Publications by authors named "Behzad Karami Matin"

48 Publications

Comment on: "Economic Burden of Thalassemia Major in Iran, 2015".

J Res Health Sci 2016 ;16(4):233-234

School of Health Administration, Faculty of Health Professions, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada.

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7189930PMC
October 2017

Estimating the Economic Burden of Lung Cancer in Iran

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2016 10 1;17(10):4729-4733. Epub 2016 Oct 1.

Research Center for Environmental Determinants of Health, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran. Email:

Objectives: Lung cancer is a major public health problem and one of the most costly illnesses. The study aimed to estimate the economic burden of lung cancer in Iran in 2014. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the direct and indirect costs for patients with lung cancer using a prevalence-based approach. A human capital approach was employed to estimate the indirect costs. Data were obtained from several sources such as through patient interview using structured questionnaire, medical records, the GLOBOCAN databases, the Iranian Statistical Center, the Iranian Ministry of Cooperation, Labor and Social Welfare, and the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME). Results: The economic burden of lung cancer in Iran in the year 2014 was 3,225,998,555,090 IR. The main components of the cost were associated with mortality (81.9 %) and hospitalization (7.6 %). The costs of direct medical care, non-medical aspects, patient time, and mortality accounted for 10.8%, 2.7%, 4.5%, and 81.5% of the total cost, respectively. Conclusion: Findings from this study indicated that the economic burden of lung cancer is substantial both to Iran’s health system and to society as a whole. Early diagnosis, strengthening cancer prevention, implementing new cancer therapy and medical technology, and effective smoking-cessation interventions could offset some of the costs associated with lung cancer in Iran.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5454624PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.22034/apjcp.2016.17.10.4729DOI Listing
October 2016

Effects of Smoking on Cost of Hospitalization and Length of Stay among Patients with Lung Cancer in Iran: a Hospital-Based Study.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2016 ;17(9):4421-4426

Department of Health Management and Economics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran E-mail :

Background: Smoking is recognized as a main leading preventable cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. It is responsible for a considerable nancial burden both on the health system and in society. This study aimed to examine the effect of smoking on cost of hospitalization and length of stay (LoS) among patients with lung cancer in Iran in 2014.

Materials And Methods: A total of 415 patients were included in the study. Data on age, sex, insurance status, type of hospitals, type of insurance, geographic local, length of stay and cost of hospitalization was extracted by medical records and smoking status was obtained from a telephone survey. To compare cost of hospitalization and LoS for different smoking groups, current smokers, former smokers, and never smokers, a gamma regression model and zero-truncated poisson regression were used, respectively.

Results: Compared with never smokers, current and former smokers showed a 48% and 35% increase in hospitalization costs, respectively. Also, hospital LoS for current and former smokers was 72% and 31% higher than for never smokers, respectively.

Conclusions: Our study indicated that cigarette smoking imposes a signi cant nancial burden on hospitals in Iran. It is, however, recommended that more research should be done to implement and evaluate hospital based smoking cessation interventions to better increase cessation rates in these settings.
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February 2017

Health system responsiveness after health sector evolution plan (HSEP): An inpatient survey in Kermanshah in 2015.

Med J Islam Repub Iran 2016 13;30:387. Epub 2016 Jun 13.

PhD Student of Health Economics, Social Development and Health Promotion Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran, & Center of Excellence for Community Oriented Medical Education, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran,

Background: Responsiveness is one of the three main goals of the health system introduced by World Health Organization. This study aimed at examining health system responsiveness after Health Sector Evolution Plan in Kermanshah, Western Iran.

Methods: A sample of 335 hospitalized patients was selected using proportionate allocation to population size method in the city of Kermanshah (Iran) in 2015. World Health Survey (WHS) questionnaire was used to collect data. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and principal component analysis by STATA 12.

Results: The overall health system responsiveness score was 72.6. The best and worst performance for domains of dignity and autonomy were 82.2 and 62.5, respectively. Socio-demographic variables of the patients had no significant effect on the total health system responsiveness score. The principal component analysis findings indicated that 68% of the variance of the overall responsiveness score was explained by four components.

Conclusion: The overall responsiveness score of each of the domains was higher than that of other similar previous studies in Iran. Although it is difficult to reach a conclusion, our findings may show better responsiveness of the health system compared to the previous reports.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4972047PMC
August 2016

Fitness Intention and Its Relationship With Eating Attitudes: A Cross-Sectional Study of Iranian Female Medical College Students.

Iran J Psychiatry Behav Sci 2016 Mar 15;10(1):e4307. Epub 2016 Mar 15.

Research Center for Environmental Determinants of Health, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, IR Iran.

Background: Fitness is a very important goal among young adults that may lead to eating disorders.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to identify the factors influencing fitness intention based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) and its relationship to eating attitudes.

Materials And Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 231 female college students during the winter of 2012. Participants were randomly selected in proportion to their distribution among the different faculties at Hamadan University of Medical Sciences. A structured questionnaire was applied for collecting data and data was analyzed by SPSS version 21 using a T-test, ANOVA, bivariate correlations, and linear regression at a 95% significant level.

Results: Nearly 21.6% of the participants had abnormal eating attitudes. The TPB variables accounted for 40% of the variation in fitness intention. Bivariate correlations indicated a positive correlation between fitness intention and eating attitude (r = 0.417, P < 0.05).

Conclusions: Based on our results, it seems that designing and implementing educational programs to reduce positive attitudes and encourage subjective norms toward fitness may be useful for preventing abnormal eating attitudes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.17795/ijpbs-4307DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4898748PMC
March 2016

Locus of Control or Self-Esteem; Which One is the Best Predictor of Academic Achievement in Iranian College Students.

Iran J Psychiatry Behav Sci 2016 Mar 15;10(1):e2602. Epub 2016 Mar 15.

Student Research Committee, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, IR Iran.

Background: Self-esteem and behavioral consequences, which are due to external or internal locus of control, are effective on academic achievement of students.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prediction of locus of control and self-esteem in academic achievement among the students.

Materials And Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 300 college students in Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in 2014. Data collection tools were in three sections: demographic, Rotter internal-external locus of control scale and Coopersmith self-esteem inventory. Data were analyzed using the SPSS software version 21.

Results: Results showed that 29.8% and 76.2% of the participants had internal locus of control, and high self-esteem, respectively. There was a significant correlation between self-esteem, locus of control and academic achievement of the students. Self-esteem accounted for 39.5% of the variation in academic achievement.

Conclusions: It seems that interventions to increase self-esteem among student can help improve academic achievement among them.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.17795/ijpbs-2602DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4898745PMC
March 2016

Estimating the Economic Burden of Premature Mortality Caused by Cancer in Iran: 2006-2010.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2016 ;17(4):2131-6

Research Center for Environmental Determinants of Health, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran E-mail :

Background: Cancer is currently one of the main public health problems all over the world and its economic burden is substantial both for health systems and for society as a whole.To inform priorities for cancer control, we here estimated years of potential life lost (YPLL) and productivity losses due to cancer-related premature mortality in Iran from 2006 to 2010.

Materials And Methods: The number of cancer deaths by sex and age groups for top ten leading cancers in Iran were obtained from the Ministry of Health and Medical Education. To estimate theYPLL and the cost of productivity loss due to cancer-related premature mortality, the life expectancy method and the human capital approach were used, respectively.

Results: There were 138,228 cancer-related deaths in Iran (without Tehran province) of which 76 % (106,954) were attributable to the top 10 ranked cancers. Some 63 % of total cancer-related deaths were of males. The top 10 ranked cancers resulted in 106,766,942 YPLL in total, 64,171,529 (60 %) in males and 42,595,412 (40%) in females. The estimated YPPLL due to top 10 ranked cancers was 58,581,737 during the period studied of which 32,214,524 (54%) was accounted for in males.The total cost of lost productivity caused by premature deaths because of top 10 cancers was 1.68 billion dollars (US$) from 2006 to 2010, ranging from 251 million dollars in 2006 to 283 million dollars in 2010.

Conclusions: This study showed that the economic burden of premature mortality attributable to cancer is significant for Iranian society. The findings provide useful information about the economic impact of cancer for health system policy/ decision makers and should facilitate planning of preventive intervention and effective resource allocation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7314/apjcp.2016.17.4.2131DOI Listing
January 2017

Measurement of Quality of Educational Hospital Services by the SERVQUAL Model: The Iranian Patients' Perspective.

Electron Physician 2016 Mar 25;8(3):2101-6. Epub 2016 Mar 25.

M.Sc. of Nursing, Student Research Committee, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Introduction: The main mission of hospitals in any health system is to deliver high quality healthcare for patients and meet their needs and expectations. The aim of the current study was to assess the quality of the service of educational hospitals affiliated with Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in 2015, from the perspective of patients.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the perspectives of 400 patients were assessed about the quality of the services provided by educational hospitals in Kermanshah (western Iran) in 2015. The quality was assessed by the SERVQUAL questionnaire with five dimensions, i.e., tangibility, reliability, responsiveness, assurance, and empathy. In addition, the Wilcoxon test and the Kruskal-Wallis test were used to explore any association between the dependent variable and explanatory variables. The data were analyzed using Stata V.12 software.

Results: There were negative gaps in all five dimensions. The highest and lowest gaps in the mean score were found in the assurance (-0.88) and responsiveness (-0.56) dimensions. The patients ranked responsiveness as the most important dimension of the quality of healthcare.

Conclusion: There were gaps between the patients' perceptions and their expectation about the five dimensions that were studied based on the SERVQUAL model. Also, it is recommended that improving the quality of healthcare is possible by various policies, such as good responsiveness, access to health workers, and delivering healthcare in less time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19082/2101DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4844475PMC
March 2016

Macro determinants of Iranian provincial healthcare expenditures from 2006 to 2013: evidence from panel data.

Electron Physician 2015 Dec 20;7(8):1584-9. Epub 2015 Dec 20.

Ph.D. of Health Care Management, Associate Professor, Research Center for Environmental Determinants of Health, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Introduction: During the last few decades, healthcare expenditures (HCEs) have increased significantly in Iran and throughout the world. Understanding the determinants of such increases is essential to health policymakers in finding the best policies to manage healthcare costs. This study aimed to determine the impact of some of the key explanatory variables on household healthcare expenditures across the provinces of Iran.

Methods: A panel data econometric model was used to determine the main factors that affected household healthcare expenditures (HHCEs) across the provinces of Iran from March 21, 2006 to February 19, 2013. The data on household healthcare expenditures per capita, number of physicians per 10,000 population, the degree of urbanization, the proportion of the population that was 65 or older, household income per capita, and literacy rate were obtained from the Household Expenditure and Income Survey (HEIS) data in the Statistical Center of Iran. F-Limer and Hausman tests were used to choose the panel data, and Stata V.12 was used to analyze the data.

Results: Our findings indicated that income per capita, physicians per 10,000 population, and the degree of urbanization had significant impacts on healthcare expenditures. Also, the results of the study showed the elasticity of income, physicians, urbanization, proportion of the population 65 or older, and the literacy rate were 0.25 (p < 0.002), 0.37 (p < 0.001), 5.01 (p < 0.001), -0.1 (p < 0.73), and -1.02 (p < 0.082), respectively.

Conclusion: The results of the study indicated that the income elasticity of healthcare expenditures was less than 1; health expenditures were considered to be a "necessity good" across the provinces of Iran during the period that was studied. In addition, there were some other factors that affected healthcare expenditures that were not considered in the study, such as the advancement of new technology and the costs of dying. However, it is recommended that future research examine the effect of these factors on HCEs in Iran.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19082/1584DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4725410PMC
December 2015

Determinants of pharmaceutical expenditures of urban households: A time series study in Kermanshah province (Iran).

Electron Physician 2015 Nov 20;7(7):1470-5. Epub 2015 Nov 20.

Ph.D. Student of Health Economics, Research Center for Environmental Determinants of Health, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Introduction: In recent decades, the development of medical and pharmaceutical science has led to a heavy financial burden on the government, insurance companies, and the general population. Due to the increasing the cost of pharmaceutical products in the Kermanshah Province, policy makers have tried to identify the factors that resulted in the increases. The aim of this study was to determine the main factors that affect the expenditures for pharmaceutical products by urban households in Kermanshah Province, Iran.

Methods: This analytical-descriptive study was conducted using time series method. The study population was urban households of Kermanshah Province from 1991 to 2013. The explanatory variables of the log-log model were drug price index (LnDPI), the average income of urban households (LnINC), the number of physicians per 1,000 people (LnPH), and the number of hospital beds per 1,000 people (LnBE).The required data were acquired from the Statistical Center of the Ministry of Health and Medical Education. The unit root was evaluated by the Dickey-Fuller test. Stata v.11 software was used for the statistical analysis.

Results: Coefficients of LnDPI and LnPH were 0.97 and 0.77, respectively, and they were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Also, the coefficients of D. LnINC (first difference of LnINC) and LnBE were 0.34 and 1.8, respectively, and both of them were statistically insignificant (p > 0.05).

Conclusion: The results showed that drugs are non-elastic and essential for households. It should be noted that the health policy makers in Iran should conduct appropriate planning to ensure both the physical and financial accessibility to drugs by urban households. The development of basic and supplementary health insurance coverage, especially for poor populations and urban areas where there are patients with chronic diseases, can be a suitable solution to reduce barriers to acquiring the required drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19082/1470DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4700892PMC
November 2015

Satisfaction of Iranian Medical Universities' faculty members towards holding Shahid Motahari Annual Educational Festival.

J Adv Med Educ Prof 2015 Oct;3(4):166-71

Department of Public Health, Health School, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Introduction: Shahid Motahari Annual Educational Festival aims to improve the quality of medical education in the Islamic Republic of Iran, and has held since 2008. The present study was performed to determine the satisfaction level of Iranian medical universities' faculty members about holding Shahid Motahari Annual Educational Festival during the past six years, from 2008 to 2014.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 473 faculty members (FMs) including deputies and educational administrators, managers, and faculty members of medical education development centers, members of scientific committees, and faculty members who participated in Shahid Motahari Festival from 42 medical sciences universities in Iran. Data collection instruments were two reliable and valid questionnaires on the background and also participants' satisfaction towards Shahid Motahari Educational Festival. Data were analyzed using SPSS Software, version 14.

Results: Among all participants, 30 FMs (6.3%) were educational deputies, 36 FMs (7.6%) managers of medical education development centers, 226 FMs (56.2%) members of scientific committees, 29 FMs (6.1%) members of the national committees, 343 FMs (27.5%) attendees, and 264 FMs (55.8%) had participated for retraining. The total satisfaction level of the participants was 73.3% which shows a good satisfaction level.

Conclusion: The results identified the main important strength points such as "proposals' review process at the country level" and weakness points such as "organizing the festival".
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4596382PMC
October 2015

Determinant of Road Traffic Crash Fatalities in Iran: A Longitudinal Econometric Analysis.

J Res Health Sci 2015 ;15(3):163-7

Department of Public Health, School of Public Health, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Background: Injuries and deaths from road traffic crashes are one of the main public health problems throughout the world. This study aimed to identify determinants of fatality traffic accident in Iran for the twenty-span year from 1991 to 2011.

Methods: A time series analysis (1991-2011) was used to examine the effects of some of the key explanatory factors (GDP per capita, number of doctors per 10,000 populations, degree of urbanization, unemployment rate and motorization rate) on deaths from road traffic in Iran. In order to examine long- and short-run effects of variables, we employed autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach and error correction method (ECM). The data for the study was obtained from the Central Bank of Iran (CBI), Iranian Statistical Center (ISC) and Legal medical organizations (LMO).

Results: GDP per capita, doctor per 10,000 populations, degree of urbanization and motorization rate had a significant impact on fatality from road traffic in Iran. We did not observe any short- and long-term effects of the unemployment rate on fatality from road traffic.

Conclusion: GDP per capita, doctor per 10,000 populations, degree of urbanization and motorization rate were identified as main determinant of fatality from road traffic accidents in Iran. We hope the results of the current study enable health policy-makers to understand better the factors affecting deaths from road traffic accidents in the country.
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July 2016

Cognitive factors related to drug abuse among a sample of Iranian male medical college students.

Glob J Health Sci 2015 Feb 24;7(5):143-51. Epub 2015 Feb 24.

Assistant professor,Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Abadan College of Medical Sciences and Health Services, Ahvaz, Iran AND kermanshah university of medical sciences, kermanshah,iran.

Backgrounds: Drug abuse is one of the most serious social problems in many countries. College students, particularly at their first year of education, are considered as one of the at risk groups for drug abuse. The present study aimed to determine cognitive factors related to drug abuse among a sample of Iranian male medical college students based on the social cognitive theory (SCT).

Method: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 425 Iranian male medical college students who were randomly selected to participate voluntarily in the study. The participants filled out a self-administered questionnaire. Data were analyzed by the SPSS software (ver. 21.0) using bivariate correlations, logistic and linear regression at 95% significant level.

Results: Attitude, outcome expectation, outcome expectancies, subjective norms, and self-control were cognitive factors that accounted for 49% of the variation in the outcome measure of the intention to abuse drugs.  Logistic regression showed that attitude (OR=1.062), outcome expectancies (OR=1.115), and subjective norms (OR=1.269) were the most influential predictors for drug abuse.

Conclusions: The findings suggest that designing and implementation of educational programs may be useful to increase negative attitude, outcome expectancies, and subjective norms towards drug abuse for college students in order to prevent drug abuse.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/gjhs.v7n5p143DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4803908PMC
February 2015

Chance Constrained Input Relaxation to Congestion in Stochastic DEA. An Application to Iranian Hospitals.

Glob J Health Sci 2015 Jan 1;7(4):151-60. Epub 2015 Jan 1.

Assistant professor,Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Abadan College of Medical Sciences and Health Services, Ahvaz, Iran AND kermanshah university of medical sciences, kermanshah,iran.

This article developed an approached model of congestion, based on relaxed combination of inputs, in stochastic data envelopment analysis (SDEA) with chance constrained programming approaches. Classic data envelopment analysis models with deterministic data have been used by many authors to identify congestion and estimate its levels; however, data envelopment analysis with stochastic data were rarely used to identify congestion. This article used chance constrained programming approaches to replace stochastic models with "deterministic equivalents". This substitution leads us to non-linear problems that should be solved. Finally, the proposed method based on relaxed combination of inputs was used to identify congestion input in six Iranian hospital with one input and two outputs in the period of 2009 to 2012.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/gjhs.v7n4p151DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4802113PMC
January 2015

Socio-demographic characteristics associated with cigarettes smoking, drug abuse and alcohol drinking among male medical university students in Iran.

J Res Health Sci 2015 ;15(1):42-6

Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Yasuj University of Medical Sciences, Yasuj, Iran.

Background: Substance abuse is one of the most complicated social problems. Understanding socio-demographic characteristics of those who abuse substances could help deal with this problem more efficiently. The main objective of this study was to determine socio-demographic characteristics associated with alcohol drinking, cigarettes smoking and drug abuse among a sample of male medical university students in Iran.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014 among 425 male medical college students randomly selected with the proportional to size among different faculties in Isfahan and Kermanshah medical universities in Iran. A self-report written questionnaire was applied to collect data. Data were analyzed by the SPSS-20.

Results: Mean age of the respondents was 19.9 yr (ranging from 18 to 22 yr). About 19.4%, 3.9%, and 10.1% of the respondents had history of cigarette smoking, drug use, and alcohol drinking during the past three months, respectively. Logistic regression showed that mother's educational level, living place, economic status, and parents' divorce were the most influential predictive factors on substance abuse.

Conclusions: Considering the high prevalence of substance abuse (especially smoking and alcohol drinking), it seems essential to design educational interventions to prevent substance abuse, paying attention to predictive factors mentioned above, among college students.
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December 2015

Using the PRECEDE model in understanding determinants of quality of life among Iranian male addicts.

Glob J Health Sci 2014 Jun 25;6(6):19-27. Epub 2014 Jun 25.

Substance Abuse Prevention Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Quality of Life (QOL) in opiate-addicted patients who are receiving methadone maintenance therapy is one of the important issues to be considered in the treatment of addiction. To determine a needs assessment using the PRECEDE model to find out factors related to QOL among Iranian male opiate addicts. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Kermanshah, Iran in 2013. A total of 762 male opiate addicts, who were referred to addiction treatment centers for receiving methadone maintenance treatment, were randomly selected to participate voluntarily in the study. SF-12, predisposing factors, enabling factors, reinforcement factors, and methadone maintenance treatment intention were used to find the related factors. Data were analyzed by the SPSS software (ver. 21.0) using the t-test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), bivariate correlations, and linear regression at 95% significant level. Linear regression analysis showed the determinant variable accounted for 17% of the variation in QOL. Our findings suggest, providing social support for addicts could be beneficial results for the increasing quality of life among them.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/gjhs.v6n6p19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4825525PMC
June 2014

Extent, consequences and economic burden of road traffic crashes in Iran.

J Inj Violence Res 2014 Jul 17;6(2):57-63. Epub 2013 Sep 17.

Department of Health Management and Economics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Email:

Background: Road Traffic Injuries (RTIs) as a result of road traffic crashes (RTCs) rank as the leading cause of death, disability and property loss worldwide, especially in low and middle-income countries. This study aims to analyze the costs of RTCs in Iran.

Methods: A standard human capital approach was used to estimate the costs. Costs included medical, administrative and funeral costs, property damage, production lost and intangible costs. Data about the number of deaths and injuries resulting from RTIs between 20 March 2009 and 20 March 2010 was obtained from two national databases designed at the Center for Disaster Management and Medical Emergencies (CDMME) and the Legal Medicine Organization (LMO), respectively. The severity and medical costs of injuries were identified by reviewing 400 medical records that were selected randomly from patients who were admitted to two large trauma centers in Shariati and Sina hospitals in Tehran province. Moreover, information about production lost, property damage, rehabilitation cost, intangible costs and administration costs were collected by review of current evidence and consulting with expert opinion.

Results: In total 806,922 RTIs and 22,974 deaths resulted from the RTCs in the study period. The total cost of RTCs was about 72,465 billion Rials (7.2 billion US Dollars), which amounts to 2.19% of Iran's Gross Domestic Production (GDP). Direct costs were 3,516 billion Rials (around 48.6 % of the total costs), following by 24,785 billion Rials (around 34.2 % of the total costs) for production lost and 12,513 billion Rials (around 17.2 % of the total costs) for intangible costs.

Conclusions: This study indicated that the burden of both RTCs and RTIs in Iran is substantial. Moreover, RTCs have significant economic consequences and are a large drain on healthcare resources.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5249/jivr.v6i2.191DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4009170PMC
July 2014

Two-year hospital records of burns from a referral center in Western Iran: March 2010-March 2012.

J Inj Violence Res 2014 Jan 6;6(1):31-6. Epub 2013 Jul 6.

School of Public Health, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran. Email:

Background: Burns are among the most common injuries affecting a great number of people worldwide annually. In Iran, especially in its western region and in Kermanshah province, burns have a relatively high incidence. The present study was aimed at investigating epidemiological characteristics in Western Iran.

Methods: Within a cross-sectional study, the data on all patients attending the Burns Center at Imam Khomeini Hospital (Kermanshah, Iran) during 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 (24 months) were collected. Then, age, gender, cause of burns, total body surface area, and time of the occurrence were extracted from the hospital records. The data were analyzed using the SPSS statistical package (Version 19, for Windows). We used chi-squared test when we compared the categorical responses between two or more groups. For comparing means between two groups we used t-test. In addition, trends were investigated using linear regression.

Results: Overall 13,248 people were referred to the Burns Center at Imam Khomeini Hospital (Kermanshah, Iran) during the period of study, including 328 cases of self-immolation. The mean age of the patients was 27±19 years and 29±13 years for unintentional burns and self-immolation respectively. Out of the total number of unintentional cases, 6,519 (50.5%) were men, while the corresponding percentage of men among the self-immolation cases was 16.6% (p less than 0.001). Trends in the number of cases were cyclic, with the highest and lowest number of burns cases being in March and May. Overall, hot liquids and flammable materials were the two most important causes of unintentional burns. However, flammable materials were the main cause of burns among self-immolation cases. During hospital admission, 168 (51%) self-immolation victims and 43 (0.33%) unintentional burn victims died.

Conclusions: While major preventive measures are not adequately used in developing countries, burns and their burden can be significantly reduced by increasing public awareness and by applying simple preventive measures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5249/jivr.v6i1.276DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3865453PMC
January 2014
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