Publications by authors named "Behrooz Hamzeh"

54 Publications

Anti-inflammatory diet consumption reduced fatty liver indices.

Sci Rep 2021 Nov 19;11(1):22601. Epub 2021 Nov 19.

Research Center for Environmental Determinants of Health (RCEDH), Health Institute, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

The aim of this study was to assess the association between dietary inflammatory index (DII) and non-invasive markers of liver status in adults. This cross-sectional study was performed on 8520 adults, recruited in Ravansar Non-Communicable Diseases (RaNCD) cohort study, western Iran. The DII score was calculated based on participants' dietary intakes obtained from Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). Fatty Liver Index (FLI) score was calculated by anthropometric measurements and some non-invasive markers of liver status. Linear regression models were applied to estimate the associations and adjust the possible confounding factors. A greater DII score was significantly associated with higher energy intake, body mass index (BMI), body fat mass (BFM), blood pressure, and FLI (P < 0.001). Participants with the highest DII score had a significantly higher consumption saturated fat, trans fat and red meat than those in the lowest quartile (P < 0.001). After adjustments of age and sex, participants in the highest quartile of the DII score had a greater risk of FLI (β: 0.742, 95% CI: 0.254, 0.601). More pro-inflammatory diet in participants was associated with a higher FLI. The DII score was positively associated with non-invasive liver markers. Thus, having an anti-inflammatory diet can help balance liver enzymes, reduce obesity, and decrease fatty liver.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-98685-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8604894PMC
November 2021

Cluster analysis of risky behaviors among the youth in Western Iran: Determining correlates and comparing clusters based on severity of disability and attitude toward mental health help-seeking.

Indian J Psychiatry 2021 Sep-Oct;63(5):424-432. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Research Center for Environmental Determinants of Health, School of Public Health, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Background And Aims: The objectives of the study were (i) cluster analysis of risky behaviors; (ii) determining correlates; and (iii) comparing clusters with regard to the attitude toward mental health help seeking.

Methods: The current cross-sectional study is a part of the first phase of the Persian Youth Cohort. From October 2014 to January 2017, 2990 individuals from Ravansar City in western Iran completed structured interviews and national and international standard questionnaires. The obtained data were analyzed using two-stage cluster analysis, multinomial logistic regression analysis, and Chi-square test.

Results: This model provided three distinct clusters: (i) low-risk group with mild distress, (ii) high-risk group with high distress, and (iii) violent group with medium distress. Some sociodemographic and lifetime psychiatric disorders were the correlates of unhealthy clusters ( < 0.05). Compared to the reference cluster, a higher number of members in unhealthy clusters were suffering from medium to severe disability. Nevertheless, the participants in these clusters were less inclined to mental health help seeking.

Conclusions: More than half of the youth were suffering from suicidal and violent behaviors. Since high-risk participants are less inclined to mental health help seeking, the health policymakers can successfully utilize the results in planning general health programs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/indianjpsychiatry.indianjpsychiatry_1156_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8522610PMC
October 2021

Prevalence of water pipe smoking and associated risk factors among female adolescents.

J Educ Health Promot 2021 30;10:359. Epub 2021 Sep 30.

Department of Public Health, School of Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.

Background: The prevalence of water pipe smoking is increasing among young people, but there are limited data on its use among adolescents in Iran. The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of WP smoking and associated risk factors among female adolescents in Western Iran.

Materials And Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in schools. It included 1302 middle school (48.1%) and high school (51.9%) female students (grades 7-12) recruited through stage random sampling and conducted in 2019 in the western city of Kermanshah, Iran. The data collection tool was a researcher-made questionnaire. Logistic regression analyses and descriptive statistics were executed using SPSS version 22.

Results: The mean (standard deviation) ages of the students and the ages when the participants started WP smoking were 15.22 ± 1.85 and 13.64 (1.64), respectively. Nearly 32.2% had a single experience of WP smoking during their lifetime and 20.4% were current consumers of WP. Most of the subjects smoked WPs at their friends' home (45.8%) and with their friends (47.4%). The significantly important factors that affect WP smoking in these age groups are the father's and mother's occupation, family size, living with others, father's education, having a friend who smokes WPs, friends' encouragement to smoke WP, and being in a family that smoke WPs.

Conclusions: Considering the increasing popularity of WP among adolescent females and its increasing prevalence, the results showed that Water pipe smoking with friends played a key role in WP smoking among female adolescents. There is a need to design interventional studies to increase people's skills and to design and implement programs to prevent water pipe.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jehp.jehp_68_21DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8552255PMC
September 2021

Nationwide Prevalence of Diabetes and Prediabetes and Associated Risk Factors Among Iranian Adults: Analysis of Data from PERSIAN Cohort Study.

Diabetes Ther 2021 Nov 30;12(11):2921-2938. Epub 2021 Sep 30.

Digestive Oncology Research Center, Digestive Diseases Research Institute, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, N. Karegar Ave, 14117-13014, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: Over the past decades prevalence of diabetes has increased in Iran and other countries. This study aimed to update the prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes in Iran and to determine associated sociodemographic risk factors, as well as diabetes awareness and control.

Methods: This is a nationally representative cross-sectional survey that included 163,770 Iranian adults aged 35-70 years, from different ethnic backgrounds, between 2014 and 2020. Diabetes was diagnosed at fasting blood sugar of ≥ 6.99 mmol/L (126 mg/dL), or receiving blood glucose-lowering treatment. Multivariable logistic regression was applied to detect determinants associated with prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes, as well as predictors of diabetes awareness and glycemic control.

Results: Sex- and age-standardized prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes was 15.0% (95% CI 12.6-17.3) and 25.4% (18.6-32.1), respectively. Among patients with diabetes, 79.6% (76.2-82.9) were aware of their diabetes. Glycemic control was achieved in 41.2% (37.5-44.8) of patients who received treatment. Older age, obesity, high waist to hip ratio (WHR), and specific ethnic background were associated with a significant risk of diabetes and prediabetes. Higher awareness of diabetes was observed in older patients, married individuals, those with high WHR, and individuals with high wealth score. Moreover, glycemic control was significantly better in women, obese individuals, those with high physical activity, educational attainment, and specific ethnic background.

Conclusions: The prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes is increasing at an alarming rate in Iranian adults. High proportion of uncontrolled patients require particular initiatives to be integrated in the health care system.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13300-021-01152-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8521563PMC
November 2021

Visceral adiposity index and atherogenic index of plasma as useful predictors of risk of cardiovascular diseases: evidence from a cohort study in Iran.

Lipids Health Dis 2021 Aug 1;20(1):82. Epub 2021 Aug 1.

Research Center for Environmental Determinants of Health (RCEDH), Health Institute, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Background: Visceral adiposity index (VAI) and atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) are relatively new indicators for predicting non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Therefore, the present study was done to assess the association of AIP and VAI with risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs).

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 7,362 individuals aged between 35 and 65 years old participated in Ravansar non-communicable diseases (RaNCD) cohort study. AIP was calculated based on levels of triglyceride and high -density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). VAI was calculated using values of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), triglyceride, and HDL-C. Logistic regression models were used to assess the association of AIP and VAI with risk of CVDs.

Results: Mean values of anthropometric indices, lipid profile, AIP, and VAI were significantly higher in patients with CVDs than individuals without CVDs (P < 0.001). Mean values of anthropometric indices, lipid profile, and NCDs including hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and CVDs in the third tertile of AIP and VAI were significantly increased compared to the first tertile (P < 0.001). After adjusting confounding factors, risk of CVDs in the third tertile of AIP was (OR = 1.32, 95 % CI: 1.03, 1.69) significantly increased compared to the first tertile. Risk of CVDs in the third tertile of VAI was (OR = 1.48, 95 % CI: 1.12, 1.97) significantly increased compared to the first tertile.

Conclusions: According to the findings, AIP and VAI were positively associated with risk of CVDs. Therefore, AIP and VAI can be useful in identifying high-risk subgroups of CVDs in general population.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12944-021-01505-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8327427PMC
August 2021

Financial incentive strategy for weight loss and maintenance of weight loss.

J Prev Med Hyg 2021 Mar 29;62(1):E206-E212. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Research Center for Environmental Determinants of Health (RCEDH), Health Institute, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of financial incentives on weight loss, maintain in obese women and biochemical factors.

Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted on 103 women with body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m. The participants were assessed over a 12-month follow-up in eight phases. Money payment for losing weight was incentive intervention in this study. The participants were given diet and physical activity.

Results: Mean of BMI was 34.78 ± 4.29 kg/m in baseline, that reduced to 32.41 ± 3.51 kg/m in the sixth phase, and 31.64 ± 3.71 kg/m in the final phase (P < 0.001). At baseline, mean of percentage of body fat (PBF) was 40.77 ± 2.81 that reduced to 37.34±4.02 at the end of the study (P < 0.001). Waist to hip ratio (WHR) and lean body mass (LBM) decreased significantly over the 12-month (P < 0.001). At the end of each phase, the mean of BMI reduction of 0.39 units was observed in the subjects, and 9 units of change were achieved by the end of the study compared to the baseline. The mean of triglyceride in the first, fourth and seventh phases were 128.57 ± 13.33, 101.43 ± 57.99 and 87.40 ± 57.59 mg/dl, respectively (P = 0.003). The mean of serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) decreased significantly over the 12-month, P = 0.052 and P = 0.005, respectively.

Conclusions: Financial incentives can effectively help to weight loss and maintenance of weight, and improve lipid profiles; blood sugar and liver enzymes. The use of motivational factors with proper training (diet and physical activity) will have a better result.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.15167/2421-4248/jpmh2021.62.1.1721DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8283650PMC
March 2021

Determinants of Waterpipe Smoking Among Women: A Systematic Review.

Int J Prev Med 2021 10;12:25. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Department of Public Health, School of Health, Hamedan University of Medical Sciences, Hamedan, Iran.

Background: The present study aimed to assess the determinants of waterpipe smoking among women based on a systematic review regarding the increasing prevalence of waterpipe smoking in women and the tendency of them to this type of tobacco.

Methods: The present study was a systematic review. The search strategies were based on using a combination of MeSH and free-text terms. Searches were performed inIranian databasesand PubMed, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, EMBASE, Scopus and Medline. Databases inclusion criteria included articles and gray literature in English or Persian, published between January 2000 and December 2018. The keywords were related to women and waterpipe and related terms. The quality of the articles was assessed using the EPHPP tool.

Results: In the initial search, out of 1027 articles, 15 articles were studied. Inclusion criteria in this study were the target population of women and girl and descriptive and qualitative studies on waterpipe use among women. The mean prevalence of waterpipe smoking in quantitative studies was 13.980/0. Studies have shown that waterpipe smoking in women is influenced by several individual (awareness, favorable attitudes, and positive prototype), interpersonal (role of family and friends), and socio-political factors.

Conclusions: Due to the influence of various determinants on women's inclination to waterpipe smoking, there is a necessity to act and impose interventions such as lessening women's favorable attitude toward waterpipe, increasing women's awareness, encouraging negative prototype about waterpipe smoking, and restricting access to tobacco products that can be useful. Interpersonal factors such as the role of family and friends are one of the major determinants in waterpipe smoking. It seems that developing the skill of saying "no" to the pressure of friends can help prevent waterpipe use. Furthermore, educating the family about the risks of waterpipe use is an effective strategy in this respect.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijpvm.IJPVM_116_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8218800PMC
March 2021

Effectiveness of E-Learning Program in Preventing WP Smoking in Adolescent Females in West of Iran by Applying Prototype-Willingness Model: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

J Res Health Sci 2020 Nov 5;20(4):e00497. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

Department of Public Health, School of Public Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.

Background: Given the increasing trend of Water pipe (WP) smoking in adolescent females, it is necessary to use effective educational strategies in preventing WP smoking in developing countries. We aimed to determine effectiveness of e-learning program in preventing WP smoking in adolescent females west of Iran using prototype-willingness model.

Study Design: A randomized controlled trial.

Methods: This study was performed on 221 adolescent females in Kermanshah City, Iran during 2019-2020. Multistage random sampling was used. Data collection tool included a researcher-made questionnaire based on prototype-willingness model. E-learning-based intervention program included 5 training sessions. Participants were followed up for 3 months after the intervention. The data were analyzed using SPSS software.

Results: The mean scores of attitude, subjective norms, prototype, intention, and behavioral willingness structures were similar in both experimental and control groups before the educational intervention. However, after educational interventions, mean scores of structures of positive attitude towards WP, subjective norms about WP smoking, positive prototype about WP smokers, intention, and behavioral willingness towards WP smoking were decreased in the experimental group. Moreover, frequency of WP smoking was decreased in the experimental group compared to the control group after the educational intervention (P=0.003).

Conclusion: The use of e-learning-based interventions is an educational strategy for reducing WP smoking in adolescent females.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.34172/jrhs.2020.31DOI Listing
November 2020

Pattern of cigarette smoking: intensity, cessation, and age of beginning: evidence from a cohort study in West of Iran.

Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy 2020 10 27;15(1):83. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Substance Abuse Prevention Research Center, Health Institute, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Background: Smoking is a social epidemic and one of the main risk factors for premature deaths and disabilities worldwide. In the present study, we investigated the Pattern of Cigarette Smoking: intensity, cessation, and age of the beginning.

Methods: Data collected from the recruitment phase of Ravansar (a Kurd region in western Iran) Non-Communicable Disease (RaNCD) cohort study was analyzed by using Chi-square test, univariate and multivariate logistic regressions, Poisson regression, and linear regression.

Results: Totally 10,035 individuals (47.42% males) participated in the study. Mean age was lower for males (47.45 yr) than for females (48.36 yr). Prevalence of smoking was 20% (36.4% of males and 5.23% of females). Compared to female participants, males showed a 7-fold higher prevalence of smoking and started smoking about 4 years earlier. Being married, having a lower BMI, living in rural areas, and being exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS) were predictors of higher smoking prevalence rates. Furthermore, current exposure to SHS, higher smoking intensity, later smoking initiation, male gender, younger age, lower education, and lower BMI were related to lower likelihood of stopping smoking. Heavy smokers began to smoke about 4 years earlier than casual smokers did. Finally, being divorced/ widow/ widower/ single and childhood exposure to SHS were found to increase the likelihood of becoming a smoker.

Conclusions: Based on present research results, health programs specific to smoking cessation should take socio-demographic factors, smoking history, and current smoking behavior into account.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13011-020-00324-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7590452PMC
October 2020

Socioeconomic inequalities in tobacco, alcohol and illicit drug use: evidence from Iranian Kurds.

East Mediterr Health J 2020 Oct 13;26(10):1294-1302. Epub 2020 Oct 13.

Research Center for Environmental Determinants of Health, Health Institute, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences Kermanshah, Islamic Republic of Iran.

Background: The associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and tobacco use, alcohol consumption and drug use are poorly understood in the Islamic Republic of Iran.

Aims: To measure education- and wealth-related inequalities in cigarette smoking, hookah smoking, illicit drug use and alcohol consumption in Kermanshah Province, Islamic Republic of Iran.

Methods: We used baseline data from the Ravansar Noncommunicable Disease (RaNCD) study. The study collected information on socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, cigarette and hookah smoking, alcohol consumption and illicit drug use of 10 015 adults aged ≥ 35 years between 2014 and 2016. The relative concentration index and absolute concentration index were used to measure education- and wealth-related inequalities in cigarette smoking, hookah smoking, illicit drug use and alcohol consumption.

Results: Cigarette smoking was concentrated among less-educated and less-wealthy men and women. Similarly, illicit drug use was concentrated among lower-SES men. In contrast, hookah smoking and alcohol consumption were more prevalent among higher-SES men.

Conclusions: There were education- and wealth-related inequalities in tobacco, alcohol and illicit drug use in the west of the Republic of Iran. Future studies should aim to identify the main socioeconomic determinants of these inequalities in Kermanshah Province and generally in the Islamic Republic of Iran.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.26719/emhj.20.007DOI Listing
October 2020

Establishing hematological reference intervals in healthy adults: Ravansar non-communicable disease cohort study, Iran.

Int J Lab Hematol 2021 Apr 23;43(2):199-209. Epub 2020 Oct 23.

Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Medical School, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Introduction: It is necessary to establish hematological reference intervals (RIs) in each population to improve disease management and healthcare quality. This study aimed to establish age- and sex-specific hematological RIs in a healthy adult Kurdish population and evaluate the influence of select lifestyle factors.

Methods: Hematological parameters were studied in 6518 individuals (3006 females, 3512 males) from Ravansar Non-Communicable Disease (RaNCD) cohort study. Hematological parameters were measured by Beckman Coulter HmX Analyzer. After combined application of exclusion criteria and statistical outlier removal, RIs for all partitions were calculated using nonparametric methods.

Results: The present study established hematological RIs for 14 parameters in a healthy adult Iranian population. Reference values for some analytes demonstrated significant age- and sex-specific differences and were slightly different when compared to RIs determined in other populations. Furthermore, the current smokers had higher levels of white blood cells (WBCs), red blood cells (RBCs), hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and mean corpuscular volume than ex- and nonsmokers. Also, in the presence of high physical activity, elevated levels of RBC, hemoglobin, hematocrit, monocytes, and MCH were observed, as well as lower WBC levels. Further, a significant positive association was observed between body mass index (BMI) and WBC, red cell distribution width, and plateletcrit levels.

Conclusion: Our study suggests hematological parameters are influenced by age, sex, and lifestyle factors such as physical activity and BMI. Additionally, discrepancies when compared to other population studies suggest that ethnic-specific differences need to be considered when establishing RIs for hematological parameters.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijlh.13371DOI Listing
April 2021

Discriminatory Capacity of Anthropometric Indices for Cardiovascular Disease in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Prev Chronic Dis 2020 10 22;17:E131. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

Research Center for Environmental Determinants of Health, Health Institute, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Introduction: Obesity is one of the main risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cardiometabolic disease (CMD). Many studies have developed cutoff points of anthropometric indices for predicting these diseases. The aim of this systematic review was to differentiate the screening potential of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) for adult CVD risk.

Methods: We used relevant key words to search electronic databases to identify studies published up to 2019 that used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for assessing the cut-off points of anthropometric indices. We used a random-effects model to pool study results and assessed between-study heterogeneity by using the I statistic and Cochran's Q test.

Results: This meta-analysis included 38 cross-sectional and 2 cohort studies with 105 to 137,256 participants aged 18 or older. The pooled area under the ROC curve (AUC) value for BMI was 0.66 (95% CI, 0.63-0.69) in both men and women. The pooled AUC values for WC were 0.69 (95% CI, 0.67-0.70) in men and 0.69 (95% CI, 0.64-0.74) in women, and the pooled AUC values for WHR were 0.69 (95% CI, 0.66-0.73) in men and 0.71 (95% CI, 0.68-0.73) in women.

Conclusion: Our findings indicated a slight difference between AUC values of these anthropometric indices. However, indices of abdominal obesity, especially WHR, can better predict CVD occurrence.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.5888/pcd17.200112DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7587303PMC
October 2020

Better muscle strength can decrease the risk of arthralgia and back &joint stiffness in Kurdish men; a cross-sectional study using data from RaNCD cohort study.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2020 Oct 16;21(1):686. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

Social Development and Health Promotion Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Background: Musculoskeletal disorders can reduce the quality of life and work capacity. The study assessed handgrip strength (HGS) in relation to low back pain and arthralgia in Kurdish men.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted using data from Ravansar non-communicable diseases (RaNCD) cohort study on 2164 men aged 35-65 years. HGS was measured using a hand-held hydraulic handgrip dynamometer. Low back pain, arthralgia, and joint stiffness were evaluated by the RaNCD cohort study physician using a standard questionnaire.

Results: The results showed that 21.39 and 24.58% of studied participants had low back pain and arthralgia, respectively. Among the participants with low back pain, 14.5% had back stiffness, and among those with arthralgia, 12.8% had joint stiffness. The mean of HGS in participants with arthralgia and back & joint stiffness was significantly less than those without these disorders (P < 0.001, P = 0.05, and P = 0.005, respectively). Multiple-adjusted OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for arthralgia and back and joint stiffness across muscle strength showed the HGS increase to be associated with a lower risk of arthralgia and back &joint stiffness, but not low back pain.

Conclusions: Higher HGS was associated with a lower risk of arthralgia and back & joint stiffness. However, there was no association between HGS and low back pain. Exercise and adherence to proper nutrition are suggested to enhance muscle strength in order to reduce musculoskeletal pain.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12891-020-03712-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7568357PMC
October 2020

Association of Dietary Inflammatory Index with cardiovascular disease in Kurdish adults: results of a prospective study on Ravansar non-communicable diseases.

BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2020 10 7;20(1):434. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

Departmalet of Nutrition, School of Nutritional Science and Food Technology, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Background: Various diets and dietary compounds, through their inflammatory properties, are involved in the pathogenesis of chronic diseases including Cardiovascular Diseases (CVDs). Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) can evaluate the inflammatory properties of diet. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between DII and CVDs in participants of the Ravansar Non-Communicable Diseases (RaNCD) cohort study, Kermanshah, Iran.

Materials: The present cross-sectional study was conducted using the recruitment phase data of the RaNCD cohort study on 6369 participants aged 35 to 65 years. The Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) was used to assess diet. The DII scores were calculated using FFQ data. Participants with a history of myocardial infarction, stroke and coronary artery disease, and/or taking medications for the CVDs were considered as the CVDs patients.

Results: Of the 6369 studied participants, 9% (n = 579) had CVDs history. The mean DII score in this study was - 0.84 ± 1.6. Odds ratio (OR) of CVDs in women was 1.6 times higher than in men (CI 95% = 1.3-1.9), which this association was remained after adjusting for confounding variables (OR = 1.5, CI% = 1.2-1.9). The risk of CVDs in the fourth quartile of DII was 1.4 times higher than the first quartile of DII (OR: 1.4, CI 95% = 1.1-1.8). We found that higher adhere to DII was associated with risk of CVDs.

Conclusion: According to current documents, given the role of diet through inflammatory properties on the risk of CVDs, it is recommended to use DII as an appropriate index to measure the effect of diet on CVDs in Iranian population. In addition, a diet with lower DII may be healthier diet for cardiovascular health.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12872-020-01707-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7541225PMC
October 2020

Waist-to-height ratio is a better discriminator of cardiovascular disease than other anthropometric indicators in Kurdish adults.

Sci Rep 2020 10 1;10(1):16228. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

Social Development and Health Promotion Research Center, Health Institute, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

It has been suggested that abdominal obesity might be a better cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) discriminator than overall obesity. The most appropriate obesity measures for estimating CVD events in Kurdish populations have not been well-recognized. The objective of the present study was, therefore, to determine the cutoff points of BMI, waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist to height ratio (WHtR) as the diagnostic cut-offs to discriminate the prevalent cardiovascular diseases. The data collected from Ravansar Non-Communicable Disease (RaNCD) cohort, the first Kurdish population-based study, was analyzed. The information related to BMI, WC, WHR and WHtR of 10,065 adult participants in the age range of 35-65 was analyzed in this study. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were conducted to evaluate the optimum cut-off values and to predict the incidence of cardiac events. The results showed that WHtR had the largest areas under the ROC curve for cardiac events in both male and female participants, and this was followed by WHR, WC, and BMI. The optimal cut-off values for determining the cardiac events in the Kurdish population were BMI = 27.02 kg/m for men and BMI = 27.60 kg/m for women, WC = 96.05 cm in men and 99.5 cm for women, WHRs = 0.96 in both sexes, and WHtR = 0.56 for men and 0.65 for women. The current study, therefore, showed that WHtR might serve as a better index of prevalent cardiac event than BMI, WHR and WC.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-73224-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7530727PMC
October 2020

Predictors of shisha smoking among adolescent females in Western Iran in 2019: Using the Prototype-Willingness Model.

Tob Prev Cessat 2020 31;6:50. Epub 2020 Aug 31.

Department of Public Health, School of Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.

Introduction: Given the increasing prevalence of shisha smoking (SS) in adolescent females, it is necessary to determine the factors influencing adolescent's choice of shisha. This study aimed to determine predictors of shisha smoking among adolescent females in Western Iran based on the Prototype-Willingness Model (PWM).

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 1302 adolescent females in Kermanshah city, western Iran, in 2019. The method was multi-stage sampling with a systematic random approach. Data were collected using a questionnaire consisting of sociodemographic questions, history of shisha smoking, and Prototype-Willingness Model structure-based questions. Data were analyzed using SPSS 22 software. Statistical tests included descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation test, and linear and logistic regression analyses.

Results: The prevalence of current consumers of shisha was 20.4%. Attitude and behavioral willingness and subjective norms were the most important predictors of behavioral intentions, whereas subjective norms, attitudes, and prototypes were the most important predictors for behavioral willingness. The results obtained from the logistic regression analysis revealed that both pathways of PWM constructs (behavioral intention OR=1.37; behavioral willingness OR=1.32) were significant predicting factors for shisha smoking among adolescent females.

Conclusions: Given the efficient role of behavioral willingness and intention for shisha smoking (SS) in adolescent females, it is necessary to consider these structures in designing educational strategies for the prevention of adolescent smoking.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.18332/tpc/125357DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7493647PMC
August 2020

Decomposing socioeconomic inequality in dental caries in Iran: cross-sectional results from the PERSIAN cohort study.

Arch Public Health 2020 18;78:75. Epub 2020 Aug 18.

Department of Public Health, School of Public Health, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran.

Background: The current study aimed to measure and decompose socioeconomic-related inequalities in DMFT (decayed, missing, and filled teeth) index among adults in Iran.

Methods: The study data were extracted from the adult component of Prospective Epidemiological Research Studies in IrAN (PERSIAN) from 17 centers in 14 different provinces of Iran. DMFT score was used as a measure of dental caries among adults in Iran. The concentration curve and relative concentration index (RC) was used to quantify and decompose socioeconomic-related inequalities in DMFT.

Results: A total of 128,813 adults aged 35 and older were included in the study. The mean (Standard Deviation [SD]) score of D, M, F and DMFT of the adults was 3.3 (4.6), 12.6 (10.5), 2.1 (3.4) and 18.0 (9.5), respectively. The findings suggested that DMFT was mainly concentrated among the socioeconomically disadvantaged adults (RC = - 0.064; 95% confidence interval [CI), - 0.066 to - 0.063). Socioeconomic status, being male, older age and being a widow or divorced were identified as the main factors contributing to the concentration of DMFT among the worse-off adults.

Conclusions: It is recommended to focus on the dental caries status of socioeconomically disadvantaged groups in order to reduce socioeconomic-related inequality in oral health among Iranian adults. Reducing socioeconomic-related inequalities in dental caries should be accompanied by appropriate health promotion policies that focus actions on the fundamental socioeconomic causes of dental disease.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13690-020-00457-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7436972PMC
August 2020

Predicting metabolic syndrome by anthropometric measures among adults 35-65 years in the west of Iran; a cross sectional study from an Iranian RaNCD cohort data.

Diabetes Metab Syndr 2020 Sep - Oct;14(5):1293-1298. Epub 2020 Jul 18.

Research Center for Environmental Determinants of Health (RCEDH), Health Institute, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Aims: Anthropometric indices have been proposed for the early detection of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its risk factors. The present study aimed to determine optimal cutoff points for the Body Mass Index (BMI), Waist Circumference (WC), and Waist Hip Ratio (WHR) in the prediction of MetS.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 9746 adults 35-65 years, recruited in Ravansar Non-Communicable Diseases (RaNCD) cohort. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to compare the predictive validity and determine optimal cutoff values.

Results: The optimal cutoff points for BMI, WC and WHR were 27.3 kg/m (AUC: 78.6; 95%CI 77.1, 80.1), 97 cm (AUC: 63.8; 95%CI 60.4, 67.2) and 0.95 (AUC: 75.5; 95% CI 73.9, 77.1), respectively in men for the prediction of MetS. But in women the optimal cutoff points for BMI, WC and WHR were 28.6 kg/m (AUC: 65.7; 95%CI 62.1, 69.4), 98.1 cm (AUC: 65.6; 95%CI 62.4,68.8) and 0.95 (AUC:62.39; 95%CI 60.9,63.9). The risk of MetS in men and women with a BMI higher than the optimal cutoff point was respectively 2.23 and 2.30 times higher than that in those with a WC lower than the cutoff point.

Conclusions: BMI is a better predictor of MetS than WC and WHR in adults 35-65 years. We recommend that the optimal cut off point be set for men 27.3 kg/m and for women 28.6 kg/m.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dsx.2020.07.017DOI Listing
July 2021

Depression Relationship with Dietary Patterns and Dietary Inflammatory Index in Women: Result from Ravansar Cohort Study.

Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2020 29;16:1595-1603. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Research Center for Environmental Determinants of Health (RCEDH), Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Background And Aims: Chronic inflammation is thought to have a major role in the pathophysiology of depression. Diet has been shown to modulate the inflammatory state, thus emphasizing its potential as a therapeutic role in depression. But, little is known about the relationship between dietary intake and depression. The current study aimed to investigate the relationship between major dietary patterns, a dietary inflammatory index (DII) score, and depression among women.

Methods And Materials: This cross-sectional study included 4630 women aged 35-65 years using baseline data from the Ravansar Non-Communicable Diseases (RaNCD) cohort study in Western Iran. Diet was evaluated using a validated 125-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to determine DII scores and dietary patterns. Traditional, healthy, and unhealthy dietary patterns were extracted using factor analyses.

Results: A significant upward trend in the odds of depression was observed across the tertiles s of DII scores (P-trend: 0.019). After the adjustment for possible risk factors, a high adherence to an unhealthy dietary pattern was associated with a higher risk of depression than a low adherence (OR: 1.63; 95% CI: 1.1-2.4). A high adherence to a healthy dietary pattern was associated with the lower odds (OR: 0.61; 95% CI: 0.04-0.92). Among the main food groups, a high intake of eggs and refined grains was associated with a higher risk of depression.

Conclusion: In women, a refined grain dietary pattern is a risk factor for depression, whereas a healthy dietary pattern is protective. We have also shown that adherence to a pro-inflammatory diet was significantly associated with depression. Adherence to a dietary pattern with high intakes of dairy products, seafood, red meats, nuts, vegetables, fruits, flavor, and vegetable oils and diets with low inflammatory properties were associated with a lower risk of depression in women.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S255912DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7334035PMC
June 2020

Prevalence of drug use, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking and measure of socioeconomic-related inequalities of drug use among Iranian people: findings from a national survey.

Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy 2020 06 5;15(1):39. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Social Development and Health Promotion Research Center, Health Institute, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Background: Drug use can lead to several psychological, medical and social complications. The current study aimed to measure and decomposes socioeconomic-related inequalities in drug use among adults in Iran.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional study The PERSIAN Cohort is the largest and most important cohort among 18 distinct areas of Iran. This study was conducted on 130,570 adults 35 years and older. A structured questionnaire was applied to collect data. The concentration index (C) was used to quantify and decompose socioeconomic inequalities in drug use.

Results: The prevalence experience of drug use was 11.9%. The estimated C for drug use was - 0.021. The corresponding value of the C for women and men were - 0.171 and - 0.134, respectively. The negative values of the C suggest that drug use is more concentrated among the population with low socioeconomic status in Iran (p < 0.001). For women, socioeconomic status (SES) (26.37%), province residence (- 22.38%) and age (9.76%) had the most significant contribution to socioeconomic inequality in drug use, respectively. For men, SES (80.04%), smoking (32.04%) and alcohol consumption (- 12.37%) were the main contributors to socioeconomic inequality in drug use.

Conclusions: Our study indicated that drug use prevention programs in Iran should focus on socioeconomically disadvantaged population. Our finding could be useful for health policy maker to design and implement effective preventative programs to protect Iranian population against the drug use.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13011-020-00279-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7275311PMC
June 2020

Decomposing socioeconomic inequality in poor mental health among Iranian adult population: results from the PERSIAN cohort study.

BMC Psychiatry 2020 05 13;20(1):229. Epub 2020 May 13.

Social Development and Health Promotion Research Center, Health Institute, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Background: Socioeconomic inequality in mental health in Iran is poorly understood. This study aimed to assess socioeconomic inequality in poor mental health among Iranian adults.

Methods: The study used the baseline data of PERSIAN cohort study including 131,813 participants from 17 geographically distinct areas of Iran. The Erreygers Concentration index (E) was used to quantify the socioeconomic inequalities in poor mental health. Moreover, we decomposed the E to identify factors contributing to the observed socioeconomic inequality in poor mental health in Iran.

Results: The estimated E for poor mental health was - 0.012 (95% CI: - 0.0144, - 0.0089), indicating slightly higher concentration of mental health problem among socioeconomically disadvantaged adults in Iran. Socioeconomic inequality in poor mental health was mainly explained by gender (19.93%) and age (12.70%). Region, SES itself, and physical activity were other important factors that contributed to the concentration of poor mental health among adults with low socioeconomic status.

Conclusion: There exists nearly equitable distribution in poor mental health among Iranian adults, but with important variations by gender, SES, and geography. These results suggested that interventional programs in Iran should focus on should focus more on socioeconomically disadvantaged people as a whole, with particular attention to the needs of women and those living in more socially disadvantaged regions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12888-020-02596-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7218818PMC
May 2020

Association between dyslipidemia and blood lipids concentration with smoking habits in the Kurdish population of Iran.

BMC Public Health 2020 May 13;20(1):673. Epub 2020 May 13.

Student's research committee, Faculty of Health, Kermanshah University of medical sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Background: Smoking is the most preventable cause of most chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD). Dyslipidemia is also an important risk factor for CVD. Yet, research has provided contradicting findings regarding the association between smoking and blood lipids. This paper examines the relationship between dyslipidemia and smoking based on the results of a cross-sectional sample of a Kurdish population in western Iran.

Methods: This population-based study was derived from the recruitment phase of Ravansar Non-Communicable Disease (RaNCD) cohort study. Logistic regression model adjusted by confounding variables was used to determine the relationship between smoking and blood lipid components. In addition, dose-response relationship between blood lipids and the number of smoked cigarettes was evaluated.

Results: For the purpose of this study, 7586 participants were examined. The lifetime prevalence of smoking was 19.9%, and 11.8% were current smokers. The prevalence of dyslipidemia in current smokers (54.9%) was higher than former smokers (43.9%) and in turn former smokers higher than non-smokers (38.0%). Current smokers had greater risk of abnormal HDL cholesterol [OR (95% CI), 2.28(1.98 -2.62)] and triglyceride [OR (95% CI), 1.37(1.15 -1.67)] compared to non-smokers. There was no significant difference in total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol between the two groups. A dose-response relationship was found between the number of cigarettes smoked and HDL-C and TG but no relationship was observed in terms of total cholesterol and LDL-C.

Conclusions: As compared to non-smokers, current smokers and former smokers had abnormal HDL-C and triglyceride and abnormal total cholesterol and triglyceride, respectively. After quitting smoking, heavy smokers showed a more normal HDL-C and total cholesterol levels than the people who tended to smoke a lower number of cigarettes per day.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-08809-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7218585PMC
May 2020

Lifetime Prevalence of Abortion and Risk Factors in Women: Evidence from a Cohort Study.

J Pregnancy 2020 27;2020:4871494. Epub 2020 Apr 27.

Research Center for Environmental Determinants of Health (RCEDH), Health Institute, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Background: 10-20% of pregnancies end due to spontaneous abortions. In recent years, nondocumentary evidence has been indicative of an increase in the prevalence of nonspontaneous abortions in Iran, especially in the Kurdish regions. The aim of this study is to assess the lifetime prevalence of spontaneous abortions and factors affecting spontaneous abortion in women 35-65 years old.

Method: Data from the recruitment phase of Ravansar Non-Communicable Disease (RaNCD) cohort study was used. All of the 4831 married women 35-65 years old and with history of pregnancy were included in this study. In order to determine the abortion ratio, the number of abortions was divided by the number of live births, and multiple logistic regression analysis was applied to determine associated factors affecting abortion.

Results: About 25.7% of women had a history of spontaneous abortion. The abortion ratio in women was 0.10. The abortion ratio in women with secondary education, first pregnancy and marriage age at ≥26, socioeconomic condition, and hyperthyroid and diabetes was high while the abortion ratio of women with high physical activity and BMI < 18.9 or residents of rural area was low. After assessing the effective variables, it was found that women with high blood pressure have 63% less odds for nonspontaneous abortion, which is statistically significant ( value < 0.05).

Conclusion: Considering the effect of factors such as level of education, older age at the first marriage, and age at the first pregnancy on increased chance of spontaneous abortion, measures should be taken to take more care for these people.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/4871494DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7201453PMC
August 2020

The Effect of an Anti-Bullying Intervention on Male Students' Bullying-victimization Behaviors and Social Competence: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Deprived Urban Areas.

J Res Health Sci 2019 Oct 21;19(4):e00461. Epub 2019 Oct 21.

Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.

Background: Violence among adolescents is a global public health concern. There is limited evidence on the effectiveness of anti-bullying interventions in Iran. Weaimed to examine the effectiveness of social cognitive theory (SCT)-based intervention on reducing bullying and victimization in elementary school students.

Study Design: A randomized controlled trial.

Methods: Eight elementary schools (consisted of 280 students in 5th and 6th grade) from deprived and semi-deprived areas of Kermanshah (west of Iran) were randomly assigned to intervention and control group from 2018 to 2019. Anti-bullying training content appropriate for SCT and sociocultural characteristics were provided to the intervention group including students, parents, teachers and school staff. The measures included SCT constructs, bullying, victimization, and social competence of students.

Results: At baseline participants of two groups were homogenous in terms of demographic factors except for the type of living with the parent (P=0.040) and outcome variables including SCT constructs and bullying behaviors. The interventions significantly improved SCT constructs, reduced bullying and victimization and increased social competence in the intervention group compared to the control group (P<0.001). The difference between outcome expectations in both groups was not significant (P=0.137).

Conclusion: Interventions based on sociocultural characteristics and focuses on SCT theory reduce bullying and victimization behavior. Given the effectiveness and feasibility of these interventions, this theory can be effective to break the bullying cycle and improve social competence.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7183563PMC
October 2019

Predicting Metabolic Syndrome by Visceral Adiposity Index, Body Roundness Index and a Body Shape Index in Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study from the Iranian RaNCD Cohort Data.

Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes 2020 24;13:879-887. Epub 2020 Mar 24.

Research Center for Environmental Determinants of Health (RCEDH), Health Institute, School of Health, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Background: The use of anthropometric indices is one of the new and low-cost diagnostic methods of metabolic syndrome (MetS). The present study aimed to determine optimal cutoff points for the visceral adiposity index (VAI), body roundness index (BRI), and a body shape index (ABSI) in the prediction of MetS.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 10,000 individuals aged from 35 to 65 years, recruited in Ravansar Non-Communicable Diseases (RaNCD) cohort study, in the west region of Iran, in 2019. MetS was defined according to International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to assess predictive anthropometric indices and determine optimal cutoff values.

Results: The optimal cutoff points for VAI were 4.11 (AUC: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.81-0.84) in men and 4.28 (AUC: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.85-0.87) in women to prediction of MetS. The optimal cutoff points for BRI were 4.75 (AUC: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.74-0.77) in men and 6.17 (AUC: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.61-0.64) in women to prediction of MetS. The optimal cutoff points for ABSI were 0.12 (AUC: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.47-0.51) in men and 0.13 (AUC: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.47-0.51) in women to prediction of MetS. The risk of MetS in men and women with a VAI higher than the optimal cutoff point was, respectively, 9.82 and 11.44 times higher than that in those with a VAI lower than the cutoff point.

Conclusion: Although VAI might not be very cost-beneficial compared to IDF, our study showed VAI is a better predictor of MetS than BRI in adults. ABSI was not a suitable predictor for MetS.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DMSO.S238153DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7102908PMC
March 2020

Gender-based difference in early mortality among patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: insights from Kermanshah STEMI Registry.

J Cardiovasc Thorac Res 2020 19;12(1):63-68. Epub 2020 Feb 19.

Cardiovascular Research Center, Health Institute, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

This study aimed to evaluate the in-hospital mortality of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), according to gender and other likely risk factors. This study reports on data relating to 1,484 consecutive patients with STEMI registered from June 2016 to May 2018 in the Western Iran STEMI Registry. Data were collected using a standardized case report developed by the European Observational Registry Program (EORP). The relationship between in-hospital mortality and potential predicting variables was assessed multivariable logistic regression. Differences between groups in mortality rates were compared using chi-square tests and independent t-tests. Out of the 1484 patients, 311(21%) were female. Women were different from men in terms of age (65.8 vs. 59), prevalence of hypertension (HTN) (63.7% vs. 35.4%), diabetes mellitus (DM) (37.7% vs. 16.2%), hypercholesterolemia (36.7% vs. 18.5%) and the history of previous congestive heart failure (CHF) (6.6% vs. 3.0%). Smoking was more prevalent among men (55.9% vs. 13.2%). Although the in-hospital mortality rate was higher in women (11.6% vs. 5.5%), after adjusting for other risk factors, female sex was not an independent predictor for in-hospital mortality. Multivariable analysis identified that age and higher Killip class (≥II) were significantly associated with in-hospital mortality rate. In-hospital mortality after STEMI in women was higher than men. However, the role of sex as an independent predictor of mortality disappeared in regression analysis. The gender based difference in in-hospital mortality after STEMI may be related to the poorer cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor profile of the women.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.34172/jcvtr.2020.10DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7080341PMC
February 2020

Socioeconomic-related inequalities in oral hygiene behaviors: a cross-sectional analysis of the PERSIAN cohort study.

BMC Oral Health 2020 02 28;20(1):63. Epub 2020 Feb 28.

Colorectal Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Background: Socioeconomic-related inequality in oral hygiene behaviors in Iran is poorly understood. This study aims to measure and decompose socioeconomic-related inequalities in oral hygiene behaviors among middle-aged and elderly adults in Iran.

Methods: A cross-sectional analysis was performed using data from the Prospective Epidemiological Research Studies in IrAN (PERSIAN), a large national cohort study. A total of 130,016 individuals aged 35 years and above from 17 cohort centers in Iran were included in the study. The normalized concentration index (C) was used to measure the magnitude of inequality in oral hygiene behaviors, i.e. brushing at least twice and flossing once daily, among middle-aged and elderly Iranian adults included in the cohort centers. Decomposition analysis was performed to quantify the contribution of each determinant to the observed inequality in oral hygiene behaviors.

Results: Totally, 65.5% of middle-aged and elderly adults brushed their teeth twice a day or more, 7.6% flossed at least once a day and 3.48% had both habits. The estimated C of the two habits combined, i.e. tooth brushing and dental flossing, for all provinces taken part in the PERSIAN cohort study was 0.399 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.383 to 0.417), indicating that the prevalence of the two habits combined is more concentrated among individuals with higher socioeconomic status. Inequality in oral hygiene behaviors was pro-rich in all cohort centers. The decomposition results suggested socioeconomic status as the main factor contributing to the overall inequality, followed by the level of education, and the province of residence.

Conclusion: A low prevalence of oral hygiene behaviors among middle-aged and elderly Iranian adults was observed. There was also a pro-rich inequality in oral hygiene behaviors among middle-aged and elderly adults in all cohort centers. These results suggest an urgent need for targeted policy interventions to increase the prevalence of preventive oral hygiene behaviors among the poor and less-educated middle-aged and elderly adults in Iran.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12903-020-1036-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7048098PMC
February 2020

Socioeconomic - related inequalities in overweight and obesity: findings from the PERSIAN cohort study.

BMC Public Health 2020 Feb 11;20(1):214. Epub 2020 Feb 11.

Gastroenterohepatology Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Background: Overweight and obesity are major health concerns worldwide, with adverse health consequences during the life span. This study measured socioeconomic inequality in overweight and obesity among Iranian adults.

Methods: Data were extracted from 129,257 Iranian adults (aged 35 years and older) participated in the Prospective Epidemiologic Research Studies in IrAN (PERSIAN) in 14 provinces of Iran in 2014. Socioeconomic-related inequality in overweight and obesity was estimated using the Concentration Index (C). The C further decomposed to find factors explaining the variability within the Socioeconomic related inequality in overweight and obesity.

Results: Of the total number of participants, 1.98, 26.82, 40.76 and 30.43% had underweight, normal weight, overweight and obesity respectively. The age-and sex standardized prevalence of obesity was higher in females than males (39.85% vs 18.79%). People with high socioeconomic status (SES) had a 39 and 15% higher chance of being overweight and obese than low SES people, respectively. The positive value of C suggested a higher concentration of overweight (0.081, 95% confidence interval [CI]; 0.074-0.087) and obesity (0.027, 95% CI; 0.021-0.034) among groups with high SES. There was a wide variation in socioeconomic-related inequality in overweight and obesity rate across 14 provinces. The decomposition results suggested that SES factor itself explained 66.77 and 89.07% of the observed socioeconomic inequalities in overweight and obesity among Iranian adults respectively. Following SES, province of residence, physical activity, using hookah and smoking were the major contributors to the concentration of overweight and obesity among the rich.

Conclusions: Overall, we found that overweight and obesity is concentrated among high SES people in the study population. . Accordingly, it seems that intersectional actions should be taken to control and prevent overweight and obesity among higher socioeconomic groups.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-8322-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7014739PMC
February 2020

Better muscle strength with healthy eating.

Eat Weight Disord 2021 Feb 10;26(1):367-374. Epub 2020 Feb 10.

Communing Developmental and Health Promotion Research Center, School of Public Health, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Purpose: Hand grip strength (HGS) can predict physical function in next year when it is positively associated with nutritional and health status. This study aimed to determine the relationship between the healthy eating index (HEI)-2015 and hand grip strength.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on data from 4010 participants in the Ravansar non-communicable disease (RaNCD) cohort study. HGS was measured using a hand-held hydraulic hand grip dynamometer. HEI-2015 was calculated using data from the food frequency questionnaire.

Results: The mean of total HEI-2015 score was significantly higher in participants with an optimal HGS than in participants with a weak HGS (P = 0.006). Higher adherence to healthy eating was associated with optimal muscle strength (OR 1.26; CI 95% 1.02-1.62). This association was remained after being adjusted for potential confounders (P = 0.01). Among the HEI-2015 components, we only found association between whole fruit, added sugar, and HGS (P = 0.01, 0.019).

Conclusions: Our findings indicated that adherence to HEI-2015 could promote muscle strength. Among the HEI-2015 components, higher intake of whole fruit and lower adherence to added sugar had significantly positive effects on HGS.

Level Of Evidence: Level V, descriptive cross-sectional study.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40519-020-00863-1DOI Listing
February 2021

Investigating associated factors with glomerular filtration rate: structural equation modeling.

BMC Nephrol 2020 01 29;21(1):30. Epub 2020 Jan 29.

Research Center for Environmental Determinants of Health (RCEDH), Health Institute, School of Health, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Background: Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is a valid indicator of kidney function. Different factors can affect GFR. The purpose of this study is to assess the direct and indirect effects of GFR-related factors using structural equation modeling.

Patients And Methods: We analyzed data from the baseline phase of the Ravansar Non-Communicable Disease cohort study. Data on socio-behavioral, nutritional, cardiovascular, and metabolic risk factors were analyzed using a conceptual model in order to test direct and indirect effects of factors related to GFR, separately in male and female, using the structural equation modeling.

Results: Of 8927 individuals who participated in this study, 4212 subjects were male (47.20%). The mean and standard deviation of GFR was 76.05 (±14.31) per 1.73 m. GFR for 0.2, 11.3, 73.0 and 15.5% of people were < 30, 30 - 59, 60 - 90 and >90, respectively. Hypertension and aging in both sexes and atherogenic factor in males directly, and in females, directly and indirectly, had decreasing effects on GFR. Blood urea nitrogen and smoking in male and female, directly or indirectly through other variables, were associated with a lower GFR. In females, diabetes had a direct and indirect decreasing effect on GFR. Obesity in females was directly associated with upper and indirectly associated with lower GFR.

Conclusion: According to our results, aging, hypertension, diabetes, obesity, high lipid profile, and BUN had a decreasing direct and indirect effect on GFR. Although low GFR might have different reasons, our findings, are in line with other reports and provide more detailed information about important risk factors of low GFR. Public awareness of such factors can improve practice of positive health behaviors.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12882-020-1686-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6990472PMC
January 2020
-->