed the questionnaire, which consisted of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the SF-12, a generic health-related quality of life (HRQOL) measurement, when invited to screening and one year after the invitation. A control group of 7650 individuals was invited to complete the questionnaire only, at baseline and one year after, and 1911 (25%) completed the questionnaires.

Results: Receiving a positive or negative screening result and participating in the two different screening modalities did not cause clinically relevant mean changes in anxiety, depression or HRQOL after one year. FS screening, but not FIT, was associated with an increased probability of being an anxiety case (score ≥ 8) at the one-year follow-up (5.6% of FS participants transitioned from being not anxious to anxious, while 3.0% experienced the reverse). This increase was moderately significantly different from the changes in the control group (in which the corresponding numbers were 4.8% and 4.5%, respectively), = 0.06.

Conclusion: Most individuals do not experience psychological effects of CRC screening participation after one year, while FS participation is associated with increased anxiety for a smaller group.
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November 2016

Do no harm: no psychological harm from colorectal cancer screening.

Br J Cancer 2016 Mar 11;114(5):497-504. Epub 2016 Feb 11.

Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, P.O. box 1171 Blindern, 0318 Oslo, Norway.

Background: Participation in cancer screening programmes might cause worries in the population outweighting the benefits of reduced mortality. The present study aimed to investigate possible psychological harm of participation in a colorectal cancer (CRC) screening pilot in Norway.

Methods: In a prospective, randomised trial participants (aged 50-74 years) were invited to either flexible sigmoidoscopy (FS) screening, faecal immunochemical test (FIT), or no screening (the control group; 1 : 1: 1). Three thousand two hundred and thirteen screening participants (42% of screened individuals) completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale questionnaire as well as the SF-12-a health-related quality of life (HRQOL) questionnaire when invited to screening and when receiving the screening result. A control group was invited to complete the questionnaires only. Two thousand six hundred and eighteen control participants (35% of invited individuals) completed the questionnaire.

Results: A positive screening result did not increase participants' level of anxiety or depression, or decrease participants' level of HRQOL. Participants who received a negative result reported decreased anxiety and improvement on some HRQOL dimensions. However, no change was considered to be of clinical relevance.

Conclusion: The current study showed no clinically relevant psychological harm of receiving a positive CRC screening result or of participating in FS or FIT screening, in a Norwegian population.
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March 2016