Publications by authors named "Behrouz Ezatpour"

29 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Antimicrobial Activities of Satureja khuzestanica Jamzad; A Review.

Infect Disord Drug Targets 2020 Jun 10. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Razi Herbal Medicines Research Center, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad. Iran.

Satureja khuzestanica Jamzad. is a species native to Iran, highly important in Southwestern regions. It belongs to the Lamiaceae family and grows in different climates. A number of pharmacological properties such as analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, anti-thyroid, antioxidant, and diuretic heve been attributed to this plant. In recent years, a wide range of biological properties, extract, and essential oil of Satureja khuzestanica has been studied by researchers. In the present study, Scopus, SID, ISI, Google Scholar, and PubMed indices were used to extract research articles. No publication time constraint was considered, and the keyword "Satureja khuzestanica" was used to search articles. All extracted articles were examined by two expert researchers and those on the biologic and fundamental science properties of this plan entered the study. Results showed that S. khuzestanica has extensive research and medicinal applications. Considering the economic and medical importance of S. khuzestanica, it is hoped that more extensive studies can be conducted in future on the use of compounds and derivatives of this plant in order to obtain herbal medications to treat pathogens in human and animal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1871526520666200611102009DOI Listing
June 2020

Anti-Candida activity of Curcumin: A review.

Curr Drug Discov Technol 2020 May 17. Epub 2020 May 17.

Hepatitis Research Center, Lorestan University of Sciences f Medical Sciences, Khorramabad. Iran.

Curcumin is one of the important natural compounds that is extracted from turmeric. This compound and its derivatives have numerous biological properties, including antioxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and healing effects. Extensive research in various fields has been conducted on turmeric as it is widely used as a food additive. The significant antifungal activity is one of the major effects of curcumin. In this paper, recent studies on the effects of different forms of curcumin drug on the candidiasis were systematically examined and discussed. The data in this study were extracted from the articles and reports published in the Web of Science, Google Scholar, PubMed, and Scopus databases. After the preliminary investigation, relevant reports were selected and classified based on the incorporated formulation and purpose of the study. After a systematic discussion of the data, it was found that the use of medicinal forms based on nanoparticles can increase the absorption and target the controlled release of curcumin with a more effective role compared to other formulations. Consequently, it can be concluded that new methods of modern medicine can be employed to increase the efficacy of natural pharmaceutical compounds used in the past. In this regard, the present study analyzed the effect of curcumin against various Candida infections using the recent data. It was found that applying a combination of drug formulation or the formulation of curcumin and its derivatives can be an effective strategy to overcome the medicine resistance in fungal infections, especially candidiasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570163817666200518074629DOI Listing
May 2020

Toxoplasma Serology Status and Risk of Miscarriage, A Case-Control Study among Women with A History of Spontaneous Abortion.

Int J Fertil Steril 2019 Oct 14;13(3):184-189. Epub 2019 Jul 14.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran.Electronic

Background: is one of the major causes of abortion in pregnant women. Most cases of abortion occur in the acute phase of infection and early pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between spontaneous abortion and seropositive status of toxoplasmosis in women with first-time spontaneous abortion.

Materials And Methods: This research is a case-control study on 240 serum samples from women experiencing spontaneous abortion for the first time as the case group, and 240 serum samples from women who had a normal delivery with no history of abortion as the control group. The level of anti- IgM and IgG antibodies were assessed in serum samples using ELISA. To separate the acute and chronic infections, all IgM-positive samples in both groups and IgG-positive samples of the case group were examined using IgG avidity.

Results: The IgM antibody was detected in 3.3% (8/240) of the case group and 0.4% (1/240) of the control group, which was a statistically significant difference between the two groups [P=0.019, odds ratio (OR)=10.266]. Of all samples 47.5% and 46.3% of the case and control groups were positive for IgG antibody, respectively. Seven out of 8 (87.5%) IgM-positive serum samples from the case group had low IgG avidity, indicating acute infections, whereas all IgG-positive sera and 1 IgM-positive serum, which was related to the control group, showed a high IgG avidity, indicating chronic infections.

Conclusion: Maternal acute during pregnancy is raised as one of the factors that increase the chance of spontaneous abortion. The necessary health training, especially on the parasite transmission ways to women before marriage, as well as the serological test in women before and during pregnancy is recommended. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and IgG avidity assays should be performed in the medical diagnostic laboratories for accurate distinguishing of the initial infection of toxoplasmosis in the pregnant women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22074/ijfs.2019.5740DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6642426PMC
October 2019

The Prevalence of Endoparasites in Stray Cats in Western Iran.

Iran J Public Health 2019 Apr;48(4):779-781

Department of Social Medicine, Medical School, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran.

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6500544PMC
April 2019

The Effect of Prangos Ferulacea Vaginal Cream on Accelerating the Recovery of Bacterial Vaginosis: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

Int J Community Based Nurs Midwifery 2018 Apr;6(2):100-110

National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Department of the International Affairs of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: The present study was conducted on the effect of prangos ferulacea vaginal cream on accelerating the recovery of bacterial vaginosis.

Methods: This randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 100 non-pregnant women referring to health centers affiliated to Lorestan University of Medical Sciences in 2016 with the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis based on the patient's complaints, Amsel's clinical criteria, and the Nugent microscopic criteria. The women were randomly divided into two groups of 50. One group was treated with oral metronidazole plus Prangos ferulacea vaginal cream and the other with oral metronidazole plus a placebo vaginal cream for seven days. The patient's complaints, Amsel's clinical criteria and the Nugent microscopic criteria were assessed seven days after treatment. The data were analyzed using SPSS, version 20, with a significance level of 0.05.

Results: The response to oral metronidazole plus Prangos ferulacea vaginal cream treatment was 94% according to Amsel's clinical criteria and 88% according to the Nugent microscopic criteria. The response to oral metronidazole plus placebo vaginal cream treatment was 94% according to Amsel's criteria and 86% according to the Nugent criteria. The analysis of the patients' complaints, Amsel's clinical criteria and the Nugent microscopic criteria showed significant differences in each group before and after the treatment.

Conclusion: This trial showed that Prangos ferulacea vaginal cream accelerated the recovery of bacterial vaginosis of patients with bacterial vaginosis. It can be used effectively as a complementary treatment with oral metronidazole in cases of medication resistance and also in people wishing to use herbal remedies IRCT2016042327534N1.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5845114PMC
April 2018

INVESTIGATION ON CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, ANTIMICROBIAL, ANTIOXIDANT, AND CYTOTOXIC PROPERTIES OF ESSENTIAL OIL FROM BOISS.

Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med 2017 1;14(3):209-217. Epub 2017 Mar 1.

Razi Herbal Medicines Research Center, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences.

Background: Boiss is a herb with wide-spread applications. Lorestan traditional healers have applied it for the treatment of rheumatoid diseases and stomach disorders.

Materials And Methods: Hydrodistillation process was used for essential oil extraction, the extracted essential oil was then analyzed through combination of capillary GC-FID, GC-MS and RI. The antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of this essential oil were examined. Results indicate that the essential oil has a broad range of anti-microbial activity against all of the tested microorganisms.

Results: The 50% of cytotoxic concentrations was 26.4 μg/ml and 4266.7 μg/ml for Hela cells and human lymphocytes, respectively. The oil cytotoxicity against the human tumor cell line was far higher than the amount required for human healthy cells. Conversely, the essential oil's IC value of 49.2 μg/ml in the DPPH assay, could be regarded as its strong antioxidant potential.

Conclusion: According to the data obtained, it can be concluded that essential oil could be applied as a safe antibacterial and antioxidant agent for food and pharmaceutical purposes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21010/ajtcam.v14i3.23DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5412227PMC
August 2017

Report: Evaluation of the scolicidal effects of Nectaroscordum tripedale extract and its acute toxicity in mice model.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2016 Nov;29(6):2125-2128

Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran.

Current scolicidal agents, which have been used for inactivation of protoscoleces during hydatid cyst surgery are associated with adverse side effects. This study aims to evaluate the in vitro scolicidal effects of Nectaroscordum tripedale L. leave extract against protoscoleces of hydatid cysts and its acute toxicity in mice model. Various concentrations of the extract (12.5-100 mg/mL) were used for 5 to 30 min. Viability of protoscoleces was confirmed using eosin exclusion test (0.1% eosin staining). In addition, the acute toxicity of N. tripedale extract was determined for 2 days in mice model. The results showed that the N. tripedale extract at the concentration of 100 mg/mL after 5 min of exposure killed 100% protoscoleces. Similarly, the mean of mortality rate of protoscoleces after 10 min of exposure to concentration of 50 mg/mL was 100%. The LD values of intraperitoneal injection of the N. tripedale extract was 3.36 g/kg body wt. and the maximum nonfatal doses were 2.98 g/kg body wt. The results showed the potential of N. tripedale extract as a natural source for the production of new scolicidal agent for use in hydatid cyst surgery.
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November 2016

Seroepidemiology of infection in pregnant women in west Iran: determined by ELISA and PCR analysis.

J Parasit Dis 2017 Mar 2;41(1):237-242. Epub 2016 Jun 2.

Razi Herbal Medicines Research Center, Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran.

Congenital toxoplasmosis can lead to severe damage for the fetus and newborn. Considering that the seroepidemiology of infection in the pregnant women is poorly studied in west of Iran, the main objective of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence and potential risk factors for congenital toxoplasmosis in Delfan, Iran. In this cross-sectional study, the serum samples obtained from pregnant women who were referred to health centers for routine monitoring of the pregnancy. Totally, 264 sera were screened for IgG and IgM anti- antibodies by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay method. All women with IgM anti- positive checked by RT-PCR and confirmed. In addition, structured questionnaires were used to obtain information on risk factors for infection. Anti- IgG and IgM were positive in 66 (25 %) and 15 (5.7 %) respectively. Seropositive subjects were more frequently seen in those with >30 years old compared to younger women (<25 years old) ( < 0.001). No significant relationship was found between the seroprevalence of infection and level of education, and gestational age ( > 0.05), while there was statistical difference between the infection with cat exposure, consumption of raw/undercooked meat, eating raw or uncooked eggs, consumption of unwashed vegetables and drinking unpasteurized milk ( < 0.001). In the present study, it was found that infection was present among pregnant women in west of Iran. Therefore, it is suggested to provide health education for preventing primary infection during pregnancy and subsequently congenital toxoplasmosis in the pregnant women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12639-016-0784-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5339206PMC
March 2017

Efficacy and Safety of Bunium Persicum (Boiss) to Inactivate Protoscoleces during Hydatid Cyst Operations.

Surg Infect (Larchmt) 2016 Dec 8;17(6):713-719. Epub 2016 Aug 8.

4 Department of Surgery, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences , Khorramabad, Iran .

Background: Current scolicidal agents, which have been used for inactivation of protoscoleces during surgical procedures, are associated with adverse side effects including sclerosing cholangitis. This investigation aimed to evaluate the scolicidal effects of Bunium persicum (Boiss) essential oil against protoscoleces of hydatid cysts and also its toxicity in a mice model.

Methods: Protoscoleces were aseptically aspirated from sheep livers having hydatid cysts. Various concentrations of the essential oil (3.125-50 mcL/mL) were used for 5-30 min. The viability of protoscoleces was confirmed using the eosin exclusion test (0.1% eosin staining). Further, 48 male NMRI mice were used to determine the acute and sub-acute toxicity of B. persicum essential oil.

Results: The obtained results revealed that the B. persicum essential oil at the concentrations of 25 and 50 mcL/mL after 5 min of exposure killed 100% protoscoleces. The mean mortality rate of protoscoleces after 10 min of exposure to the concentration of 12.5 mcL/mL was 100%. Lower concentrations (6.25 and 3.125 mcL/mL) of B. persicum essential oil, however, indicated a delayed protoscolicidal effects. The LD value of intra-peritoneal injection of the B. persicum essential oil was 1.96 mL/kg body wt. No significant difference (p > 0.05) was observed in the clinical chemistry and hematologic parameters after oral administrations of B. persicum essential oil at the doses 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, and 4 mL/kg for 14 d.

Conclusion: Our findings demonstrated the potent scolicidal activity of B. persicum with no significant toxicity; it might be used as a natural scolicidal agent in hydatid cyst surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/sur.2016.010DOI Listing
December 2016

Antileishmanial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic activities of Quercus infectoria Olivier extract.

Biomed Pharmacother 2016 Aug 12;82:208-15. Epub 2016 May 12.

Environmental Health Research Center, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran.

Currently, there is no effective vaccine available, and chemotherapy is the main approach for treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). During recent decades, studies have demonstrated that a number of plant-derived compounds may act as new therapeutic tools against leishmaniasis. This study was evaluated the antileishmanial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic activities of Quercus infectoria Olivier (oak) extract. The total amount of phenolic and flavonoid compounds was measured in oak extract. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis was also performed to determine the amount of quercetin and gallic acid in this plant. This extract (0-80g/mL) was evaluated in vitro against promastigote and intracellular amastigote forms of Leishmania major (MRHO/IR/75/ER) using MTT assay and in a macro-phage model, respectively. Then oak extract was tested on CL in infected male BALB/c mice with L. major in order to evaluate the antileishmanial activity topically. Moreover, cytotoxicity effects of oak in murine macrophage cells were tested by MTT assay. Antioxidative activity of oak was also determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1,1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging test. The amount of phenolic and flavonoid compounds in the oak extract was 57.50 and 1.86%, respectively. The amount of quercetin and gallic acid in the oak extract was 0.0064 and 0.22%, respectively. The findings revealed that oak significantly (P<0.05) inhibited the growth rate of promastigote of (IC50 12.65μg/mL) and amastigotes (IC50 10.31μg/mL) as a dose-dependent response. In the in vivo assay, after 4 weeks of treatment, 91.6, 66.66, and 50% recovery was observed in the infected mice treated with 20, 10, and 5mg/kg of oak extract, respectively. After treatment of the infected mice with the concentration of 10 and 20mg/kg of oak, the mean diameter of lesions, parasite load and mean number of parasites was significantly (P<0.05) reduced. Selectivity index of greater than 10 for oak revealed that oak extract had no cytotoxic effects on macrophage cells. Moreover, DPPH test demonstrated that radical inhibition occurred at greater power with increasing the concentration of oak. To conclude, the present study showed potent antileishmanial and antioxidant activity of oak extract; whereas this plant had no toxic effect on mammalian cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2016.04.040DOI Listing
August 2016

Biochemical effects of oleuropein in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

ARYA Atheroscler 2016 Mar;12(2):87-93

Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran.

Background: Oleuropein is a natural antioxidant and scavenging free radicals. In the present study, we examined effect of oleuropein on the paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity, lipid peroxidation, lipid profile, atherogenic indexes, and relationship of PON1 activity by high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and atherogenic indices in gentamicin (GM)-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

Methods: This is a lab trial study in Khorramabad, Lorestan province of Iran (2013). 30 Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups to receive saline; GM, 100 mg/kg/day; and GM plus oleuropein by 15 mg/kg intraperitoneal daily, respectively. After 12 days, animals were anesthetized, blood samples were also collected before killing to measure the levels of triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and very LDL (VLDL), HDL-C, atherogenic index, lipid peroxidation, and the activities of PON1 of all groups were analyzed. Data were analyzed, and P < 0.050 was considered significant.

Results: Oleuropein significantly decreased lipid peroxidation, TG, TC, LDL, VLDL, atherogenic index, atherogenic coefficient (AC), and cardiac risk ratio (CRR). HDL-C level was significantly increased when treated with oleuropein. The activity of PON1 in treated animals was (62.64 ± 8.68) that it was significantly higher than untreated animals (47.06 ± 4.10) (P = 0.047). The activity of PON1 in the untreated nephrotoxic rats was significantly lower than that of control animals (77.84 ± 9.43) (P = 0.030). Furthermore, the activity of PON1 correlated positively with HDL-C and negatively with AC, CRR 1, and CRR 2 in the treated group with oleuropein.

Conclusion: This study showed that oleuropein improves PON1 activity, lipid profile, and atherogenic index and can probably decrease the risk of cardiovascular death in nephrotoxic patients.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4933747PMC
March 2016

Seroprevalence of Human Fasciolosis in Pirabad, Lorestan Province, Western Iran.

Iran J Parasitol 2016 Jan-Mar;11(1):24-9

Dept. of Parasitology and Mycology, School of Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: The purpose of this study was to perform seroepidemiological investigation for determining the status of human fasciolosis in Pirabad Village, Lorestan Province, western Iran.

Methods: Blood samples were taken from residents of the village including 801 individuals. Sera were separated and stored at -20°C until used. The samples were analyzed using ELISA.

Results: Anti-Fasciola antibodies were detected in 6 (0.7%) individuals. Difference between age, sex and drinking or swimming in the surface water with seropositivity to fasciolosis was not significant. Out of 7 shepherds, 1 (14.3%) was seropositive. Due to the small number of shepherds, comprehensive statistical inference in this regard cannot be done. Significant difference was detected between seropositivity to fasciolosis and consuming local freshwater vegetables during the last 6 months (P=0.001).

Conclusion: Metacercariae carrying local freshwater plants might be the main source of contamination because consumption of these kinds of vegetables was confirmed by all participants. Awareness of local communities regarding the danger of freshwater plant consumption, through health education programs, will decrease the risk of infection.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4835466PMC
April 2016

In Vitro and In Vivo Antileishmanial Activities of Pistacia vera Essential Oil.

Planta Med 2016 Mar 1;82(4):279-84. Epub 2016 Feb 1.

Young Researchers and Elite Club, Islamic Azad University, Khorramabad Branch, Khorramabad, Iran.

This study aims to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo antileishmanial activities of Pistacia vera essential oil and compare their efficacy with a reference drug, meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime®). This essential oil (0-100 µg/mL) was evaluated in vitro against the intracellular amastigote forms of Leishmania tropica (MHOM/IR/2002/Mash2) and then tested on cutaneous leishmaniasis of male BALB/c mice by Leishmania major (MRHO/IR/75/ER). In the in vitro assay, it could be observed that P. vera essential oil significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited the growth rate of amastigote forms (IC50 of 21.3 ± 2.1 µg/mL) in a dose-dependent response compared with the control drug. Meglumine antimoniate also demonstrated antileishmanial effects with an IC50 value of 44.6 ± 2.5 µg/mL for this clinical stage. In the in vivo assay, the results indicated that 30 mg/mL of the essential oil had potent suppression effects on cutaneous leishmaniasis in BALB/c mice (87.5% recovery), while 10 and 20 mg/mL of the essential oil represented the suppression effects as weak to intermediate. The mean diameter of the lesions decreased about 0.11 and 0.27 cm after the treatment of the subgroups with the essential oil concentrations of 10 and 20 mg/mL, respectively. In contrast, in the subgroup treated with the essential oil concentration of 30 mg/mL, the mean diameter of the lesions decreased about 0.56 cm. In the control subgroups, the mean diameter of the lesions increased to 1.01 cm. The main components of P. vera essential oil were limonene (26.21%), α-pinene (18.07%), and α-thujene (9.31%). It was also found that P. vera essential oil had no significant cytotoxic effect on J774 cells. The present study found that P. vera essential oil showed considerable in vitro and in vivo effectiveness against L. tropica and L. major compared to the reference drug. These findings also provided the scientific evidence that natural plants could be used in traditional medicine for the prevention and treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0035-1558209DOI Listing
March 2016

Prevalence of liver fluke infections in slaughtered animals in Lorestan, Iran.

J Parasit Dis 2015 Dec 22;39(4):725-9. Epub 2014 Jan 22.

Medical School, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Fasciola spp. and Dicrocoelium dendriticum as liver flukes, contaminate ruminants and other mammalian extensively and cause major diseases of livestock that create considerable economic losses. This retrospective study has been done to evaluate contamination rate of slaughtered animals with fasciolosis and dicrocoeliosis at Lorestan abattoirs. In this survey, prevalence rate of fasciolosis and dicrocoeliosis in slaughtered animals in a 3-year period (2010-2013) has been analyzed. A total of 356,605 livestock including 265,692 sheep and 90,913 goats were slaughtered in the 3-year period and overall 39,613 (11.1 %) livers were condemned. Fascioliasis and dicrocoeliosis were responsible for 6.3 and 4.8 % of total liver condemnations in this period, respectively. Fasciola spp. and D. dendriticum infection in sheep (7.1 and 5.6 %, respectively) were considerably higher than goats (3.9 and 2.6 %, respectively). The annual prevalence rates showed a significant decline in the fasciolosis and dicrocoeliosis infection in goats (p < 0.001). Data showed significant seasonal pattern for distomatosis in sheep and goats (p < 0.001). Liver condemnations due to fasciolosis were prevalent in sheep and goats slaughtered during spring and autumn, respectively, whereas dicrocoeliosis were common in spring season for both sheep and goats. This survey provides baseline data for the future monitoring of these potentially important parasitic infections in the region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12639-014-0428-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4675594PMC
December 2015

First report of birds infection by intestinal parasites in Khorramabad, west Iran.

J Parasit Dis 2015 Dec 23;39(4):720-4. Epub 2014 Jan 23.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Islamic Azad University of Karaj, Karaj, Iran.

Parasitic infections in birds are omnipresent, even when they occur in low amounts, may result in subclinical diseases. There aren't any studies, based on Iranian data, investigating the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in some birds' species. We conducted a cross-sectional study between December 2011 and December 2012. The fecal samples were taken from 451 birds including hen, turkey, sparrow, pigeon and decorative birds. The samples screened for intestinal parasitic infections using direct smear, formalin-ether concentration technique, modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining, Culture in RPMI 1640 medium, sporulation with potassium dichromate and Trichrome and Giemsa staining. Out of 451 birds' species, 157 (34.8 %), were infected with one or more type of intestinal parasites. We identified two nematode, two cestoda species and five protozoan parasites species. No trematodes were found in the samples studied. The parasites identified among birds involved Raillietina spp. (4.2 %) and Eimeria spp. (7.1 %) were the most common helminthes and protozoa respectively. From total of birds study, 12 (2.7 %) and 6 (1.3 %) have two and three mixed infections respectively. Intestinal parasitic infections are common in birds in west Iran. The future studies are needed in order to determine to which extent the infections influence mortality and performance of the birds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12639-014-0427-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4675573PMC
December 2015

Mutation analysis of SLC3A1 and SLC7A9 genes in patients with cystinuria.

Urolithiasis 2015 Oct 30;43(5):447-53. Epub 2015 Jun 30.

Pediatric Inherited Diseases Research Center, Research Institute for Primordial Prevention of Non-communicable disease, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Cystinuria is an autosomal inherited disorder of renal reabsorption of cystine, arginine, lysine, and ornithine. Increased urinary excretion of cystine results in the formation of kidney stones. Considering the few studies on the genetic basis of the cystinuria in the Middle East and the population-specific distribution of mutations in the SLC3A1 and SLC7A9 genes, in the present study, mutation analysis of these two genes was performed in a cohort of Iranian patients with cystinuria. Thirty unrelated cystinuria patients were analyzed for four of the most common mutations using ARMS-PCR (M467T, T216M) and RFLP-PCR (G105R, R333W) methods. For negative sample, two exons of both genes, which harbor many mutations, were subject to DNA sequencing. Eight variants were identified including missense, polymorphism, intron variant, and a novel variant. The most frequent mutations were not detected in our patients and only G105R was found. Since the molecular genetic testing results may influence the therapy and prognosis of cystinuria, this paper contributes to understanding of the molecular basis of cystinuria in the Iranian patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00240-015-0794-0DOI Listing
October 2015

Importance of cystic echinococcosis in slaughtered herbivores from Iran.

J Parasit Dis 2015 Jun 20;39(2):234-7. Epub 2013 Jun 20.

Department of Biostatistics, School of Health and Nutrition, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran.

Cystic echinococcosis (CE) or hydatidosis is well-known as one of the zoonotic diseases in world-wide including Iran. Hydatidosis was considered as a disease that causes severe reduction in meat wool and milk in livestock animals which all of them indicating its importance. Thus, present study was designed to evaluated prevalence of CE in slaughtered animals from Delfan region in Lorestan province of Iran. The samples 6,885 animals were considered based on type of species in a slaughter from Lorestan province. The study performed from 3 April 2009 to 3 April 2012 and inspection carried out from 4,101 cattle, 2,150 sheep and 634 goat. The liver and lungs examined based on CE and showed the highest prevalence in cattle (25.7 %) and the lowest 3.8 % in goat, likewise, CE was more in the lung than to liver. There was significant difference between species of animals and infected organ (P < 0.001). The highest prevalence was seen in winter (32.8 % for cattle, 8.1 % for goat) while, it was 15.7 % for sheep in summer (P = 0.04). Overall these data indicate the necessity of disease control strategy for reduction of CE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12639-013-0328-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4456532PMC
June 2015

In Vitro and In Vivo Antileishmanial Effects of Pistacia khinjuk against Leishmania tropica and Leishmania major.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2015 28;2015:149707. Epub 2015 Feb 28.

Razi Herbal Medicines Research Center, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad 6814994688, Iran.

The present study aims to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo antileishmanial activities of Pistacia khinjuk Stocks (Anacardiaceae) alcoholic extract and to compare its efficacy with a reference drug, meglumine antimoniate (MA, Glucantime), against Leishmania tropica and Leishmania major. This extract (0-100 µg/mL) was evaluated in vitro against promastigote and intracellular amastigote forms of L. tropica (MRHO/IR/75/ER) and then tested on cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in male BALB/c mice with L. major to reproduce the antileishmanial activity topically. In vitro, P. khinjuk extract significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited the growth rate of promastigote (IC50 58.6 ± 3.2 µg/mL) and intramacrophage amastigotes (37.3 ± 2.5 µg/mL) of L. tropica as a dose-dependent response. In the in vivo assay, after 30 days of treatment, 75% recovery was observed in the infected mice treated with 30% extract. After treatment of the subgroups with the concentration of 20 and 30% of P. khinjuk extract, mean diameter of lesions was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced. To conclude, the present investigation demonstrated that P. vera extract had in vitro and in vivo effectiveness against L. major. Obtained findings also provide the scientific evidences that natural plants could be used in the traditional medicine for the prevention and treatment of CL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/149707DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4359887PMC
March 2015

Protoscolecidal Effect of Berberis vulgaris Root Extract and Its Main Compound, Berberine in Cystic Echinococcosis.

Iran J Parasitol 2014 Oct-Dec;9(4):503-10

Research Center for Hydatid Disease in Iran, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Background: Cystic echinococcosis (CE), a zoonotic parasitic infection caused by the metacestode (larvae) stage of dog tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus and recognized as a major economic and public health concern in the world. This study aimed to investigate the in vitro scolicidal effect of methanolic extract of Berberis vulgaris L. roots and its main compound, berberine against protoscoleces of hydatid cysts.

Methods: For this purpose, protoscoleces were aseptically aspirated from sheep livers having hydatid cysts. Various concentrations of the methanolic extract (0.25-2 mg/ml) and berberine (0.062- 0.5 mg/ml) were used for 5 to 30 min. Viability of protoscoleces was confirmed by eosin exclusive test.

Results: In the present study, all of the various concentrations of the B. vulgaris methanolic extract (0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2 mg/ml) and berberine (0.062, 0.125, 0.25 and 0.5 mg/ml) revealed significant (P<0.05) scolicidal effects against protoscoleces of E. granulosus in a dose-dependent manner. Both berberine and methanolic extract exhibited 100% inhibition against protoscoleces of E. granulosus at the concentration of 2.0 and 0.5 mg/ml after 10 min incubation, respectively.

Conclusion: According to the results, both B. vulgaris methanolic extract and berberine alone demonstrated high scolicidal activities against protoscoleces of hydatid cysts in low concentration and short exposure time on in vitro model. However, in vivo efficacy of B. vulgaris and berberine also requires to be evaluated using an animal model with hydatid infection.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4345089PMC
March 2015

Seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in mentally retarded patients in Iranian rehabilitation centers.

J Parasit Dis 2015 Mar 8;39(1):13-7. Epub 2013 Sep 8.

Division of Nursing, Shahid Modarres Hospital, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most common causes of latent infections in humans and animals. Although T. gondii infection is widely prevalent in the world, most acquired cases of the disease are asymptomatic. The important aspect of this parasitic infection is the probable danger of congenital transmission and its severe effects on the fetus. There have been many reports about the prevalence of anti-T. gondii antibody among different groups of people in Iran; however the epidemiological data in mentally retarded patients are rare. The present study was conducted on 158 mentally retarded persons (94 males, 64 females) in the rehabilitation centers of Khoramabad from autumn 2012 to winter 2013. The overall prevalence of anti-T. gondii antibody was 30.4 % (48 cases). There were no significant difference between sex and toxoplasmosis (p > 0.05). However, there were no statistically significant difference between age and toxoplasmosis, nevertheless the prevalence of toxoplasmosis in the patients less than 10-years-old had significantly the lowest rate. The highest infection rates were found in the two age groups of 10-19 and ≥30 years old. Our results showed that the prevalence of toxoplasmosis in the mentally retarded persons in the rehabilitation centers of Khorramabad was similar to the prevalence in pregnant women in this city. Therefore, the disease does not cause additional danger to this group of women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12639-013-0358-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4328019PMC
March 2015

In Vitro Inhibitory Effect of Berberis vulgaris (Berberidaceae) and Its Main Component, Berberine against Different Leishmania Species.

Iran J Parasitol 2014 Mar;9(1):28-36

Dept. of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran ; Leishmaniasis Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Background: Leishmaniasis has been identified as a major public health problem in tropical and sub-tropical countries. The present study was aimed to investigate antileishmanial effects of various extracts of Berberis vulgaris also its active compoenent, berberine against Leishmania tropica and L. infantum species on in vitro experiments.

Methods: In this study in vitro antileishmanial activity of various extracts of B. vulgaris also its active compoenent, berberine against promastigote and amastigote stages of L. tropica and L. infantum was evaluated, using MTT assay and in a macrophage model, respectively. Furthermore, infectivity rate and cytotoxicity effects of B. vulgaris and berberine in murine macrophage cells were investigated.

Results: The findings of optical density (OD) and IC50 indicated that B. vulgaris particulary berberine significantly (P<0.05) inhibited the growth rate of promastigote stage of L.tropica and L.infantum in comparison to meglumine antimoniate (MA). In addition, B. vulgaris and berberine significantly (P<0.05) decreased the mean number of amastigotes in each macrophage as compared with positive control. In the evaluation of cytotoxicity effects, it could be observed that berberine as compared with B. vulgaris exhibited more cytotoxicity against murine macrophages. Results also showed that when parasites were pre-incubated with B. vulgaris their ability to infect murine macrophages was significantly decreased.

Conclusion: B.vulgaris particularly berberine exhibited potent in vitro leishmanicidal effects against L. tropica and L.infantum. Further works are required to evaluate the antileishmanial effects of B.vulgaris on Leishmania species using clinical settings.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4289877PMC
March 2014

Cystinuria in a patient with a novel mutation in SLC7A9 gene.

Iran J Kidney Dis 2015 Jan;9(1):63-6

Pediatrics Inherited Diseases Research Center and Department of Genetics and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Cystinuria, one of the first inborn errors of metabolism, is characterized by hyperexcretion of cystine, arginine, lysine, and ornithine into urine. Cystinuria is genetically classified into types A and B. Mutations in the SLC3A1 gene lead to type A, and type B is caused by mutations in the SLC7A9 gene. We described a 19-year-old woman that had early onset of cystine calculus formation at the age of 3 years. After DNA extraction and polymerase chain reaction, direct sequencing was performed. By these methods, a novel nucleotide substitution c.177G>A in exon 3 of the SLC7A9 gene was found, which had not been reported elsewhere previously. This nucleotide substitution occurs in the extracellular domain of the SLC7A9 gene. In addition, a previously described intron variant c.1136+2/3delT (intron 6 of SLC3A1) in homozygosity status was detected in the patient. To our knowledge, this is the first report of novel nucleotide substitution c.177G>A in exon 3 of the SLC7A9 gene.
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January 2015

Scolicidal effects of black cumin seed (Nigella sativa) essential oil on hydatid cysts.

Korean J Parasitol 2014 Dec 23;52(6):653-9. Epub 2014 Dec 23.

Research Center for Hydatid Disease in Iran, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Surgery remains the preferred treatment for hydatid cyst (cystic echinococcosis, CE). Various scolicidal agents have been used for inactivation of protoscolices during surgery, but most of them are associated with adverse side effects. The present study aimed to evaluate the in vitro scolicidal effect of Nigella sativa (Ranunculaceae) essential oil and also its active principle, thymoquinone, against protoscolices of hydatid cysts. Protoscolices were aseptically aspirated from sheep livers having hydatid cysts. Various concentrations of the essential oil (0.01-10 mg/ml) and thymoquinone (0.125-1.0 mg/ml) were used for 5 to 60 min. Viability of protoscolices was confirmed by 0.1% eosin staining. Furthermore, the components of the N. sativa essential oil were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). Our study revealed that the essential oil of N. sativa at the concentration of 10 mg/ml and its main component, thymoquinone, at the concentration of 1 mg/ml had potent scolicidal activities against protoscolices of Echinococcus granulosus after 10 min exposure. Moreover, thymoquinone (42.4%), p-cymene (14.1%), carvacrol (10.3%), and longifolene (6.1%) were found to be the major components of N. sativa essential oil by GC/MS analysis. The results of this study indicated the potential of N. sativa as a natural source for production of a new scolicidal agent for use in hydatid cyst surgery. However, further studies will be needed to confirm these results by checking the essential oil and its active component in in vivo models.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3347/kjp.2014.52.6.653DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4277028PMC
December 2014

Leishmanicidal and cytotoxic activities of Nigella sativa and its active principle, thymoquinone.

Pharm Biol 2015 Jul 4;53(7):1052-7. Epub 2014 Dec 4.

Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences , Kerman , Iran .

Context: Leishmaniasis is a complex disease with a broad spectrum of clinical presentations.

Objective: We evaluated the anti-leishmanial effects of Nigella sativa L. (Ranunculaceae) against Leishmania tropica and Leishmania infantum with an in vitro model.

Materials And Methods: Antileishmanial effects of essential oil and methanolic extract of N. sativa (0-200 µg/mL) and thymoquinone (0-25 µg/mL) on promastigotes of both species and their cytotoxicity activities against murine macrophages were evaluated using the MTT assay at 24, 48, and 72 h. Moreover, their leishmanicidal effects against amastigotes were investigated in a macrophage model, for 48 and 72 h.

Results: The findings showed that essential oil (L. tropica IC50 9.3 μg/mL and L. infantum IC50 11.7 μg/mL) and methanolic extract (L. tropica IC50 14.8 μg/mL and L. infantum IC50 15.7 μg/mL) of N. sativa, particularly thymoquinone (L. tropica IC50 1.16 μg/mL and L. infantum IC50 1.47 μg/mL), had potent antileishmanial activity on promastigotes of both species after 72 h. In addition, essential oil (L. tropica IC50 21.4 μg/mL and L. infantum IC50 26.3 μg/mL), methanolic extract (L. tropica IC50 30.8 μg/mL and L. infantum IC50 34.6 μg/mL), and thymoquinone (L. tropica IC50 2.1 μg/mL and L. infantum IC50 2.6 μg/mL) mediated a significant decrease in the growth rate of amastigote forms of both species. Thymoquinone (CC50 38.8 μg/mL) exhibited higher cytotoxic effects against murine macrophages than the other extracts.

Conclusion: N. sativa, especially its active principle, thymoquinone, showed a potent leishmanicidal activity against L. tropica and L.infantum with an in vitro model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/13880209.2014.957784DOI Listing
July 2015

Antifungal, Antileishmanial, and Cytotoxicity Activities of Various Extracts of Berberis vulgaris (Berberidaceae) and Its Active Principle Berberine.

ISRN Pharmacol 2014 10;2014:602436. Epub 2014 Mar 10.

Leishmaniasis Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman 76169-14119, Iran ; Razi Herbal Medicines Research Center, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad 68138-33946, Iran.

In this study, in vitro antidermatophytic activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis, and Microsporum gypseum was studied by disk diffusion test and assessment of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) using CLSI broth macrodilution method (M38-A2). Moreover, antileishmanial and cytotoxicity activity of B. vulgaris and berberine against promastigotes of Leishmania major and Leishmania tropica were evaluated by colorimetric MTT assay. The findings indicated that the various extracts of B. vulgaris particularly berberine showed high potential antidermatophytic against pathogenic dermatophytes tested with MIC values varying from 0.125 to >4 mg/mL. The results revealed that B. vulgaris extracts as well as berberine were effective in inhibiting L. major and L. tropica promastigotes growth in a dose-dependent manner with IC50 (50% inhibitory concentration) values varying from 2.1 to 26.6  μ g/mL. Moreover, it could be observed that berberine as compared with B. vulgaris exhibited more cytotoxicity against murine macrophages with CC50 (cytotoxicity concentration for 50% of cells) values varying from 27.3 to 362.6  μ g/mL. Results of this investigation were the first step in the search for new antidermatophytic and antileishmanial drugs. However, further works are required to evaluate exact effect of these extracts in animal models as well as volunteer human subjects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/602436DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3964876PMC
June 2014

Prevalence of intestinal parasites among food handlers in Western Iran.

Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 2014 Mar-Apr;56(2):111-4

Department of Parasitology and Mycology, Razi Herbal Medicines Research Center, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, 381351698, Department of Parasitology and Mycology, Razi Herbal Medicines Research Center, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran. Tel/Fax: +98 661 6200133, P.O. Box: 381351698.

Parasitic infection is one of the problems that affect human health, especially in developing countries. In this study, all of the fast food shops, restaurants, and roast meat outlets of Khorramabad (Western Iran) and all the staff employed by them, some 210 people, were selected through a census and their stools were examined for the presence of parasites. The parasitological tests of direct wet-mount, Lugol's iodine staining, formaldehyde-ether sedimentation and Trichrome staining techniques were performed on the samples. The data was analyzed with a chi-square test and logistic regression was selected as the analytical model. The results showed 19 (9%) stool specimens were positive for different intestinal parasites. These intestinal parasites included Giardia lamblia 2.9%, Entamoeba coli 4.3%, Blastocystis sp. 1.4%, and Hymenolepis nana 0.5%. There was a significant difference between the presence of a valid health card, awareness of transmission of intestinal parasites, participation in training courses in environmental health with intestinal parasites (p < 0.05). No statistically significant difference was found between the rate of literacy and gender among patients infected with intestinal parasites (p > 0.05). To control parasitic infection in food handlers, several strategies are recommended such as stool examinations every three months, public education, application of health regulations, controlling the validity of health cards and training on parasitic infection transmission. In this regard, the findings of the present study can be used as a basis to develop preventive programs targeting food handlers because the spread of disease via them is a common problem worldwide.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0036-46652014000200004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4085852PMC
May 2014

The effect of aqueous cinnamon extract on the apoptotic process in acute myeloid leukemia HL-60 cells.

Adv Biomed Res 2013 6;2:25. Epub 2013 Mar 6.

Razi Herbal Medicines Research Center, Lorestan University of Medical sciences, Khorramabad, Iran.

Background: Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is an acute leukemia diagnosed by translocation of chromosomes 15 and 17 [T (15,17)] and aggregation of neoplastic promyelocytes which are incapable of being converted into mature cells. Today, many tend to use medicinal herbs in studies and clinical applications for treatment of cancers. Cinnamon with scientific name "cinnamomumzelanicum" is a shrub of Laurales order, lauraceae family with cinnamomum genus. It is a medicinal shrub with anti-proliferation effect on tumor cells. This study was conducted to determine the effects of aqueous cinnamon extract on HL-60 cells as a model for APL.

Materials And Methods: In this in vitro experimental study, HL-60 cell line was cultured under the influence of cinnamon extract's concentrations of 0.01, 0.1, 1, and 2 mg/ml in with intervals of 24, 48, and 72 h. Growth inhibition and toxic effects of cinnamon extract were evaluated through tetrazolium salt reduction. The effect of this herb on the cell cycle was studied by flow cytometry. The Hoechst stain was used to detect apoptotic cell nuclei.

Results: Cinnamon extract inhibited the growth of HL-60 cells as correlated with concentration and time. After 72 h of treating HL-60 cells with 0.01 mg/l cinnamon extract, the growth of cells was inhibited by 90.1%. Cinnamon extract stopped the cell cycle in G1 phase and the Hoechst staining verified the apoptotic process in those cells.

Conclusion: Considering the inhibitory property of cinnamon extract, we recommend it as a single drug or besides other medications for treating promyelocytic leukemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2277-9175.108001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3748636PMC
August 2013

Prevalence of hydatidosis in slaughtered animals in Iran.

Turkiye Parazitol Derg 2013 ;37(2):102-6

School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Objective: Hydatid cyst or cystic echincoccosis (CE) is an important medical and veterinary problem in the world, especially in Iran. Domestic intermediate hosts are a major reservoir for the disease in humans. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of hydatid cysts in slaughtered animals in Isfahan, central part of Iran.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study performed from 10 May 2009 to 10 May 2010, a total of 196,325 animals (89,651 sheep, 93,050 goats, 9,112 cattle and 4,512 calves) were inspected macroscopically for hydatid cysts.

Results: Prevalence rate of CE in sheep, goats, cattle and calf was 16.4%, 3.1%, 6.5% and 8.2%, respectively. In all cases, the prevalence in female cattle and sheep was more than in males (P < 0.001). There are significant seasonal pattern for hydatidosis only in sheep (P < 0.001) and the highest prevalence of cysts was seen in autumn and winter seasons. The fertility of cysts in the liver of sheep (77%) was higher than in lungs (47.9%), but was higher in lungs in cattle (44%). Most condemnation cases were seen in lung of sheep (27.1%).

Conclusion: It appears that sheep are the most important intermediate hosts for E. granolusus in this area.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5152/tpd.2013.24DOI Listing
March 2014

Scolicidal effects of Olea europaea and Satureja khuzestanica extracts on protoscolices of hydatid cysts.

Korean J Parasitol 2012 Mar 6;50(1):53-6. Epub 2012 Mar 6.

Division of Parasitology, Razi Herbal Medicines Research Center, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorram Abad, Iran.

Treatment of hydatid disease is mainly surgical, with medical treatment being reserved as a coadjuvant treatment. Use of effective scolicidal agents during surgery of cystic echinococcosis is essential to reduce the recurrence rate. The goal of this study was to evaluate the in vitro scolicidal effects of hydroalcoholic extracts of Satureja khuzestanica leaves and aqueous extracts of Olea europaea leaves on hydatid cyst protoscolices. Echinococcus granulosus protoscolices were collected from the liver of sheep infected with the hydatid cyst. Various concentrations of plant extracts were used in different exposure times for viability assay of protoscolices. Among the olive leaf extracts tested, 0.1% and 0.01% concentrations had strong scolicidal effects in 120 min. S. khuzestanica 0.1% had very strong scolicidal effects in 30, 60, and 120 min of exposure times and the mortality rate decreased with the lower concentration. The finding have shown that the scolicidal activity of S. khuzestanica against cystic echinococosis protoscolices were more effective, while the O. europaea extract showed less effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3347/kjp.2012.50.1.53DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3309051PMC
March 2012