Publications by authors named "Belinda I Gomez"

16 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

A 30% incidence of renal cysts with varying sizes and densities in biomedical research swine is not associated with renal dysfunction.

Animal Model Exp Med 2020 Sep 10;3(3):273-281. Epub 2020 Sep 10.

United States Army Institute of Surgical Research JBSA Fort Sam Houston TX USA.

Background: Renal cystic disease arising from various etiologies results in fluid-filled cavities within the kidneys. Moreover, preexisting renal dysfunction has been shown to exacerbate multiple pathologies. While swine bred for biomedical research are often clinically inspected for illness/parasites, more advanced diagnostics may aid in uncovering underlying renal abnormalities.

Methods: Computed tomography was performed in 54 female prepubertal Yorkshire swine to characterize renal cysts; urine and blood chemistry, and histology of cysts were also performed.

Results: Digital reconstruction of right and left kidneys demonstrated that roughly one-third of the animals (17/54; 31%) had one or more renal cyst. Circulating biomarkers of renal function were not different between animals that had cysts and those that did not. Alternatively, urinary glucose ( = .03) was higher and sodium ( = .07) tended to be lower in animals with cysts compared to animals without, with no differences in protein ( = .14) or potassium ( = .20). Aspiration of cystic fluid was feasible in two animals, which revealed that the cystic fluid urea nitrogen (97.6 ± 28.7 vs 911.3 ± 468.2 mg/dL), potassium (29.8 ± 14.4 vs 148.2 ± 24.85 mmol/L), uric acid (2.55 ± 1.35 vs 11.4 ± 5.65 mg/dL), and creatinine (60.34 ± 17.26 vs 268.99 ± 95.79 mg/dL) were much lower than in the urine. Histology demonstrated a cyst that markedly compresses the adjacent cortex and is lined by a single layer of flattened epithelium, bounded by fibrous connective tissue which extends into the parenchyma. There is tubular atrophy and loss in these areas.

Conclusion: This study provides valuable insight for future studies focusing on kidney function in swine bred for biomedical research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ame2.12135DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7529335PMC
September 2020

Burn resuscitation strategy influences the gut microbiota-liver axis in swine.

Sci Rep 2020 09 24;10(1):15655. Epub 2020 Sep 24.

Blood Coagulation Research Department, USA Army Institute of Surgical Research, JBSA Ft. Sam Houston, San Antonio, TX, 78234, USA.

Fluid resuscitation improves clinical outcomes of burn patients; however, its execution in resource-poor environments may have to be amended with limited-volume strategies. Liver dysfunction is common in burn patients and gut dysbiosis is an understudied aspect of burn sequelae. Here, the swine gut microbiota and liver transcripts were investigated to determine the impact of standard-of-care modified Brooke (MB), limited-volume colloid (LV-Co), and limited-volume crystalloid (LV-Cr) resuscitation on the gut microbiota, and to evaluate its' potential relationship with liver dysfunction. Independent of resuscitation strategy, bacterial diversity was reduced 24 h post-injury, and remained perturbed at 48 h. Changes in community structure were most pronounced with LV-Co, and correlated with biomarkers of hepatocellular damage. Hierarchical clustering revealed a group of samples that was suggestive of dysbiosis, and LV-Co increased the risk of association with this group. Compared with MB, LV-Co and LV-Cr significantly altered cellular stress and ATP pathways, and gene expression of these perturbed pathways was correlated with major dysbiosis-associated bacteria. Taken together, LV-Co resuscitation exacerbated the loss of bacterial diversity and increased the risk of dysbiosis. Moreover, we present evidence of a linkage between liver (dys)function and the gut microbiota in the acute setting of burn injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-72511-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7515893PMC
September 2020

Increased oxidative phosphorylation in lymphocytes does not atone for decreased cell numbers after burn injury.

Innate Immun 2020 07 6;26(5):403-412. Epub 2020 Jan 6.

United States Army Institute of Surgical Research, TX, USA.

The acute systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and multiorgan dysfunction (MOD) that occur in large burn injuries may be attributed, in part, to immunosuppressive responses such as decreased lymphocytes. However, the mitochondrial bioenergetics of lymphocytes after severe burn injury are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to examine mitochondrial function of lymphocytes following severe burns in a swine model. Anesthetized Yorkshire swine ( = 17) sustained 40% total body surface area full-thickness contact burns. Blood was collected at pre-injury (Baseline; BL) and at 24 and 48 h after injury for complete blood cell analysis, flow cytometry, cytokine analysis, and ficoll separation of intact lymphocytes for high-resolution mitochondrial respirometry analysis. While neutrophil numbers increased, a concomitant decrease was found in lymphocytes ( < 0.001) after burn injury, which was not specific to CD4 or CD8 lymphocytes. No changes in immune cell population were observed from 24 h to 48 h post-injury. IL 12-23 decreased while a transient increase in IL 4 was found from BL to 24h ( < 0.05). CRP progressively increased from BL to 24h ( < 0.05) and 48h ( < 0.001) post-injury. Routine and maximal mitochondrial respiration progressively increased from BL to 24h ( < 0.05) and 48 h post-injury ( < 0.001). No changes were found in leak respiration or residual oxygen consumption. When considering the reduction in lymphocyte number, the total peripheral lymphocyte bioenergetics per volume of blood significantly decreased from BL to 24h and 48h (P < 0.05). For the first time, we were able to measure mitochondrial activity in intact lymphocyte mitochondria through high-resolution respirometry in a severely burned swine model. Our data showed that the non-specific reduction in peripheral T cells after injury was larger than the increased mitochondrial activity in those cells, which may be a compensatory mechanism for the total reduction in lymphocytes. Additional studies in the metabolic activation of T cell subpopulations may provide diagnostic or therapeutic targets after severe burn injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1753425918805544DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7903530PMC
July 2020

Plasma and Urinary Glycosaminoglycans as Evidence for Endotheliopathy in a Swine Burn Model.

J Surg Res 2020 04 13;248:28-37. Epub 2019 Dec 13.

Damage Control Resuscitation, US Army Institute of Surgical Research, Houston, Texas. Electronic address:

Background: The endothelial glycocalyx controls vascular permeability, cellular signaling, blood-endothelial cell adhesion, extravasation, and transmission of shear stress signals. Burn injury compromises integrity of this layer increasing vascular permeability, which is further exacerbated by large volumes of (intravenous) crystalloids. We have shown that enteral resuscitation is able to reverse burn-induced acute kidney injury (AKI), and herein, we present a follow-up examination of the integrity of the glycocalyx layer and its relationship with renal dysfunction after burn injury.

Materials And Methods: Anesthetized Yorkshire pigs sustained 40% total body surface area full-thickness contact burns and recovered in metabolic cages for one of three treatments: no fluids (oral or intravenous); (n = 6), ad libitum water (n = 6), or volume-matched oral rehydration solution (ORS; n = 6) for 48 h. Urine and blood were collected at baseline (BL), 6, 12, 24, 32, and 48 h after burn at which point kidneys were harvested.

Results: In no fluid and water groups (but not ORS), plasma levels of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) were elevated after burn (P ≤ 0.031). Syndecan-1 was elevated by 6 h after burn in all animals, but levels declined by 24 h with enteral fluids. Urinary GAGs in the no-fluid group were elevated after burn. No differences among treatments were detected in syndecan-1 levels, or glomerular lectin within the kidney.

Conclusions: Collectively, these data demonstrate that ORS prevented increases in circulating GAGs. Furthermore, an inexpensive and simple method for detecting GAGs provides a sensitive measure of endotheliopathy after burn.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2019.11.006DOI Listing
April 2020

Impact of oral resuscitation on circulating and splenic leukocytes after burns.

Burns 2020 05 29;46(3):567-578. Epub 2019 Nov 29.

United States Army Institute of Surgical Research, 3650 Chambers Pass, JBSA Fort Sam Houston, TX, 78234 United States. Electronic address:

Background: Hemodynamic aberrations after severe burns are treated with aggressive intravenous (IV) fluid resuscitation however, oral resuscitation has been proposed in resource poor scenarios. Previously we have shown that animals receiving oral fluid following burns were able to recover kidney function. However, immune function such as circulating and splenic immune cell populations after oral or intravenous fluid administration was not examined. Herein, we perform a follow up analysis of splenic tissue and plasma from the previous animal study to examine the splenic response following these resuscitation strategies after burn injury.

Methods: Eighteen anesthetized Yorkshire swine receiving 40%TBSA contact burns were randomized to receive either: (1) no fluids (Fluid Restricted; negative control), (2) 70 mL/kg/d Oral Rehydration Salt solution (Oral), or (3) 2 mL/kg/%TBSA/d of lactated Ringer's solution IV. Blood was drawn for blood cell analysis, and CT scans were performed before and 48 h post-burn, at which point spleens were harvested for histological, Western blot, and RT-PCR analyses.

Results: Splenic artery diameter decreased by -0.97 ± 0.14 mm in fluid-restricted animals, while IV led to an increase of 0.68 ± 0.30 mm. No significant differences were detected in white and red pulp. IV fluids reduced the population of splenic monocytes (CD163; P = 0.001) and neutrophils (MPO protein; P = 0.13), as well as cytokines IL-8 (P = 0.003), IFN-γ (P = 0.11) and TNFα (P = 0.05). Additionally, withholding IV fluids consistently decreased the expression of FoxP3, CCR6, and IL17β in spleen, suggesting a shift in T-cell phenotype with IV resuscitation.

Conclusions: The route of fluid administration has a minor influence on the changes in circulating and splenic leukocytes post-burn in the acute phase. Further research is needed to help guide resuscitation approaches using immunologic markers of splenic function following burns.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.burns.2019.08.019DOI Listing
May 2020

The Effect of Burn Resuscitation Volumes on the Gut Microbiome in a Swine Model.

Shock 2020 09;54(3):368-376

Damage Control Resuscitation, US Army Institute of Surgical Research, JBSA Fort Sam Houston, Texas.

Introduction: While recent reports underscore the significance of the gut microbiome (GM) in health and disease, its importance in burn outcomes remains unclear. Moreover, aggressive intravenous (IV) fluid resuscitation of patients may alter intestinal flora. Herein, we describe GM changes following a large burn in swine randomized to different volumes of IV Lactated Ringers' (LR).

Methods: Anesthetized Yorkshire swine sustained 40% total body surface area full-thickness burns and were randomized to different volumes of IV LR: none (n = 5), 15 mL/kg/d (low; n = 6), or 80 mL/kg/d (high; n = 6). At baseline and days 1 and 2, fecal swabs were collected for 16s rDNA sequencing. Proximal jejunum was collected immediately after euthanasia (day 2) for western blot, histopathology, and cytokine analyses.

Results: Burns produced significant shifts in β-diversity and non-significant reductions in α-diversity that did not recover regardless of treatment group. Burn-induced increases in Proteobacteria and decreases in Firmicutes were attenuated by IV fluids in a dose-dependent manner, and also correlated with α-diversity. IV fluids caused a dose-dependent increase in Bacteroides and prevented a transient increase in the opportunistic pathogen Haemophilus parainfluenzae. While high volumes of IV fluids increased intestinal Hsp70 levels (P = 0.0464), they reduced SGLT1 (P = 0.0213) and caspase3 (P = 0.0139) levels. IV fluids elicited a non-specific cytokine response; however, Bacteroidetes levels correlated with intestinal IL18 levels (P = 0.0166, R = 0.4201).

Conclusions: We present the first report on the gut microbiome in a porcine burn model, and present data to suggest that IV fluids may influence GM and gut functional proteins following a burn. Overall, burn-induced GM diversity shifts may expose diagnostic and/or therapeutic targets to improve outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SHK.0000000000001462DOI Listing
September 2020

Operational Advantages of Enteral Resuscitation Following Burn Injury in Resource-Poor Environments: Palatability of Commercially Available Solutions.

J Spec Oper Med 2019 ;19(3):76-81

Background: In recent combat operations, 5% to 15% of casualties sustained thermal injuries, which require resource-intensive therapies. During prolonged field care or when caring for patients in a multidomain battlefield, delayed transport will complicate the challenges that already exist in the burn population. A lack of resources and/or vascular access in the future operating environment may benefit from alternative resuscitation strategies. The objectives of the current report are 1) to briefly review actual and potential advantages/caveats of resuscitation with enteral fluids and 2) to present new data on palatability of oral rehydration solutions.

Methods: A review of the literature and published guidelines are reported. In addition, enlisted US military active duty Servicemembers (N = 40) were asked to taste/rank five different oral rehydration solutions on several parameters.

Results And Conclusions: There are several operational advantages of using enteral fluids including ease of administration, no specialized equipment needed, and the use of lightweight sachets that are easily reconstituted/ administered. Limited clinical data along with slightly more extensive preclinical studies have prompted published guidelines for austere conditions to indicate consideration of enteral resuscitation for burns. Gatorade® and Drip-Drop® were the overall preferred rehydration solutions based on palatability, with the latter potentially more appropriate for resuscitation. Taken together, enteral resuscitation may confer several advantages over intravenous fluids for burn resuscitation under resource-poor scenarios. Future research needs to identify what solutions and volumes are optimal for use in thermally injured casualties.
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October 2019

Burn-induced reductions in mitochondrial abundance and efficiency are more pronounced with small volumes of colloids in swine.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2019 12 18;317(6):C1229-C1238. Epub 2019 Sep 18.

Damage Control Resuscitation Task Area, United States Army Institute of Surgical Research, San Antonio, Texas.

Severe burn injury results in systemic disruption of metabolic regulations and impaired cardiac function. Restoration of hemodynamic homeostasis utilizing intravenous (IV) fluids is critical for acute care of the burn victim. However, the effects of burns and resuscitation on cardiomyocyte mitochondria are currently unknown. The purpose of this study is to determine cardiac mitochondrial function in a swine burn model with subsequent resuscitation using either crystalloids or colloids. Anesthetized Yorkshire swine ( = 23) sustained 40% total body surface area burns and received IV crystalloids ( = 11) or colloids ( = 12) after recovery from anesthesia. Non-burned swine served as controls ( = 9). After euthanasia at 48 h, heart tissues were harvested, permeabilized, and analyzed by high-resolution respirometry. Citrate synthase (CS) activity was measured, and Western blots were performed to quantify proteins associated with mitochondrial fusion (OPA1), fission (FIS1), and mitophagy (PINK1). There were no differences in state 2 respiration or maximal oxidative phosphorylation. Coupled complex 1 respiration decreased, while uncoupled state 4 and complex II increased significantly due to burn injury, particularly in animals receiving colloids ( < 0.05). CS activity and electron transfer coupling efficiency were significantly lower in burned animals, particularly with colloid treatment ( < 0.05). Protein analysis revealed increased FIS1 but no differences in mitophagy in cardiac tissue from colloid-treated compared with crystalloid-treated swine. Taken together, severe burns alter mitochondrial respiration in heart tissue, which may be exacerbated by early IV resuscitation with colloids. Early IV burn resuscitation with colloids may require close hemodynamic observation. Mitochondrial stabilizing agents incorporated into resuscitation fluids may help the hemodynamic response to burn injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.00224.2019DOI Listing
December 2019

Point-of-Care Urinary Biomarker Testing for Risk Prediction in Critically Injured Combat Casualties.

J Am Coll Surg 2019 11 19;229(5):508-515.e1. Epub 2019 Jul 19.

Clinical Investigation Facility, David Grant US Air Force Medical Center, Travis Air Force Base, CA; Department of Medicine, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD. Electronic address:

Background: Risk prediction is important during combat operations because resources are limited and triage decisions must be rapid and accurate. We evaluated 2 point-of-care urinary biomarker tests for risk prediction in combat casualties.

Study Design: This was an observational cohort study of critically injured military personnel admitted to Craig Joint Theater Hospital in Afghanistan from October 2012 to December 2013. We collected urine within 3 hours of admission and measured urinary biomarkers with NephroCheck and a neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin dipstick (NGALds) to evaluate their ability to predict a combined end point of need for renal replacement therapy or death. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated and receiver operator characteristic curves were generated for both tests.

Results: A total of 89 patients were included for analysis. The median Injury Severity Score was 18 and the combined end point occurred in 12 (13.5%) patients. NephroCheck was not associated with the combined end point (OR 1.56; 95% CI 0.81 to 3.03; p = 0.19) and the area under the curve of the receiver operator characteristic curve was 0.65. The NGALds was highly associated with the combined end point (OR 4.93; 95% CI 2.18 to 11.14; p < 0.001) and the area under the curve of the receiver operator characteristic curve was 0.84. The NGALds remained significantly associated with the combined end point in a logistic regression model that included Injury Severity Score as a covariate (OR 4.10; 95% CI 1.74 to 9.67; p = 0.001).

Conclusions: Measurement of urinary biomarkers with an NGALds, but not NephroCheck, predicts poor outcomes in combat casualties. An NGALds is a simple urine dipstick that could be deployed to combat zones to prioritize aeromedical evacuation, help with triage decisions, and predict resource use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2019.07.003DOI Listing
November 2019

Isolation and Characterization of Multipotent CD24+ Cells From the Renal Papilla of Swine.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2018 19;5:250. Epub 2018 Sep 19.

Damage Control Resuscitation, United States Army Institute of Surgical Research, San Antonio, TX, United States.

Over 100,000 patients in the United States are currently waiting for a kidney transplant. With just over 10,000 cadaveric kidneys transplanted annually, it is of the utmost importance to optimize kidney viability upon transplantation. One exciting avenue may be xenotransplantation, which has rejuvenated interest after advanced gene editing techniques have been successfully used in swine. Simultaneously, acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with high morbidity and mortality and currently lacks effective treatment. Animal models have been used extensively to address both of these issues, with recent emphasis on renal progenitor cells (RPCs). Due to anatomical similarities to humans we aimed to examine progenitor cells from the renal papillae of swine kidneys. To do this, RPCs were dissected from the renal papillae of healthy swine. Cell surface marker expression, proliferation, and differentiation of the RPCs were tested . Additionally, a mixed lymphocyte reaction was performed to examine immunomodulatory properties. RPCs displayed spindle shaped morphology with limited self-renewing capacity. Isolated RPCs were positive for CD24 and CD133 at early passages, but lost expression with subsequent passaging. Similarly, RPCs displayed myogenic, osteogenic, and adipogenic differentiation capacities at passage 2, but largely lost this by passage 6. Lastly, direct contact of RPCs with human lymphocytes increased release of IL6 and IL8. Taken together, RPCs from the papilla of porcine kidneys display transient stem cell properties that are lost with passaging, and either represent multiple types of progenitor cells, or a multipotent progenitor population. In instances of ischemic insult, augmentation of/with RPCs may potentiate regenerative properties of the kidney. While the use of swine for transplantation and ischemia studies confers obvious advantages, the populations of different progenitor cell populations within pig kidneys warrants further investigation. Ultimately, while gene editing techniques enhance the potential for xenotransplantation of organs or cells, the ultimate success of this strategy may be determined by the (dis)similarities of RPCs from different species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2018.00250DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6156461PMC
September 2018

The Cutaneous Microbiome and Wounds: New Molecular Targets to Promote Wound Healing.

Int J Mol Sci 2018 Sep 11;19(9). Epub 2018 Sep 11.

United States Army Institute of Surgical Research, 3650 Chambers Pass, JBSA Fort Sam Houston, TX 78234, USA.

The ecological community of microorganisms in/on humans, termed the microbiome, is vital for sustaining homeostasis. While culture-independent techniques have revealed the role of the gut microbiome in human health and disease, the role of the cutaneous microbiome in wound healing is less defined. Skin commensals are essential in the maintenance of the epithelial barrier function, regulation of the host immune system, and protection from invading pathogenic microorganisms. In this review, we summarize the literature derived from pre-clinical and clinical studies on how changes in the microbiome of various acute and chronic skin wounds impact wound healing tissue regeneration. Furthermore, we review the mechanistic insights garnered from model wound healing systems. Finally, in the face of growing concern about antibiotic-resistance, we will discuss alternative strategies for the treatment of infected wounds to improve wound healing and outcomes. Taken together, it has become apparent that commensals, symbionts, and pathogens on human skin have an intimate role in the inflammatory response that highlights several potential strategies to treat infected, non-healing wounds. Despite these promising results, there are some contradictory and controversial findings from existing studies and more research is needed to define the role of the human skin microbiome in acute and chronic wound healing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms19092699DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6164292PMC
September 2018

Effect of Intravenous Fluid Volumes on the Adrenal Glucocorticoid Response After Burn Injury in Swine.

J Burn Care Res 2018 08;39(5):652-660

United States Army Institute of Surgical Research, JBSA Fort Sam Houston, Texas.

Severe thermal injury induces metabolic and physiological stress, prompting a disruption in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. The objective of this study was to evaluate potential confounding effects of Lactated Ringer's (LR) resuscitation on adrenal damage and cortisol production following burn. Anesthetized swine were instrumented with jugular catheters and sustained 40% TBSA burns from brass probes heated to 100°C. Animals recovered to consciousness and received IV fluid resuscitation with LR at two different volumes: 15 ml/kg/d (limited volume [LV], n = 6) or 2 ml/kg/%TBSA/d (modified Brooke [MB], n = 6). Nonburned animals (Sham) were both oral and IV fluid restricted (S-FR, n = 4) to induce stress. Computed tomography (CT) angiographies were performed at baseline (BL) and 48 hours postburn, while blood and urine samples were collected at BL, 6, 24, and 48 hours postburn, with euthanasia at 48 hours for adrenal harvesting. Urinary cortisol was elevated following burn/surgery in all animals and returned back to BL in S-FR (404 ± 48 pg/mg creatinine) but not MB (1332 ± 176 pg/mg creatinine; P = .005) or LV (1223 ± 335 pg/mg creatinine; P = .07) by 48 hours. Gene expression of cleavage enzymes (3β-HSD, CYP17, CYP11, and CYP21) along the cortisol synthesis pathway showed minimal changes. Adrenal apoptosis (Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling [TUNEL] staining) was greatest in the MB group (P ≤ .01) when compared to S-FR, partly due to elevations in c-Jun N-terminal kinase. Adrenal hemorrhaging was also greatest in MB animals, with no differences in tissue volume or wet-to-dry ratio. However, tissue levels of cytokines IL-1β, IL-10, and IL-12 were greatest in LV. Burn injury elevates urinary cortisol and compromises adrenal gland integrity, which is affected by IV fluid volume.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jbcr/iry024DOI Listing
August 2018

Enteral resuscitation with oral rehydration solution to reduce acute kidney injury in burn victims: Evidence from a porcine model.

PLoS One 2018 2;13(5):e0195615. Epub 2018 May 2.

United States Army Institute of Surgical Research, Fort Sam Houston, TX, United States of America.

Intravenous (IV) resuscitation of burn patients has greatly improved outcomes and become a cornerstone of modern burn care. However, the heavy fluids and vascular access required may not be feasible in austere environments, mass casualty, or delayed transport scenarios. Enteral resuscitation has been proposed for these situations; we sought to examine the effectiveness of this strategy on improving burn-induced kidney injury. Anesthetized Yorkshire swine sustaining 40% TBSA full-thickness contact burns were randomized to three groups (n = 6/group): fluid deprivation, ad libitum water access, or 70 mL/kg/d Oral Rehydration Salt solution (ORS). Urine and blood were collected at baseline (BL), 6, 12, 24, 32, and 48h post-burn, at which point tissue was harvested and CT angiography performed. Although fluid consumption by ad libitum and ORS groups were matched (132±54mL/kg versus 120±24mL/kg, respectively), ORS intake increased urine output compared with water and no water (47.3±9.0 mL/kg versus 16.1±2.5 mL/kg, and 24.5±1.7 mL/kg respectively). Plasma creatinine peaked 6h following burn (1.67±0.07mg/dL) in all animals, but at 48h was comparable to BL in animals receiving water (1.23±0.06mg/dL) and ORS (1.30±0.09mg/dL), but not fluid deprived animals (1.56±0.05mg/dL) (P<0.05). Circulating levels of blood urea nitrogen steadily increased, but also decreased by 48h in animals receiving enteral fluids (P<0.05). Water deprivation reduced renal artery diameter (-1.4±0.17mm), whereas resuscitation with water (-0.44±0.14 mm) or ORS maintained it (-0.63±0.20 mm;P< 0.02). Circulating cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, IFNγ, and GM-CSF were moderately elevated in the fluid-deprived group. Taken together, the data suggest that enteral resuscitation with ORS rescues kidney function following burn injury. Incorporating enteral fluids may improve outcomes in resource-poor environments and possibly reduce IV fluid requirements to prevent co-morbidities associated with over-resuscitation. Studies into different volumes/types of enteral fluids are warranted. While ORS has saved many lives in cholera-associated dehydration, it should be investigated further for use in burn patients.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0195615PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5931460PMC
August 2018

ASAS-SSR Triennial Reproduction Symposium: Looking Back and Moving Forward-How Reproductive Physiology has Evolved: WNTs role in bovine folliculogenesis and estrogen production.

J Anim Sci 2018 Jun;96(7):2977-2986

Department of Animal and Range Sciences, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM.

Appreciation of mechanisms that affect steroidogenesis is critical to identifying compromising signals that may decrease reproductive efficiency. Follicle maturation and steroidogenesis requires coordinated actions from the pituitary gonadotropins and local ovarian signaling molecules. β-Catenin (CTNNB1), the lynchpin molecule of canonical wingless-type mouse mammary tumor virus integration site (WNT) signaling, is required for maximal gonadotropin stimulation of steroid production from granulosa (GC) and luteal cells. WNTs are locally secreted glycoproteins involved in ovarian development and folliculogenesis. In cultured bovine GC, WNT2 and AKT mRNAs and CTNNB1 protein increase after FSH stimulation. Likewise, CTNNB1 protein is greater in large antral follicles with high intrafollicular estradiol concentrations, suggesting the hormonal milieu responsible for increased estradiol content modulates CTNNB1 accumulation. In addition, concurrent treatment of FSH and WNT3A in GC results in reduced steroidogenic enzymes and ovarian differentiation factors. It is likely that FSH regulation of WNT signaling establishes a negative feedback loop to ensure CTNNB1 remains controlled. To explore the mechanism resulting in this inhibitory effect, AKT pathway modulators were utilized and unveiled a requirement for AKT activity in FSH-mediated CTNNB1 accumulation. Cells treated with FSH, IGF-1, and IGF-1 + FSH had increased CTNNB1 protein accumulation compared with controls. Similarly, estradiol medium concentrations increased in treated cells compared with non-treated controls, while co-treatment of FSH and IGF-1 with the AKT inhibitor LY294002 reduced CTNNB1 and estradiol production. Subsequent studies evaluated whether FSH regulation of CTNNB1 occurs through a specific phosphorylation event. In bovine GC, phosphorylation of CTNNB1 at Ser-552 was demonstrated in FSH-treated cells, whereas IGF-1 treatment did not phosphorylate CTNNB1 Ser-552. Data indicate that in cattle phosphorylation on CTNNB1 Ser-552 is a protein kinase A (PKA) dependent, protein kinase B (AKT) independent event. Data suggest that CTNNB1 regulated by AKT is a fundamental component of FSH-induced estrogen production. However, AKT's role in estradiol synthesis does not appear to be through phosphorylation of CTNNB1 Ser-552. The complex interplay between FSH and ovarian WNT/CTNNB1 signaling is key to regulation of follicle maturation and steroidogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jas/sky135DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6095258PMC
June 2018

Molecular mechanisms of trauma-induced acute kidney injury: Inflammatory and metabolic insights from animal models.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis 2017 10 19;1863(10 Pt B):2661-2671. Epub 2017 Apr 19.

United States Army Institute of Surgical Research, 3650 Chambers Pass, JBSA Fort Sam Houston, TX 78234, USA. Electronic address:

Trauma-induced acute kidney injury (AKI), such as after hemorrhagic shock (HS) or burn, remains a significant problem in the intensive care unit and is associated with increased mortality. The pathophysiology that drives AKI post-trauma is multi-factorial, and includes both inflammatory and metabolic alterations. Identifying the systemic profile that contributes to AKI is crucial not only for early diagnosis, but also for identifying treatments that improve kidney function and maintaining long-term patient health. In an effort to elucidate this molecular pathophysiology researchers have utilized a variety of animal models including chemically-induced (i.e., cisplatin), blocking renal perfusion (i.e., arterial clamping) and inducing burn or HS. As the latter burn and HS models are unequivocally applicable to studying AKI in the context of traumatic injury, this review will summarize the inflammatory and metabolic insights associated with AKI gained with these animal models. Moreover, novel therapeutic strategies brought forth with these models will be discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbadis.2017.04.011DOI Listing
October 2017

Canonical WNT signaling inhibits follicle stimulating hormone mediated steroidogenesis in primary cultures of rat granulosa cells.

PLoS One 2014 17;9(1):e86432. Epub 2014 Jan 17.

Department of Animal Science, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma, United States of America.

Beta-catenin (CTNNB1), a key component of wingless-type mouse mammary tumor virus integration site family (WNT) signaling, participates in follicle stimulated hormone-mediated regulation of estrogen (E2) production. The purpose of these studies was to determine if CTNNB1's contribution to FSH-mediated steroidogenesis in primary rat granulosa cells was due in part to extracellular stimulation of the canonical WNT signaling pathway. To achieve this purpose, primary cultures of rat granulosa cells were exposed to vehicle or a canonical member of the WNT signaling pathway, WNT3A, before co-culture and in the presence or absence of FSH for 24 h. Activation of the canonical WNT signaling pathway was determined by dose-dependent induction of Axin2 mRNA expression and stimulation of the CTNNB1/T cell factor promoter-reporter TOPflash. WNT pathway induction was demonstrated at doses of 50 and 500 ng/mL of WNT3A. Granulosa cells treated with WNT3A in combination with FSH had enhanced CTNNB1/T cell factor transcriptional activity above cells treated with WNT3A alone. Steroidogenic enzymes and ovarian differentiation factor mRNAs were quantified via quantitative PCR. Expression of steroidogenic enzyme mRNAs aromatase (Cyp19a1), P450 side chain cleavage (Cyp11a1), and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (Star) were increased following FSH treatment. Co-incubation of WNT3A and FSH reduced the ability of FSH to stimulate steroidogenic enzymes and subsequent E2 and progesterone (P4) production. Concomitant activation of FSH and WNT pathways results in marked reduction of ovarian differentiation factors, LH receptor (Lhcgr) and inhibin-alpha (Inha). Therefore, WNT inhibits FSH target genes and steroid production associated with maturation and differentiation of the ovarian follicle.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0086432PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3895028PMC
September 2014