Publications by authors named "Benedict Calys-Tagoe"

28 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

A Novel Afrocentric Stroke Risk Assessment Score: Models from the Siren Study.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2021 Jul 28;30(10):106003. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Medical University of South Carolina, SC, USA.

Background: Stroke risk can be quantified using risk factors whose effect sizes vary by geography and race. No stroke risk assessment tool exists to estimate aggregate stroke risk for indigenous African.

Objectives: To develop Afrocentric risk-scoring models for stroke occurrence.

Materials And Methods: We evaluated 3533 radiologically confirmed West African stroke cases paired 1:1 with age-, and sex-matched stroke-free controls in the SIREN study. The 7,066 subjects were randomly split into a training and testing set at the ratio of 85:15. Conditional logistic regression models were constructed by including 17 putative factors linked to stroke occurrence using the training set. Significant risk factors were assigned constant and standardized statistical weights based on regression coefficients (β) to develop an additive risk scoring system on a scale of 0-100%. Using the testing set, Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curves were constructed to obtain a total score to serve as cut-off to discriminate between cases and controls. We calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) at this cut-off.

Results: For stroke occurrence, we identified 15 traditional vascular factors. Cohen's kappa for validity was maximal at a total risk score of 56% using both statistical weighting approaches to risk quantification and in both datasets. The risk score had a predictive accuracy of 76% (95%CI: 74-79%), sensitivity of 80.3%, specificity of 63.0%, PPV of 68.5% and NPV of 76.2% in the test dataset. For ischemic strokes, 12 risk factors had predictive accuracy of 78% (95%CI: 74-81%). For hemorrhagic strokes, 7 factors had a predictive accuracy of 79% (95%CI: 73-84%).

Conclusions: The SIREN models quantify aggregate stroke risk in indigenous West Africans with good accuracy. Prospective studies are needed to validate this instrument for stroke prevention.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2021.106003DOI Listing
July 2021

Registration status, mercury exposure biomarkers, and neuropsychological assessment of artisanal and small-scale gold miners (ASGM) from the Western Region of Ghana.

Environ Res 2021 Jul 7;201:111639. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, USA; Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, McGill University, Montreal, Canada. Electronic address:

The artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) sector is estimated to be the largest anthropogenic source of mercury pollution worldwide, and not surprisingly human exposures in this sector are amongst the highest of all population groups. While formalization of the sector has been proposed as a solution to help improve health and safety within ASGM sites, there are few empirical studies in support of this notion. The objective of this study was to assess if individuals working in ASGM sites that are registered have reduced mercury exposures and better neuropsychological scores than workers from unregistered sites. To achieve this objective, we studied biological samples (urine, hair) and survey data from a study of 404 ASGM workers (of which, 295 worked in registered ASGM sites) conducted in Tarkwa (Ghana) in 2014. Between miners working in registered and unregistered sites, there were few differences in socio-demographic characteristics. Median urinary mercury concentration (specific gravity-corrected) among those from unregistered mines was nearly 3-fold higher than those from the registered mines (18.5 versus 6.6 μg/L), and in the overall population the median concentration was 10.0 μg/L, and ranged from 0.3 to 2499 μg/L. Mercury biomarkers varied across ASGM work categories (e.g., those who burned or amalgamated had the highest) and users of personal protective equipment. Nearly 30% of the study population indicated having some challenges concerning, for example, reduced appetite, hair loss, or excess salivation. Ataxia and rigidity of gait were absent in most of the participants, and for those with slight, moderate, or marked responses, there were no differences between miners from registered and unregistered sites, across work groups, as well as in reference to mercury biomarker measures. For the pencil tapping, Frostig, matchbox, and Wechsler tests, no striking differences were found though a correlation was found between urinary mercury levels and matchbox scores among those who amalgamate and burn, and scores were similar to past studies using the same tests in ASGM sites. We believe this is the first study to compare mercury exposures and neuropsychological test results between miners from registered and unregistered ASGM sites. In doing so, the research findings provide the necessary evidence for stakeholders and parties of the Minamata Convention considering various response options to help fulfill their obligations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2021.111639DOI Listing
July 2021

Frequency and factors associated with post-stroke seizures in a large multicenter study in West Africa.

J Neurol Sci 2021 Aug 9;427:117535. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Federal Medical Centre, Abeokuta, Nigeria; Center for Genomic and Precision Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.

Background: Post-stroke seizures (PSS) are associated with significant morbidity and mortality across the globe. There is a paucity of data on PSS in Africa.

Purpose: To assess the frequency and factors associated with PSS by stroke types across 15 hospitals in Nigeria and Ghana.

Methods: We analyzed data on all stroke cases recruited into the Stroke Investigative Research and Educational Network (SIREN). We included adults aged ≥18 years with radiologically confirmed ischemic stroke (IS) or intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). PSS were defined as acute symptomatic seizures occurring at stroke onset and/or during acute hospitalization up until discharge. We used logistic regression to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) with 95% Confidence Interval.

Results: Among 3344 stroke patients, 499 (14.9%) had PSS (95% CI: 13.7-16.2%). The mean duration of admission in days for those with PSS vs no PSS was 17.4 ± 28.6 vs 15.9 ± 24.7, p = 0.72. There were 294(14.1%) PSS among 2091 ischemic strokes and 159(17.7%) among 897 with ICH, p = 0.01. The factors associated with PSS occurrence were age < 50 years, aOR of 1.59 (1.08-2.33), National Institute of Health Stroke Score (NIHSS), 1.29 (1.16-1.42) for each 5 units rise and white cell count 1.07 (1.01-1.13) for each 10^3 mm rise. Factors associated with PSS in ischemic were NIHSS score, aOR of 1.17 (1.04-1.31) and infarct volume of 10-30 cm aOR of 2.17(1.37-3.45). Among ICH, associated factors were alcohol use 5.91 (2.11-16.55) and lobar bleeds 2.22 (1.03-4.82).

Conclusion: The burden of PSS among this sample of west Africans is substantial and may contribute to poor outcomes of stroke in this region. Further longitudinal studies are required to understand the impact on morbidity and mortality arising from PSS in Africa.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2021.117535DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8325635PMC
August 2021

Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of the first cohort of COVID-19 recoveries at two national treatment centres in Accra, Ghana.

Ghana Med J 2020 Dec;54(4 Suppl):16-22

Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, University of Ghana Medical School, College of Health Sciences, University of Ghana, Accra.

Introduction: COVID-19 is a new disease, knowledge on the mode of transmission and clinical features are still evolving, new tests are being developed with inherent challenges regarding interpretation of tests results. There is generally, a gap in knowledge on the virus globally as the pandemic evolves and in Ghana, there is dearth of information and documentation on the clinical characteristics of the virus. With these in mind, we set out to profile the initial cohort of COVID-19 patients who recovered in Ghana.

Methods: We reviewed clinical records of all confirmed cases of COVID-19 who had recovered from the two main treatment centres in Accra, Ghana. Descriptive data analysis was employed and presented in simple and relational tables. Independent t-test and ANOVA were used to determine differences in the mean age of the sexes and the number of days taken for the first and second retesting to be done per selected patient characteristics.

Results: Of the 146 records reviewed, 54% were male; mean age of patients was 41.9 ± 17.5 years, nearly half were asymptomatic, with 9% being severely ill. The commonest presenting symptoms were cough (22.6%), headache (13%) and sore throat (11%) while the commonest co-morbidities were hypertension (25.3%), diabetes mellitus (14%) and heart disease (3.4%).

Conclusion: COVID-19 affected more males than females; nearly half of those infected were asymptomatic. Cough, headache and sore throat were the commonest symptoms and mean duration from case confirmation to full recovery was 19 days. Further research is required as pandemic evolves.

Funding: None declared.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/gmj.v54i4s.4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8087372PMC
December 2020

Epidemiology of COVID-19 outbreak in Ghana, 2020.

Ghana Med J 2020 Dec;54(4 Suppl):5-15

Department of Epidemiology, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, University of Ghana, Legon, Accra, Ghana.

Objective: Describe the epidemiology of COVID-19 cases detected in the first four months of the pandemic in Ghana by person, place and time to provide an understanding of the local epidemiology of the disease.

Methods: We conducted an exploratory descriptive study of all confirmed COVID-19 cases in Ghana from March 12 to June 30, 2020. Data was merged from the country's electronic databases, cleaned and summarized using medians, proportions and geospatial analysis.

Design: A cross-sectional study design.

Setting: Ghana.

Participants: All confirmed COVID-19 cases in Ghana from March 12 to June 30, 2020.

Interventions: None.

Main Outcome Measures: Epidemiological characterization of all confirmed COVID-19 cases recorded from March 12 - June 30, 2020 in Ghana by person, place and time.

Results: A total of 17,763 cases were recorded with median age (IQR) of 33years (One month to 85 years). Among the confirmed cases, 10,272 (57.8%) were males and 3,521 (19.8%) were symptomatic with cough recorded in 1,420 (40.3%) cases. The remaining 14,242 (80.2%) were asymptomatic. Greater Accra region recorded the highest number of confirmed cases 11,348 (63.9%). All 16 administrative regions had recorded cases of COVID-19 by June 30, 2020 due to internal migration between the hotspots and other regions. The epidemiological curve showed a propagated outbreak with 117 deaths (CFR= 0.67%) recorded.

Conclusion: A propagated outbreak of COVID - 19 was confirmed in Ghana on March 12, 2020. Internal migration from hotspots to other regions led to the spread of the virus across the nation. Majority of cases were asymptomatic.

Funding: The COVID-19 pandemic response and writing workshop by the Ghana Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programme (GFELTP) was supported with funding from President Malaria Initiative - CDC, and Korea International Cooperation Agency (on CDC CoAg 6NU2GGH001876) through AFENET.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/gmj.v54i4s.3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8087358PMC
December 2020

Sex differences and factors associated with disability among Ghana's workforce: a nationally stratified cross-sectional study.

BMJ Open 2021 03 9;11(3):e044246. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of Community Health, University of Ghana Medical School, College of Health Sciences, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana.

Objective: This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of disability and associated factors and further quantify the associated sex differential among Ghana's workforce aged 15+ years.

Design: A nationally stratified cross-sectional study.

Setting: Ghana.

Participants: Individuals aged 15 years and above.

Outcome Measure: Disability that limits full participation in life activities.

Methods: Three predictive models involving Poisson, logistic and probit regression were performed to assess the association between disability and covariates. Modified Poisson multivariate decomposition analysis method was employed to assess sex differential and associated factors using Stata V.16.

Results: The prevalence of disability was 2.1% (95% CI 1.2 to 2.4), and the risk of disability among males was approximately twice compared with females (Poisson estimate: adjusted prevalence ratio (95% CI)=1.94 (1.46 to 2.57); logistic estimate: aOR (95% CI)=2.32 (1.73 to 3.12)). Male sex increased the log odds of disability by 0.37 (probit estimate, aβ (95% CI)=0.37 (0.23 to 0.50)). The variability in age group, marital status, household (HH) size, region, place of residence, relationship to HH head, hours of work per week and asset-based wealth were significantly associated with disability-based sex differential. (Significant increased endowment: β×10 (95% CI×10)=-37.48 (-56.81 to -18.16) and significant decreased coefficient: β×10 (95% CI×10)=42.31 (21.11 to 63.49).) All disability participants were challenged with activities of daily living, limiting them in full participation in life activities such as mobility, work and social life.

Conclusion: The magnitude of experiencing disability among working males was nearly twice that of females. Sex differentials were significantly associated with age groups, marital status, HH size, region of residence, relationship to HH head, hours of work per week and wealth. Our findings amass the provisional needs of persons living with a disability that are indicators to consider to achieve the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities Article 10. In addition, formulation of workplace policies should adopt a gender-sensitive approach to reduce disparities and eliminate disability in the target population.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-044246DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7944976PMC
March 2021

Individual awareness and treatment effectiveness of hypertension among older adults in Ghana: evidence from the World Health Organization study of global ageing and adult health wave 2.

Pan Afr Med J 2020 24;37:264. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Department of Community Health, University of Ghana Medical School, College of Health Sciences, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana.

Introduction: the aim of this study was to report the prevalence of hypertension, its awareness and treatment effectiveness among older adults (aged 50 years and above) in Ghana.

Methods: the Ghana World Health Organization´s (WHO) Study on Global Aging and Adult Health (SAGE) wave 2 dataset was used in this study. The study adopted a cross-sectional study design. Information on self-reported hypertension as well as measured hypertension was analyzed. The level of awareness regarding hypertension and the effectiveness of treatment was determined using descriptive statistics. Factors associated with an individual´s awareness of their hypertensive status were determined using Rao-Scott Chi square test statistic and the predictors of unawareness of hypertension were determined using adjusted logistic regression analysis. A p-value of ≤0.05 was deemed significant.

Results: information on 3,575 adults in Ghana aged 50 years or older was included in this analysis. The mean age of study participants was 65.1 ± 10.7 years with 59% being female. The prevalence of measured hypertension was 50.7% [95%CI=48.3-53.2]. The overall prevalence of hypertension among older adults in Ghana who were hypertensive but were not aware of it was 35.0% [95%CI=31.6-38.5]. Of the 332 individuals who self-reported being hypertensive, only 74 (22.2%) were on any form of treatment, with only 17 (5.1%) having their blood pressures well controlled.

Conclusion: approximately half of all older adults in Ghana have elevated blood pressures. Most of these are not aware of their elevated blood pressure and for those who are aware, very few are on treatment and even fewer have their blood pressure well controlled. Structured national population level screening and health promotion for elevated blood pressure by Ministry of Health/ Ghana Health Service is worthy of consideration.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.11604/pamj.2020.37.264.24526DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7864259PMC
February 2021

Factors associated with hypertension among stroke-free indigenous Africans: Findings from the SIREN study.

J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) 2021 04 23;23(4):773-784. Epub 2021 Jan 23.

Center for Genomic and Precision Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Hypertension is one of the most important risk factors for stroke and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) globally. Understanding risk factors for hypertension among individuals with matching characteristics with stroke patients may inform primordial/primary prevention of hypertension and stroke among them. This study identified the risk factors for hypertension among community-dwelling stroke-free population in Ghana and Nigeria. Data for 4267 community-dwelling stroke-free controls subjects in the Stroke Investigative Research and Education Network (SIREN) study in Nigeria and Ghana were used. Participants were comprehensively assessed for sociodemographic, lifestyle and metabolic factors using standard methods. Hypertension was defined as a previous diagnosis by a health professional or use of an anti-hypertensive drug or mean systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) of hypertension and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) at p < .05. Overall, 56.7% of the participants were hypertensive with a higher proportion among respondents aged ≥60 years (53.0%). Factors including physical inactivity (aOR: 9.09; 95% CI: 4.03 to 20.53, p < .0001), diabetes (aOR: 2.70; CI: 1.91 to 3.82, p < .0001), being ≥60 years (aOR: 2.22; 95% CI: 1.78 to 2.77, p < .0001), and family history of CVD (aOR 2.02; CI: 1.59 to 2.56, p < .0001) were associated with increased aOR of hypertension. Lifestyle factors were associated with hypertension in the current population of community-dwelling stroke-free controls in west Africa. Community-oriented interventions to address sedentary lifestyles may benefit this population and reduce/prevent hypertension and stroke among them.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jch.14183DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8263562PMC
April 2021

Establishing a Cancer Registry in a Resource-Constrained Region: Process Experience From Ghana.

JCO Glob Oncol 2020 04;6:610-616

Department of Pediatrics, Center of Policy, Outcomes, and Prevention, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA.

Purpose: In a review of cancer incidence across continents (GLOBOCAN 2012), data sources from Ghana were classified as Frequencies, the lowest classification for inclusion, signifying the worst data quality for inclusion in the analysis. Recognizing this deficiency, the establishment of a population-based cancer registry was proposed as part of a broader cancer control plan.

Methods: The registry was examined under the following headings: policy, data source, and administrative structure; external support and training; and definition of geographic coverage.

Results: The registry was set up based on the Ghana policy document on the strategy for cancer control. The paradigm shift ensured subscription to one data collection software (CanReg 5) in the country. The current approach consists of trained registrars based in the registry who conduct active data abstraction at the departments and units of the hospital and pathologic services. To ensure good governance, an administrative structure was created, including an advisory board, a technical committee, and registry staff. External support for the establishment of the Accra Cancer Registry has come mainly from Stanford University and the African Cancer Registry Network, in collaboration with the University of Ghana. Unlike previous attempts, this registry has a well-defined population made up of nine municipal districts.

Conclusion: The Accra Cancer Registry was established as a result of the lessons learned from failed previous attempts and aim to provide a model for setting up other cancer registries in Ghana. It will eventually be the focal point where all the national data can be collated.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JGO.19.00387DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7193799PMC
April 2020

Cervical cancer screening practices among women in Ghana: evidence from wave 2 of the WHO study on global AGEing and adult health.

BMC Womens Health 2020 03 5;20(1):49. Epub 2020 Mar 5.

Department of Community Health, School of Public Health,College of Health Sciences, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana.

Background: Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer that affects women worldwide. It has been and remains the leading cause of cancer mortality among women in Ghana. Despite the fact that cervical cancer is preventable through early detection and treatment of precancerous lesions, anecdotal evidence from gynaecological clinics in Ghana indicates that most patients present with a late stage of the disease. This study assesses the cervical cancer screening practices among women in Ghana.

Methods: Data from the World Health Organization's (WHO) multi-country Study on AGEing and adult health (SAGE) wave 2 conducted between 2014 and 2015 in Ghana was used. We employed binary logistic regression models to analyse data on 2711 women to examine factors associated with having pelvic examination among women aged ≥18 years. Among those who had pelvic examination, we applied binary logistic regression models to analyse factors associated with receiving Pap smear test as a subgroup analysis.

Results: Of the 2711 women aged 18 years or older surveyed, 225 (8.3%) had ever had a pelvic examination and only 66 (2.4%) of them reported ever having done a Pap smear test. For those who had pelvic examination, only 26.94% had Pap smear test. Ethnic group, marital status, father's educational level and difficulty with self-care were independently associated with undergoing pelvic examination. Only age and healthcare involvement were independently associated with pelvic examination within the past 5 years to the survey. Marital status, satisfaction with healthcare and healthcare involvement were independently associated with Pap smear test.

Conclusion: Even though cervical cancer is preventable through early detection of precancerous lesions using Pap smear test, the patronage of this screening test is still very low in Ghana. Factors influencing the low patronage in Ghana include the marital status of women, their level of satisfaction with healthcare as well as their level of involvement with healthcare. These may be the consequences of a weak health system and the lack of a national policy on cervical cancer screening.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12905-020-00915-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7059370PMC
March 2020

Unraveling the risk factors for spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage among West Africans.

Neurology 2020 03 19;94(10):e998-e1012. Epub 2020 Feb 19.

From Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (F.S.S., L.A., A. Singh, D.O.), Kumasi, Ghana; University of California (B.O.), San Francisco; Medical University of South Carolina (M.G., D.L., C.J., F.M.), Charleston; College of Medicine (O. Akpa, G. Ogbole, M.O., J.A., A.O., A. Adeoye, L. Ogunjimi, O. Arulogun, F.A., O. Ogah, A. Makanjuola, O. Adebayo, A. Agunloye, S.L., S.D., M.F., C.E.), University of Ibadan, Nigeria; University of Ghana Medical School (A. Akpalu, R.L., B.C.-T.), Accra; University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital (K.W., L. Oyinloye, P.K., E.S.); Federal Medical Centre (R.A., O. Adeleye), Abeokuta; Ahmadu Bello University (R.O., O.B., V.S., H.I.), Zaria; Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital (M.K., B.F., O. Ajose, S.O.), Ile-Ife; Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital (L. Owolabi, A. Mande), Kano, Nigeria; University of Kentucky (D.A.), Lexington; University of Alabama at Birmingham (H.T.); University of Cambridge (H.S.M.), UK; Delta State University Teaching Hospital (O. Olugbo); Jos Teaching Hospital (G. Osaigbovo, A. Salaam, G.A., C.I.), Plateau State; Federal Medical Centre (I.C.), Umuahia, Abia State; Federal Medical Centre (T.S.), Owo, Ondo State; and Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital (A. Akintunde), Ogbomosho, Oyo State, Nigeria.

Objective: To characterize risk factors for spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH) occurrence and severity among West Africans.

Methods: The Stroke Investigative Research and Educational Network (SIREN) study is a multicenter case-control study involving 15 sites in Ghana and Nigeria. Patients were adults ≥18 years old with CT-confirmed sICH with age-, sex-, and ethnicity-matched stroke-free community controls. Standard instruments were used to assess vascular, lifestyle, and psychosocial factors. Factors associated with sICH and its severity were assessed using conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and population-attributable risks (PARs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for factors.

Results: Of 2,944 adjudicated stroke cases, 854 were intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Mean age of patients with ICH was 54.7 ± 13.9 years, with a male preponderance (63.1%), and 77.3% were nonlobar. Etiologic subtypes of sICH included hypertension (80.9%), structural vascular anomalies (4.0%), cerebral amyloid angiopathy (0.7%), systemic illnesses (0.5%), medication-related (0.4%), and undetermined (13.7%). Eight factors independently associated with sICH occurrence by decreasing order of PAR with their adjusted OR (95% CI) were hypertension, 66.63 (20.78-213.72); dyslipidemia, 2.95 (1.84-4.74); meat consumption, 1.55 (1.01-2.38); family history of CVD, 2.22 (1.41-3.50); nonconsumption of green vegetables, 3.61 (2.07-6.31); diabetes mellitus, 2.11 (1.29-3.46); stress, 1.68 (1.03-2.77); and current tobacco use, 14.27 (2.09-97.47). Factors associated with severe sICH using an NIH Stroke Scale score >15 with adjusted OR (95% CI) were nonconsumption of leafy green vegetables, 2.03 (1.43-2.88); systolic blood pressure for each mm Hg rise, 1.01 (1.00-1.01); presence of midline shift, 1.54 (1.11-2.13); lobar ICH, 1.72 (1.16-2.55); and supratentorial bleeds, 2.17 (1.06-4.46).

Conclusions: Population-level control of the dominant factors will substantially mitigate the burden of sICH in West Africa.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000009056DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7238923PMC
March 2020

Unraveling the Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications of Neurobiobanking and Stroke Genomic Research in Africa: A Study Protocol of the African Neurobiobank for Precision Stroke Medicine ELSI Project.

Int J Qual Methods 2020 Jan-Dec;19. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Neuroscience and Ageing Research Unit, Institute for Advanced Medical Research and Training, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.

The ethical, legal, and social implications (ELSI) of emerging neurobiobanks and data resources are unclear in an African scientific landscape with unique cultural, linguistic, and belief systems. The overarching goal of the African Neurobiobank for Precision Stroke Medicine-ELSI Project is to identify, examine, and develop novel approaches to address ELSI issues of biobanking and stroke genomic research in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). To accomplish the goal we will (1) explore knowledge, attitude, perceptions, barriers, and facilitators influencing ELSI issues related to biobanking and stroke genomic research; (2) use information obtained to craft a community intervention program focused on ELSI issues; and (3) build capacity and careers related to genomics and biobanking for effective client/community engagement while enhancing regulatory, governance, and implementation competences in biobanking science in SSA. A community-based participatory research and mixed-methodological approach, focused on various levels of the social ecological model, will be used to identify and examine relevant ELSI issues. Contextual intervention tools, platforms, and practices will be developed to enhance community understanding and participation in stroke biobanking and genomics research activities while facilitating enduring trust, and equitable and fair utilization of biobanking resources for genetic and trans-omics research. A concurrent capacity building program related to genetic counseling and biobanking will be implemented for early career researchers. The huge potential for neurobiobanking and genomics research in Africa to advance precision medicine applicable to stroke and other neurological disorders requires addressing ELSI challenges while building sustainable research, career, and regulatory capacities in trans-omics and biobanking science.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1609406920923194DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8284747PMC
June 2020

Evaluation of the tuberculosis surveillance system in the Ashaiman municipality, in Ghana.

Pan Afr Med J 2018 19;31:126. Epub 2018 Oct 19.

Faculty of Public Health, Ghana College of Physicians and Surgeons, Accra, Ghana.

Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB) was the leading cause of death from an infectious illness globally with an estimated 10.4 million new cases and 1.4 million deaths in 2015. In Ghana, from the 2013 TB prevalence survey conducted by the National Tuberculosis Control Programme, the incidence is estimated as 165 per 100,000 population and a mortality rate of 7.5 per 1,000 infected people. The Tuberculosis surveillance system is part of the general framework of the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response. This evaluation was to assess whether the system is meeting its set objectives, assess its usefulness and describe its attributes.

Methods: The TB surveillance system of the Ashaiman municipality was evaluated using Centre for Disease Control and Prevention updated guidelines for evaluating public health surveillance systems 2006. Records review from 2014 to 2016 was done to assess objectives of the system and surveillance data source of 2016 was used to assess attributes. Interviews were conducted at the various levels using semi-structured questionnaire and data analysis done with Epi info 7 and Microsoft Excel to run frequencies and percentages.

Results: The surveillance system is well structured with standardized data collection tools. The system was found to be useful, though it just partially met its objectives. It was also found to be simple, flexible and fairly stable with average timeliness. It had low acceptability and is not geographically representative. It had low sensitivity of 45/100,000 and a low predictive value positive of 6.6%.

Conclusion: The surveillance system was found to be useful but partially met its objectives. There is the need to improve the sensitivity, predictive value positive timeliness and acceptability.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.11604/pamj.2018.31.126.14993DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6462495PMC
May 2019

Knowledge, attitudes and practices related to stroke in Ghana and Nigeria: A SIREN call to action.

PLoS One 2018 16;13(11):e0206548. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

University of Ghana Medical School, Accra, Ghana.

Introduction: Stroke is a prominent cause of death, disability, and dementia in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The Stroke Investigative Research and Education Network works collaboratively with stroke survivors and individuals serving as community controls to comprehensively characterize the genomic, sociocultural, economic and behavioral risk factors for stroke in SSA.

Purpose: In this paper, we aim to: i) explore the attitudes, beliefs, and practices related to stroke in Ghana and Nigeria using the process of qualitative description; and ii) propose actions for future research and community-based participation and education.

Methods: Stroke survivors, their caregivers, health care professionals, and community representatives and faith-based leaders participated in one of twenty-six focus groups, which qualitatively explored community beliefs, attitudes and practices related to stroke in Ghana and Nigeria. Arthur Kleinman's Explanatory Model of Illness and the Social Ecological Model guided the questions and/or thematic analysis of the qualitative data. We hereby describe our focus group methods and analyses of qualitative data, as well as the findings and suggestions for improving stroke outcomes.

Results And Discussion: The major findings illustrate the fears, causes, chief problems, treatment, and recommendations related to stroke through the views of the participants, as well as recommendations for working effectively with the SIREN communities. Findings are compared to SIREN quantitative data and other qualitative studies in Africa. As far as we are aware, this is the first paper to qualitatively explore and contrast community beliefs, attitudes, and practices among stroke survivors and their caregivers, community and faith-based leaders, and health professionals in multiple communities within Nigeria and Ghana.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0206548PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6239297PMC
April 2019

Knowledge, attitudes and practices of West Africans on genetic studies of stroke: Evidence from the SIREN Study.

Int J Stroke 2019 01 24;14(1):69-79. Epub 2018 Jul 24.

7 Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria.

Background: It is crucial to assess genomic literacy related to stroke among Africans in preparation for the ethical, legal and societal implications of the genetic revolution which has begun in Africa.

Objective: To assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of West Africans about stroke genetic studies.

Methods: A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted among stroke patients and stroke-free controls recruited across 15 sites in Ghana and Nigeria. Participants' knowledge of heritability of stroke, willingness to undergo genetic testing and perception of the potential benefits of stroke genetic research were assessed using interviewer-administered questionnaire. Descriptive, frequency distribution and multiple regression analyses were performed.

Results: Only 49% of 2029 stroke patients and 57% of 2603 stroke-free individuals knew that stroke was a heritable disorder. Among those who knew, 90% were willing to undergo genetic testing. Knowledge of stroke heritability was associated with having at least post-secondary education (OR 1.51, 1.25-1.81) and a family history of stroke (OR 1.20, 1.03-1.39) while Islamic religion (OR=0.82, CI: 0.72-0.94), being currently unmarried (OR = 0.81, CI: 0.70-0.92), and alcohol use (OR = 0.78, CI: 0.67-0.91) were associated with lower odds of awareness of stroke as a heritable disorder. Willingness to undergo genetic testing for stroke was associated with having a family history of stroke (OR 1.34, 1.03-1.74) but inversely associated with a medical history of high blood pressure (OR = 0.79, 0.65-0.96).

Conclusion: To further improve knowledge of stroke heritability and willingness to embrace genetic testing for stroke, individuals with less formal education, history of high blood pressure and no family history of stroke require targeted interventions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1747493018790059DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8325169PMC
January 2019

A comparison of licensed and un-licensed artisanal and small-scale gold miners (ASGM) in terms of socio-demographics, work profiles, and injury rates.

BMC Public Health 2017 Nov 6;17(1):862. Epub 2017 Nov 6.

Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School Of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, USA.

Background: Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) represents one of the most hazardous work environments. While formalization of this sector has been suggested (e.g., Minamata Convention) as a means to improve working conditions, we are unaware of empirical evidence that supports this notion. This study aimed to compare sociodemographic profiles, work profiles, and injury rates among miners working in licensed versus un-licensed ASGM sites.

Methods: In the Tarkwa mining region of Ghana, 404 small-scale miners were recruited in 2014 and interviewed regarding their occupational injury experiences over the preceding 10 years. Workers were drawn from 9 mining sites, of which 5 were licensed and 4 were not licensed.

Results: Sociodemographic characteristics of miners from the two groups were relatively similar. Those currently working in an un-licensed mine have spent more time in the ASGM sector than those currently working in a licensed mine (94 vs. 70 months). Miners working in an un-licensed site tended to experience more injury episodes (e.g., 26% vs. 8% had 3 or more injury events) and not use personal protective equipment during the time of an injury (92% indicated to not using vs. 73%) when compared to miners working in a licensed site. A total of 121 injury episodes were recorded for 2245 person years of ASGM work. The injury rate for those working in un-licensed mines was 5.9 per 100 person years (59 injuries in 995 person years) versus 5.0 (62 injuries in 1250 person-years) in the licensed mines. When focusing on the male miners, there was a significant difference in injury rates between those working in a licensed mine (4.2 per 100 person years) versus an un-licensed mine (6.1 per 100 person years).

Conclusions: These findings advance our understanding of injuries amongst ASGM workers, and help identify important differences in socio-demographics, work profiles, and injury rates between miners working in a licensed versus and un-licensed site. The findings suggest that certain working conditions in a licensed site may be safer.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-017-4876-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5674739PMC
November 2017

Prevalence and Prognostic Features of ECG Abnormalities in Acute Stroke: Findings From the SIREN Study Among Africans.

Glob Heart 2017 06 14;12(2):99-105. Epub 2017 Mar 14.

University of Ghana Medical School, Accra, Ghana.

Background: Africa has a growing burden of stroke with associated high morbidity and a 3-year fatality rate of 84%. Cardiac disease contributes to stroke occurrence and outcomes, but the precise relationship of abnormalities as noted on a cheap and widely available test, the electrocardiogram (ECG), and acute stroke outcomes have not been previously characterized in Africans.

Objectives: The study assessed the prevalence and prognoses of various ECG abnormalities among African acute stroke patients encountered in a multisite, cross-national epidemiologic study.

Methods: We included 890 patients from Nigeria and Ghana with acute stroke who had 12-lead ECG recording within first 24 h of admission and stroke classified based on brain computed tomography scan or magnetic resonance imaging. Stroke severity at baseline was assessed using the Stroke Levity Scale (SLS), whereas 1-month outcome was assessed using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS).

Results: Patients' mean age was 58.4 ± 13.4 years, 490 were men (55%) and 400 were women (45%), 65.5% had ischemic stroke, and 85.4% had at least 1 ECG abnormality. Women were significantly more likely to have atrial fibrillation, or left ventricular hypertrophy with or without strain pattern. Compared to ischemic stroke patients, hemorrhagic stroke patients were less likely to have atrial fibrillation (1.0% vs. 6.7%; p = 0.002), but more likely to have left ventricular hypertrophy (64.4% vs. 51.4%; p = 0.004). Odds of severe disability or death at 1 month were higher with severe stroke (AOR: 2.25; 95% confidence interval: 1.44 to 3.50), or atrial enlargement (AOR: 1.45; 95% confidence interval: 1.04 to 2.02).

Conclusions: About 4 in 5 acute stroke patients in this African cohort had evidence of a baseline ECG abnormality, but presence of any atrial enlargement was the only independent ECG predictor of death or disability.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gheart.2017.01.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5582979PMC
June 2017

Stroke Investigative Research and Education Network: Community Engagement and Outreach Within Phenomics Core.

Health Educ Behav 2016 04;43(1 Suppl):82S-92S

University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Stroke is the leading cause of neurological hospital admissions in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and the second leading cause of death globally. The Stroke Investigative Research and Education Network seeks to comprehensively characterize the genomic, sociocultural, economic, and behavioral risk factors for stroke and to build effective teams for research to address and decrease the burden of stroke and other noncommunicable diseases in SSA. One of the first steps to address this goal is to effectively engage the communities that suffer the high burden of disease. The purpose of this article is to describe plans to elucidate information about knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices about stroke and genomics from patients, caregivers, and local leaders, to recruit participation in research activities and dissemination of ongoing results, as well as to facilitate research uptake and impact within the broader communities of scientists, health professionals, policy makers, and others. We describe the (a) study sites and their communities; (b) plans for community advisory boards, focus groups, and surveys; (c) methods for data management in REDCap database; (d) analyses of qualitative data; (e) evaluation of community and public engagement across multiple sites and research teams in SSA and the United States; (f) use of RE-AIM for presentation of evaluation data; and (g) community indicators of success. This is the first of its kind public outreach engagement initiative to evaluate stroke and genomics in SSA, and has implications as a model for assessment in other high-stroke risk populations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1090198116634082DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4905563PMC
April 2016

Injury Profiles Associated with Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Tarkwa, Ghana.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2015 Jul 10;12(7):7922-37. Epub 2015 Jul 10.

Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School Of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.

Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is inherently risky, but little is known about mining-associated hazards and injuries despite the tremendous growth worldwide of ASGM and the benefits it offers. The current study aimed to characterize the physical injuries associated with ASGM in Ghana to guide policy formulation. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Tarkwa mining district of the Western Region of Ghana in 2014. A total of 404 small-scale miners were recruited and interviewed regarding their occupational injury experiences over the preceding 10 years using a paper-based structured questionnaire. Nearly one-quarter (23.5%) of the miners interviewed reported getting injured over the previous 10 years, and the overall injury rate was calculated to be 5.39 per 100 person years. The rate was significantly higher for women (11.93 per 100 person years) and those with little mining experience (e.g., 25.31 per 100 person years for those with less than one year of work experience). The most injury-prone mining activities were excavation (58.7%) and crushing (23.1%), and over 70% of the injuries were reported to be due to miners being hit by an object. The majority of the injuries (57%) were lacerations, and nearly 70% of the injuries were to the upper or lower limbs. Approximately one-third (34.7%) of the injuries resulted in miners missing more than two weeks of work. One-quarter of the injured workers believed that abnormal work pressure played a role in their injuries, and nearly two-fifths believed that their injuries could have been prevented, with many citing personal protective equipment as a solution. About one-quarter of the employees reported that their employers never seemed to be interested in the welfare or safety of their employees. These findings greatly advance our understanding of occupational hazards and injuries amongst ASGM workers and help identify several intervention points.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph120707922DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4515700PMC
July 2015

A retrospective analysis of breast cancer subtype based on ER/PR and HER2 status in Ghanaian patients at the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital, Ghana.

BMC Clin Pathol 2015 9;15:14. Epub 2015 Jul 9.

Department of Surgery, School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana.

Background: Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease composed of multiple subgroups with different molecular alterations, cellular composition, clinical behaviour, and response to treatment. This study evaluates the occurrence of the various subtypes and their clinical and pathological behaviour in the Ghanaian breast cancer population at the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital (KBTH).

Methods: Retrospective review of case notes of patients who had completed treatment for breast cancer at the KBTH within the last 5 years was conducted between April 2011 and March 2012. Subtypes were determined by immunohistochemistry classification based on expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2).

Result: A total of 165 cases contributed to this study. The mean age at diagnosis was 52.5 ± 12.1 years. Tumour size ranged from 0.8 cm to 15 cm with a mean of 4.9 ± 2.8 cm and median of 4 cm. Tumour grade was Grade I 8.3 %, Grade II 60.8 % and Grade III 30.8 %. ER, PR and HER2/neu receptor positivity was 32.1, 25.6 and 25.5 % respectively. Almost half (49.4 %) of the study population had triple negative tumours. Luminal A, luminal B and non-luminal HER2 were 25.6, 12.2, and 12.8 % respectively. No statistically significant association was seen between subtype and tumour size, tumour grade, lymph node status and age at diagnosis.

Conclusion: Triple negative tumour is the most occurring subtype in the Ghanaian breast cancer population treated at the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital. Lack of association seen between subtypes and their clinical and pathological behaviour could be due to small sample size.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12907-015-0014-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4496863PMC
July 2015

Integrated assessment of artisanal and small-scale gold mining in Ghana--part 1: human health review.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2015 May 13;12(5):5143-76. Epub 2015 May 13.

Department of Epidemiology, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.

This report is one of three synthesis documents produced via an integrated assessment (IA) that aims to increase understanding of artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) in Ghana. Given the complexities surrounding ASGM, an IA framework was utilized to analyze economic, social, health, and environmental data, and co-develop evidence-based responses with pertinent stakeholders. The current analysis focuses on the health of ASGM miners and community members, and synthesizes extant data from the literature as well as co-authors' recent findings regarding the causes, status, trends, and consequences of ASGM in Ghana. The results provide evidence from across multiple Ghanaian ASGM sites that document relatively high exposures to mercury and other heavy metals, occupational injuries and noise exposure. The work also reviews limited data on psychosocial health, nutrition, cardiovascular and respiratory health, sexual health, and water and sanitation. Taken together, the findings provide a thorough overview of human health issues in Ghanaian ASGM communities. Though more research is needed to further elucidate the relationships between ASGM and health outcomes, the existing research on plausible health consequences of ASGM should guide policies and actions to better address the unique challenges of ASGM in Ghana and potentially elsewhere.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph120505143DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4454960PMC
May 2015

Edentulism and quality of life among older Ghanaian adults.

BMC Oral Health 2015 Apr 9;15:48. Epub 2015 Apr 9.

Department of Community Health, University of Ghana Medical School, College of Health Sciences, Korle-Bu, Accra, Ghana.

Background: Edentulism affects the quality of life and general health of an individual. But in ageing individuals, it has been observed to have greater impact, manifesting in functional, psychological and social limitations. With an increasing older adult population in Ghana, its burden is likely to increase. This study was thus carried out to explore the association between edentulism and quality of life among older Ghanaian adults.

Methods: Secondary analysis of WHO's Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) Wave 1 in Ghana was conducted using self-reported edentulism as the dependent variable. Participants included a nationally representative sample of adult's aged 50 years and older living in Ghana. Quality of life was measured using the 8 item WHOQOL measure and a single item measure which was a question "How would you rate your overall quality of life?". To assess the association between edentulism and the independent variables, a bivariate analysis was carried out. A Poisson regression model was then performed, adjusting for age, sex, income, education and the diagnosis of a chronic disease condition. A Spearman's correlation analysis was also carried out between the single and multi item measure of quality of life to assess how well they correlate.

Results: Edentulism was observed to be associated with significantly lower levels of SWB among older adults using both the single-item and multiple-item measure (WHOQOL). It, however, showed no association with happiness. Among edentulous respondents, females and those with no formal education reported significantly lower quality of life. The WHOQOL correlated positively and strongly with the single-item measure.

Conclusion: Edentulism may not be life threatening and yet it has been shown to have a negative effect on the quality of life of older adult Ghanaians. More emphasis may thus need to be placed on the oral health of the aging population in Ghana to avoid it.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12903-015-0034-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4404614PMC
April 2015

Risk factors for buruli ulcer in Ghana-a case control study in the Suhum-Kraboa-Coaltar and Akuapem South Districts of the eastern region.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2014 20;8(11):e3279. Epub 2014 Nov 20.

University of Health and Allied Sciences, Department of Epidemiology and Disease Control, Ho, Ghana.

Background: Buruli ulcer (BU) is a skin disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. Its exact mode of transmission is not known. Previous studies have identified demographic, socio-economic, health and hygiene as well as environment related risk factors. We investigated whether the same factors pertain in Suhum-Kraboa-Coaltar (SKC) and Akuapem South (AS) Districts in Ghana which previously were not endemic for BU.

Methods: We conducted a case control study. A case of BU was defined as any person aged 2 years or more who resided in study area (SKC or AS District) diagnosed according to the WHO clinical case definition for BU and matched with age- (+/-5 years), gender-, and community controls. A structured questionnaire on host, demographic, environmental, and behavioural factors was administered to participants.

Results: A total of 113 cases and 113 community controls were interviewed. Multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis identified presence of wetland in the neighborhood (OR=3.9, 95% CI=1.9-8.2), insect bites in water/mud (OR=5.7, 95% CI=2.5-13.1), use of adhesive when injured (OR=2.7, 95% CI=1.1-6.8), and washing in the Densu river (OR=2.3, 95% CI=1.1-4.96) as risk factors associated with BU. Rubbing an injured area with alcohol (OR=0.21, 95% CI=0.008-0.57) and wearing long sleeves for farming (OR=0.29, 95% CI=0.14-0.62) showed protection against BU.

Conclusion: This study identified the presence of wetland, insect bites in water, use of adhesive when injured, and washing in the river as risk factors for BU; and covering limbs during farming as well as use of alcohol after insect bites as protective factors against BU in Ghana. Until paths of transmission are unraveled, control strategies in BU endemic areas should focus on these known risk factors.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003279DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4238991PMC
May 2016

Prevalence and geographic distribution of edentulism among older Ghanaians.

J Public Health Dent 2015 6;75(1):74-83. Epub 2014 Oct 6.

Department of Restorative Dentistry, College of Health Sciences, University of Ghana Dental School, Accra, Ghana.

Objectives: Edentulism has important health implications for aging individuals and is used as an indicator of the oral health of a population. Its distribution is unequal within populations, with the greatest burden on disadvantaged and socially marginalized populations. With an increasing older adult population in Ghana, its burden may increase; however, there is no nationwide information on edentulism in Ghana. Focusing on adults 50 years and older, this study assessed the prevalence of edentulism among older Ghanaians and its distribution across the country.

Methods: Secondary analysis of WHO's Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) Wave 1 in Ghana was conducted using self-reported edentulism as the dependent variable.

Results: The overall prevalence was 2.8%, varying by sex (men had lower rates; OR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.47-0.97); by location, being more prevalent in urban areas (3.6%) and the Western Region (4.7%); by education levels (rates were higher among those with no formal education; OR = 1.626, 95% CI = 1.111-2.380); and by marital status (those living without a partner had higher rates; OR = 1.980, 95% CI =1.366-2.870). On multivariate logistic regression, the variables positively associated with edentulism were older age (OR = 0.945) and urban residence (OR = 0.582). Living in the Brong Ahafo (OR = 3.138), Central (OR = 2.172), Eastern (OR = 2.257), or Volta regions (OR = 3.333) was negatively associated with edentulism.

Conclusion: Edentulism is unequally distributed across Ghana. Future aged cohorts are likely to follow the same patterns of geographic and social disadvantage if needed interventions are not carried out. This study provides nationwide data to assist service planning.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jphd.12075DOI Listing
December 2015

Profile of cancer patients' seen at Korle Bu teaching hospital in Ghana (a cancer registry review).

BMC Res Notes 2014 Aug 27;7:577. Epub 2014 Aug 27.

Public Health Unit, Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Korle-Bu, Accra, Ghana.

Background: Though cancer has become a major source of morbidity and mortality globally, few countries in Sub Saharan Africa have data on cancer incidence. This study aims to describe the profile of cancers seen at the Korle Bu teaching hospital which is a major referral centre in Ghana for cancers and other health conditions.Data for the study was obtained from the cancer registry of the hospital and covered the period from January 2012 to December 2012. The public health unit actively collects data on all cancer cases presenting to any department/unit of the hospital to feed the cancer registry.

Results: A total of 1136 patients with cancer were studied. Their ages ranged from 1 year to 92 years with a mean of 52.3 ± 15.9 years and a median of 54 years. Patients were predominantly female (70.2%) and majority had attained secondary level of education or higher. The most prevalent cancers seen in men were those of prostate, pharynx and colorectal while in the females, the corresponding cancers were breast, cervix and uterus.

Conclusions: Breast and prostate cancers were the commonest among females and males respectively who presented with cancer at the Korle Bu teaching hospital in 2012.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1756-0500-7-577DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4155104PMC
August 2014

Application of geographical information system (GIS) technology in the control of Buruli ulcer in Ghana.

BMC Public Health 2014 Jul 16;14:724. Epub 2014 Jul 16.

Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, P,O,Box 77, Korle-Bu, Accra, Ghana.

Background: Buruli ulcer (BU) disease is a chronic debilitating skin disease caused by Mycobacteriumulcerans. It is associated with areas where the water is slow-flowing or stagnant. Policy makers take the necessary strategic and policy decisions especially where to target interventions based on available evidence including spatial distribution of the disease. Unfortunately, there is limited information on the spatial distribution of BU in Ghana. The aim of the study was to use Geographical Information System (GIS) technology to show the spatial distribution and hot spots of BU in Greater Accra and Eastern Regions in Ghana. The information could then be used by decision makers to make the necessary strategic and policy decisions, especially where to target intervention.

Methods: We conducted a community case search and spatial mapping in two districts in Eastern region (Akuapem South and Suhum- Kraboa-Coaltar) and two districts in Greater Accra region (Ga West and Ga South Municipalities) of Ghana to identify the spatial distribution of BU cases in the communities along the Densu River. These municipalities are already known to the Ministry of Health as having high case load of BU. Structured questionnaires on demographic characteristics, environmental factors and general practices were administered to the cases.Using the E-trex Garmin Geographical Positioning System (GPS), the location of the case patient was marked along with any important attributes of the community. ArcGIS was used to generate maps showing BU distribution and hot spots.

Results: Two hundred and fifty-seven (257) probable BU patients were enrolled in the study after the case search. These cases and their houses (or homes) were located with the GPS. The GIS maps generated showed a varying distribution of BU in the various communities. We observed clustering of BU patients downstream of the Densu River which had hitherto not been observed.

Conclusions: There is clustering of BU in areas where the river was most contaminated. The identified hot spots for BU should be targeted for interventions by policy makers to ensure effective control of BU in Ghana.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-14-724DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4223370PMC
July 2014

Tobacco use in older adults in Ghana: sociodemographic characteristics, health risks and subjective wellbeing.

BMC Public Health 2013 Oct 20;13:979. Epub 2013 Oct 20.

Department of Community Health, University of Ghana Medical School, College of Health Sciences, Room 46, P, O, Box 4236, Korle-Bu, Accra, Ghana.

Background: Tobacco use over the life-course threatens to increase disease burden in older adulthood, including lower income countries like Ghana. This paper describes demographic, socioeconomic, health risks and life satisfaction indices related to tobacco use among older adults in Ghana.

Methods: This work was based on the World Health Organization's multi-country Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE), conducted in six countries including Ghana. Wave one of SAGE in Ghana was conducted in 2007-2008 as collaboration between WHO and the University of Ghana Medical School through the Department of Community Health. A nationally representative sample of 4305 older adults aged 50 years and above were interviewed. Associations between tobacco consumption and sociodemographic, socioeconomic, health risk and life satisfaction were evaluated using chi-square and odds ratio (OR). Logistic regression analyses, adjusted for age, sex and other variables, were conducted to determine predictors of tobacco consumption in older persons.

Results: Overall prevalence of current daily smokers among older adults in Ghana was 7.6%. Tobacco use (i.e. ever used tobacco) was associated with older males, (AOR = 1.10, CI 1.05-1.15), older adults residing in rural locations (AOR = 1.37, CI 1.083-1.724), and older adults who used alcohol (AOR = 1.13, CI 0.230-2.418). Tobacco use was also associated (although not statistically significant per p-values) with increased self-reporting of angina, arthritis, asthma, chronic lung disease, depression, diabetes, hypertension, and stroke. Older adults who used tobacco and with increased health risks, tended to be without health insurance (AOR = 1.41, CI 1.111-1.787). Satisfaction with life and daily living was much lower for those who use tobacco. Regional differences existed in tobacco use; the three northern regions (Upper East, Northern and Upper West) had higher proportions of tobacco use among older adults in the country. Quitting tobacco use was higher in the 70+ years age group, in women, among urban residents and in those with at least secondary education. Quitting tobacco use also increased with increasing income levels.

Conclusions: Tobacco use among older adults in Ghana was associated with older men living in rural locations, chronic ill-health and reduced life satisfaction. A high proportion of older adults have stopped using tobacco, demonstrating the possibilities for effective public health interventions. Health risk reduction strategies through targeted anti-smoking health campaigns, improvement in access to health and social protection (such as health insurance) will reduce health risks among older persons who use tobacco.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-13-979DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3924352PMC
October 2013

Birth and emergency planning: a cross sectional survey of postnatal women at Korle Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra, Ghana.

Afr J Reprod Health 2013 Mar;17(1):27-40

Department of Community Health, University of Ghana Medical School, College of Health Sciences, Korle Bu, Greater Accra, Ghana.

Birth and emergency planning encourages early decision making, helps overcome barriers to skilled maternity care and reduces preventable maternal and newborn deaths. A facility based postnatal survey of 483 childbearing women in Accra, Ghana determined birth and emergency planning steps, awareness of obstetric danger signs, reported maternal and newborn complications and birth outcome based on length of hospital stay. Supervised antenatal care and delivery were nearly universal. Overall, 62% had a birth plan, 74% had adequate knowledge of danger signs, while 64% and 37% reported maternal and newborn complications respectively. Accompaniment by a birth companion and saving money were considered the most useful planning steps. Knowledge of danger signs was associated with birth and emergency planning, and birth and emergency planning was associated with reported birth outcome. Birth and emergency planning as a critical component of antenatal care can influence birth outcomes and should be extended to all pregnant women.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
March 2013
-->