Publications by authors named "Behrooz Ataei"

91 Publications

Novel and emerging mutations of SARS-CoV-2: Biomedical implications.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Apr 23;139:111599. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Nosocomial Infection Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The SARS-CoV-2 virus strains has geographical diversity associated with diverse severity, mortality rate, and response to treatment that were characterized using phylogenetic network analysis of SARS-CoV-2 genomes. Although, there is no explicit and integrative explanation for these variations, the genetic arrangement, and stability of SARS-CoV-2 are basic contributing factors to its virulence and pathogenesis. Hence, understanding these features can be used to predict the future transmission dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 infection, drug development, and vaccine. In this review, we discuss the most recent findings on the mutations in the SARS-CoV-2, which provide valuable information on the genetic diversity of SARS-CoV-2, especially for DNA-based diagnosis, antivirals, and vaccine development for COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2021.111599DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8062574PMC
April 2021

Antimicrobial Resistance in Hospitalized Patients with Community Acquired Urinary Tract Infection in Isfahan, Iran.

Arch Iran Med 2021 Mar 1;24(3):187-192. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Child Growth and Development Research Center, Research Institute for Primordial Prevention of non-Communicable Disease, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: Antibiotic resistance against uro-pathogens is a worldwide health concern. The aim of this study was to determine the causative bacteria and antibiotic susceptibility patterns among hospitalized patients with community acquired urinary tract infection (UTI).

Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in 2016-2018 in Isfahan, Iran. Urine samples were examined for strain identification and antimicrobial resistance pattern using standard tests. Stratification was done based on gender and age (<20 and >20 years) groups. Chi-square and Fisher exact tests were applied to assess differences in etiology and susceptibility rates between groups.

Results: Among 1180 patients, was the commonest pathogen (68.1%) followed by spp. (8.8%) and (8.0 %). Non- pathogens were more frequent among males (41.8% versus 24.8% in females, <0.01) and in those aged under 20 years (61.0% versus 22.2% in older than 20 years, <0.01). Isolated bacteria revealed high susceptibility to imipenem (94.9%), meropenem (92.2%), and amikacin (91.9%); moderate sensitivity to gentamicin (64.4%), cefepime (52.6%) and ceftazidime (47.2%); and low susceptibility to ceftriaxone (41.8%), cefotaxime (40.0%), ciprofloxacin (38.6%) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazol (31.3%). The sensitivity of isolates to ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, cefepime, imipenem, meropenem, amikacin and ciprofloxacin was significantly higher in females. Compared to the older age group, uro-pathogens were more susceptible to ciprofloxacin, ceftazidime and gentamicin in patients aged under 20 years.

Conclusion: We found that imipenem, meropenem and amikacin were good choices for empiric therapy of complicated or severe hospitalized patients with community acquired UTI; and gentamicin, cefepime and ceftazidime were acceptable as initial choices in non-severe infections in the area.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.34172/aim.2021.29DOI Listing
March 2021

Current status of COVID-19 pandemic; characteristics, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment.

J Res Med Sci 2020 3;25:101. Epub 2020 Nov 3.

Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Humans have always been encountered to big infectious diseases outbreak throughout the history. In December 2019, novel coronavirus (COVID-19) was first noticed as an agent causing insidious pneumonia in Wuhan, China. COVID-19 was spread rapidly from Wuhan to the rest of the world. Until late June 2020, it infected more than 10,000,000 people and caused more than 500,000 deaths in almost all of countries in the world, creating a global crisis worse than all previous epidemics and pandemics. In the current review, we gathered and summarized the results of various studies on characteristics, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of this pandemic crisis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jrms.JRMS_476_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7698386PMC
November 2020

Methodology and Early Results of the First Surveillance Program on Prevention and Control of Antimicrobial Resistance in Isfahan, Iran: The IAS-I Study.

Int J Prev Med 2020 3;11:137. Epub 2020 Sep 3.

Child Growth and Development Research Center, Research Institute for Primordial Prevention of Non-Communicable Disease, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: Isfahan Antibiotic Resistance Surveillance System-1 has been instituted in Isfahan, Iran to construct a project for surveillance of clinically significant bacteria, and to help raise a logic regional stewardship program for prevention and control of disseminating-resistant organisms.

Methods: During March 2016 to March 2018, an antibiotic resistance surveillance system was designed and implemented by Isfahan Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Research Center. The surveillance program was implemented in three general hospitals in Isfahan. In addition to the routine microbiology data, clinical data (differentiation between true infections and contamination, healthcare-associated infections (HCAI) and community-acquired infections (CAI), as well as determination of the infection site) were obtained and analyzed by WHONET software.

Results: During a 2-year period, from 7056 samples that revealed growth of bacteria, 3632 (51.5%) isolates were detected as contamination and 3424 (48.5%) true bacterial isolates were identified. Of these, about 32% of isolates were recognized as HCAI. Totally, the most recognized infections were urinary tract infection, bloodstream infection and skin and soft tissue infections. In patients with HCAIs, 70% of isolates were gram negative and in patients with CAIs 73% isolates were gram negative bacteria.

Conclusions: The strength of the project is gathering enough clinical information in addition to microbiologic data, which would increase application of the results for empiric treatment and prevention of the infectious diseases in clinical settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijpvm.IJPVM_189_19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7554560PMC
September 2020

Characterization of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producing Uropathogenic Among Iranian Kidney Transplant Patients.

Infect Drug Resist 2020 15;13:1429-1437. Epub 2020 May 15.

Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern and the presence of ESBLs among the uropathogenic (UPEC) isolated from kidney transplant patients (KTP) and community-acquired urinary tract infections (UTIs) using phenotypic and molecular methods.

Materials And Methods: A total of 111 pure cultures of UPEC isolates were collected from 65 and 46 of non-KTP and KTPs with UTIs. The pattern and ESBL production of the strains were evaluated. PCR reaction to detect the presence of , , and genes was performed.

Results: The results revealed that most of UPEC isolates obtained from KTPs and control group were resistant to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (84.8% vs 46.2%), while carbapenems (100% sensitivity) were the most effective against UPEC isolates. ESBL-producing strains were significantly more frequent in KTPs compared with control group (43.5% vs 23.1%, = 0.021). The molecular results revealed that 53.2% (59/111), 45% (50/111), and 5.4% (6/111) of isolates harbored , , and genes, respectively. Of the genes investigated, and genes were significantly higher among KTP than the control group.

Conclusion: Our results showed a high proportion of multidrug-resistant and ESBL-producing isolates, which most of them harbor blaCTX-M. A significant high co-resistance to different classes of antibiotics was reported from ESBL-producing UPEC from KTPs, which remains a serious clinical challenge.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IDR.S248572DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7237106PMC
May 2020

Species Variety, Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns and Prevalence of Enterotoxin Genes in Staphylococci Isolated from Foodstuff in Central Iran.

Iran J Public Health 2020 Jan;49(1):96-103

Department of Biology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

Background: The presence and diversity of species and their enterotoxin-encoding genes in foodstuffs have not been comprehensively studied in some developing countries. This study aimed to assess the frequency of spp. and their related virulence factors in foodstuffs in Isfahan, Iran.

Methods: Overall, 139 foodstuff samples, collected from Isfahan City (center of Iran) from Sep 2015 to Oct 2016, were processed for the presence of spp. using standard bacteriological procedures and sequence analysis of 16S rRNA gene. Antimicrobial susceptibilities and prevalence of and toxin-encoded genes (, , , and ) were tested for all of the isolates.

Results: Forty-four Gram-positive cocci were recovered from 139 dairy and meat samples The most prevalent species were 25.0% (11/44) and 20.5% (9/44); respectively. The most prevalent antimicrobial resistance was noted towards penicillin, cefoxitin and tetracycline. The , , and genes were found in 19%, 9.5%, 3.5%, and 3.5% of the isolates, respectively.

Conclusion: Numerous virulence factors were detected in different spp. isolated from foodstuffs, more attention should be paid to the presence of the bacteria. Proper hygienic and management practices should be considered in order to increase food safety and prevent extra treatment costs.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7152639PMC
January 2020

Comparison of two therapeutic approaches for the management of ventilator-associated pneumonia due to multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter: a randomized clinical trial study.

J Immunoassay Immunochem 2020 28;41(1):97-105. Epub 2019 Nov 28.

Department of infectious disease, School of medicine, Isfahan University of medical sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Management of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a puzzling issue for infectious disease specialist. The present clinical trial study was aimed to comparing the effects of injectable colistin plus nebulized colistin and injectable colistin plus nebulized tobramycin on management of patients with VAP due to multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter. VAP patients were randomly divided into two groups ( = 30/each): Group 1 - patients that received intravenous (IV) meropenem, injectable colistin plus nebulized colistin, as a routine treatment, and Group 2 - patients that received IV meropenem, injectable colistin plus nebulized tobramycin. A total of 14 days of therapeutic intervention are required for every case. Follow-up for subjects was performed at five time-points: days 1, 3, 5, 7, and 14 after intervention. Also, a mean of creatinine levels of patients was determined in five times. In the present study, the clinical pulmonary infection score (CPIS) was determined on the basis of points assigned for various clinically manifestations of VAP. Based on our statistical analysis, there was no significant difference between CPIS and creatinine level in both Groups 1 and 2 ( > .05). CPIS and other clinical investigation appeared effectiveness of the treatment with injected colistin plus nebulized tobramycin; on the other hand, the results of present clinical trial showed that aforementioned therapeutic approach can be used as an alternative treatment for the management of infection in VAP patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15321819.2019.1696818DOI Listing
February 2020

Clostridium difficile isolated from faecal samples in patients with ulcerative colitis.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Apr 30;19(1):361. Epub 2019 Apr 30.

Department of Pathobiology and Centre for Public Health and Zoonoses, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Canada.

Background: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that is widely identified worldwide. This study aimed to investigate the phenotypic characterization and molecular typing of Clostridium difficile isolates among patients with UC at an inflammatory bowel disease clinic in Iran.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, conducted from April 2015 to December 2015, 85 UC patients were assessed for C.difficile infection (CDI). C. difficile isolates were characterized based on their toxin profile and antimicrobial resistance pattern. Multi-locus sequence typing analysis (MLST) and PCR ribotyping were performed to define the genetic relationships between different lineages of toxigenic strains.

Results: The prevalence of C. difficile isolates was 31.8% (27/85) in patients, of those 15 patients (17.6%) had CDI. Three different sequence types (STs) identified based on MLST among the toxigenic isolates, that is ST54 (33.3%), ST2 (53.3%), and ST37 (13.6%). C. difficile strains were divided into four different PCR-ribotypes (012, 014, 017 and IR1). The most common ribotype was 014 accounting for 48.3% (7/15) of all strains. The strains isolated during the first episode and recurrence of CDI usually belonged to PCR ribotype 014 (ST2). A high rate of CDI recurrence (14.1%, 12/85) experienced in UC patients. Colonization of the gastrointestinal tract with non-toxigenic C. difficile strains was frequent among patients with mild disease. All C. difficile isolates were susceptible to metronidazole, and vancomycin, 86 and 67% of isolates were resistant to clindamycin and erythromycin respectively. There was no correlation between the toxin type and antibiotic resistance (p > 0.05).

Conclusion: Overall CDI is rather prevalent in UC patients. All patients with CDI experienced moderate to severe disease and exposed to different antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory agents. Close monitoring and appropriate management including early detection and fast treatment of CDI will improve UC outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-3965-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6492486PMC
April 2019

A case-control study of risk factors for hepatitis B infection: A regional report among Isfahanian adults.

J Res Med Sci 2019 25;24:22. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: Hepatitis B is one of the major causes of mortality among viral diseases. To reduce morbidity rate and increase knowledge of people about potential risk factors, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of hepatitis B among the general population and the risk factors associated with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Isfahan, Iran.

Materials And Methods: In a case-control study, 314 HBV-infected patients and 557 healthy participants were recruited. Data on demographics, immunization history, medical history, family medical history, life history, therapeutic factors, and behavioral risk factors were collected through a standard checklist. Chi-square and logistic regression were used for univariate and multivariable analyses.

Results: Our results showed that among sociodemographic variables, higher age, being male, lower economic status, and lower educational attainments increased the risk of affecting by HBV (odds ratio [OR] >1, < 0.001); furthermore, Iranian and no immigrant people showed higher significant risk of being affected by HBV. Multivariable logistic regression showed among medical, blood, and behavioral risk factors, family history of hepatitis (OR: 10.56; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.56-24.86), dental treatment history (OR: 4.30; 95% CI: 1.41-13.10), and hospitalization (OR: 2.94; 95% CI: 1.72-5.00).

Conclusion: Our results demonstrated that there are still several risk factors for hepatitis B surface antigen infection among the Iranian adult population. Immunization programs should continue and focus on high-risk adults, and interventions should be directed toward to reduce risk factors associated with hepatitis B.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jrms.JRMS_761_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6450138PMC
March 2019

Molecular epidemiology of infection in Iranian hospitals.

Antimicrob Resist Infect Control 2019 14;8:12. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

8Department of Pathobiology, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Canada.

Background: infection (CDI) is known as one of the most important causes of nosocomial infections. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of in the stool of hospitalized patients with diarrhea as well as in their environments.

Methods: isolates were characterized according to the presence of toxin genes and antibiotic resistance. Multilocus Sequence Typing Analysis (MLST) was applied for finding the genetic polymorphism and relationship among strain lineages.

Results: A total of 821 samples (574 stools and 247 swabs) were collected between April 2015 and May 2017. The prevalence of isolates was 28.6% (164/574) in patients and 19% (47/247) in swabs taken from medical devices, hands of healthcare workers and skin patient sites. Finally, 11.5% (66/574) toxigenic strains isolated from stool samples of inpatients and 4.4% (11/247) from hands of healthcare workers and skin patient sites. All the toxigenic isolates were inhibited by a low concentration of vancomycin (MIC < 0.5 μg/ml). About 43% (33/77) and 39% of isolates were resistant to Clindamycin and moxifloxacin respectively. All isolates were susceptible to metronidazole. Toxigenic strains were analyzed by MLST and were divided into 4 different STs. The detected types were ST-54 (57.9%), followed by ST-2 (31.6. %), ST-15 (5.3%) and ST-37 (5.3%), while none of the isolates were identified as ST-1 or ST-11. Significant risk factors for CDI appear to be advanced age, undergoing chemotherapy, previous surgery, and residence in the nursing home.

Conclusions: CDI is common in Iran and further studies are recommended to monitor its epidemiological variations. Moreover, greater attempts must be made to encourage antibiotic stewardship by healthcare workers and the public.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13756-018-0454-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6332892PMC
March 2020

Assessment of hepatitis C risk factors in center of Iran: A case-control study.

J Res Med Sci 2018 26;23:87. Epub 2018 Oct 26.

Emergency Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections remain as one of the major public health problems worldwide. The current study aimed at investigating the potential risk factors of HCV+ in a sample of Iranian patients.

Materials And Methods: In a case-control study, 436 HCV-infected patients and 531 age-matched HCV antibody negative controls were recruited in a central region of Iran. Sociodemographic characteristics, blood and therapeutic factors, underlying diseases, and behavioral risk factors were evaluated through a standard checklist and compared between two study groups.

Results: Although among studied potential risk factors, many of them were significantly associated with infected with HCV; however, in multivariable logistic regression model in the presence of other variables being male gender (odds ratio [OR]: 4.1; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.2-7.8), illiterate or less educated (OR: 62.64; 95% CI: 5.94-660.35), having history of intravenous (IV) drug addiction (OR: 33.0; 95% CI: 5.43-250.0), and tattooing (OR: 14.29; 95% CI: 1.82-90.91) increased risk of infection with HCV.

Conclusion: In total, the current case-control study documented that socioecomical factors including economical state, marital status, education, and ethnicity and also other expected factors such as hospitalization, imprisonment, dialysis, tattooing, needle sharing, IV drug abuse, and extramarital sexual relationship represent an important source of HCV infection among adults in a central region of Iran. Thus, we suggest further considerations for prevention of HCV infection as most of related factors are preventable by close considerations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jrms.JRMS_1211_17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6225444PMC
October 2018

Molecular evidence and risk factors of Coxiella burnetii among seropositive high-risk individuals in the center of Iran.

Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 2018 Dec 20;61:34-37. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Isfahan Veterinary Offices, Head of Public Health Supervision Section, Isfahan, Iran.

This study evaluated the prevalence of C. burnetii DNA in blood samples of the high-risk population in central Iran. In spring 2015, a nested PCR was applied to detect C. burnetii DNA in 173 blood samples from seropositive high-risk individuals in Isfahan County. A checklist was used for extracting data. Univariate tests and multivariable binary logistic regression were performed to analyze the data and P values < 0.05 were considered significant. In total, 9.83% of the samples were positive and an association was found between the prevalence of C. burnetii DNA and the presence of IgG antibodies against phase I and/or II (P = 0.04) in univariate analysis. However, in multivariable logistic regression model, no risk factor was seen. This study revealed that high-risk populations in Isfahan County had been exposed to C. burnetii. This can alert health policymakers to the possibility of a Q fever epidemic in the region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cimid.2018.11.003DOI Listing
December 2018

Detection of Coxiella burnetii and risk factors for infection in ruminants in a central county of Iran.

Vet Microbiol 2018 Aug 15;222:7-10. Epub 2018 Jun 15.

Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Q fever is an important zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii. This study assessed the prevalence of C. burnetii DNA in blood samples of ruminants and identified the risk factors of infection. In a cross-sectional study, 480 blood samples from 56 herds in Isfahan, Iran were tested for the presence of IS1111 transposon of C. burnetii by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The general information of the herds was collected by a checklist. Univariate tests and a multivariate binary logistic regression model were used and P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. In total, 7.5% of the cattle, 10% of the sheep, and 6.8% of the goats were positive and 25 herds had at least a positive sample. The multivariate logistic regression model showed a lower prevalence rate in herds with fewer than 170 animals (OR: 0.24; 95% CI: 0.11-0.56; P = 0.001). Moreover, ruminants in commercial farms were at lower risk than those in traditional farms (OR: 0.08; 95% CI: 0.01-0.87; P = 0.038). This study confirmed ruminants as important reservoirs of C. burnetii infection in Isfahan County, Iran. Animals in larger herds and traditional farms seem to play a significant role in the transmission of infection. Further studies are recommended on other biological samples such as vaginal mucus or feces.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2018.06.008DOI Listing
August 2018

Species diversity and molecular analysis of Staphylococcus in confectioneries of a developing country, Iran.

Infez Med 2018 Jun;26(2):148-154

Department of Biology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

Confectionery is one of the potential sources of contamination and transmission of gastrointestinal infections to humans. Staphylococcus species, and particularly the coagulase-positive ones, have the remarkable capability to produce high amounts of enterotoxin in food. In the present study, the frequency and diversity of Staphylococcus in confectioneries in Iran were assessed by using a combination of conventional and molecular methods. A total of 55 confection samples were collected from 30 confectioneries of Isfahan. They were analyzed for the presence of Staphylococcus using standard protocols for isolation and characterization of the isolates. The conventional tests were used for primary identification and the sequence analysis of 16S rRNA was used for the species identification. A total of 47 out of 55 samples were gram-positive cocci (85.45%). They belonged to 39 Staphylococcus spp., 7 Macrococcus spp., and one Micrococcus spp. The most prevalent 11 various Staphylococcus species were S. aureus 30.8 %, S. warneri 20.5% and S. succinus 17.9. Identification and characterization of Staphylococcus species can be important for epidemiological investigations and assessment of virulence factors such as enterotoxin production and development of specific management practices to prevent staphylococcal food poisoning.
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June 2018

Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B Infection and Associated Risk Factors among Drug Users in Drop-in Centers of Isfahan, Iran.

Int J Prev Med 2018 16;9:46. Epub 2018 May 16.

Nosocomial Infection Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: Scientists perceive drug users (DUs) as a high-risk population for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Effective strategies aiming at the reduction of HBV infection can be depicted when its epidemiological status is clearly defined. The present study provides new insight into associated risk factors of HBV infection and its seroepidemiological status among DUs attending drop-in centers (DICs).

Methods: This was a cross-sectional study, which was implemented in 7 DICs of Isfahan province. The sample size included 539 participants. Demographic data and risk factors for HBV infection were obtained by a trained social worker using a self-made structured questionnaire. Venous blood sample was obtained and tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B surface antibody, and total hepatitis B core antibody (HBcAb) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

Results: Mean age of the participants was 31.76 ± 8.4 years. They were generally male, Iranian, urban, with an education level of high school or less. The prevalence of HBV infection (HBsAg and/or HBcAb) was 18% (88.490). Regression analysis showed that age, bloodletting, and drug injection, being the sexual partner of injecting DU (IDU), as well as frequency and duration of imprisonment positively correlated with HBV infection.

Conclusions: Drug injection bloodletting, and being the sexual partner of IDU, as well as frequency and duration of imprisonment could be considered as contributing factors in HBV infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijpvm.IJPVM_382_16DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5981222PMC
May 2018

Molecular evolution and phylodynamics of hepatitis B virus infection circulating in Iran.

Arch Virol 2018 Jun 13;163(6):1479-1488. Epub 2018 Feb 13.

Hepatitis B Lab, Department of Virology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, P. O. Box: 15155-6446, Tehran, 14155-6446, Iran.

Previous local and national Iranian publications indicate that all Iranian hepatitis B virus (HBV) strains belong to HBV genotype D. The aim of this study was to analyze the evolutionary history of HBV infection in Iran for the first time, based on an intensive phylodynamic study. The evolutionary parameters, time to most recent common ancestor (tMRCA), and the population dynamics of infections were investigated using the Bayesian Monte Carlo Markov chain (BMCMC). The effective sample size (ESS) and sampling convergence were then monitored. After sampling from the posterior distribution of the nucleotide substitution rate and other evolutionary parameters, the point estimations (median) of these parameters were obtained. All Iranian HBV isolates were of genotype D, sub-type ayw2. The origin of HBV is regarded as having evolved first on the eastern border, before moving westward, where Isfahan province then hosted the virus. Afterwards, the virus moved to the south and west of the country. The tMRCA of HBV in Iran was estimated to be around 1894, with a 95% credible interval between the years 1701 and 1957. The effective number of infections increased exponentially from around 1925 to 1960. Conversely, from around 1992 onwards, the effective number of HBV infections has decreased at a very high rate. Phylodynamic inference clearly demonstrates a unique homogenous pattern of HBV genotype D compatible with a steady configuration of the decreased effective number of infections in the population in recent years, possibly due to the implementation of blood donation screening and vaccination programs. Adequate molecular epidemiology databases for HBV are crucial for infection prevention and treatment programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00705-018-3764-3DOI Listing
June 2018

Epidemiology of Q fever in Iran: A systematic review and meta-analysis for estimating serological and molecular prevalence.

J Res Med Sci 2017 28;22:121. Epub 2017 Nov 28.

Department of Epidemiology, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Q fever is endemic in Iran, thus, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis on epidemiology of among humans and animals in Iran.

Materials And Methods: A systematic search was performed to identify all articles reporting prevalence in Iranian humans or animals, published from January 2000 to January 2015. Data from articles were extracted, and a pooled estimate of prevalence with corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated using random effect method.

Results: In this review, 27 papers were identified. The pooled seroprevalence of Q fever in animals was 27% (CI 95%: 23%-32%). The prevalence was 33% (CI 95%: 22%-45%) in goats, 27% (CI 95%: 21%-32%) in sheep, and 17% (CI 95%: 5%-28%) in cattle. The bacterial DNA was detected in 5% (95% CI: 3%-9%) of milk samples, and it was higher in cattle (10%; 95% CI: 6%-16%) than sheep (2%; 95% CI: 0-7%) and goats (4%; 95% CI: 0-12%).

Conclusion: DNA or its antibody has been frequently detected among ruminants. Since these animals can transmit the infection to humans, Q fever could be a potential health problem in Iran.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jrms.JRMS_586_17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5721492PMC
November 2017

Prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Infections and Their Risk Factors among Female Sex Workers in Isfahan, Iran: A Cross-Sectional Study.

J Int Assoc Provid AIDS Care 2017 Nov/Dec;16(6):608-614. Epub 2017 Oct 11.

1 Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Objectives: Female sex workers (FSWs) are at high risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and form a core group to facilitate STI spreading. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of STIs among FSWs who attended Female Harm Reduction Center of Isfahan, Iran, and to determine the association between risky behaviors and STIs.

Study Design: In a cross-sectional study, 99 FSWs were recruited and interviewed about demographic characteristics and risky behaviors. A trained midwife examined FSWs for genital ulcer, abnormal vaginal discharge, and cervicitis. Urine and genital specimens were collected and real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to diagnose Neisseria gonorrhoeae, human papilloma virus (HPV), and Trichomonas Vaginalis. Data were analyzed via χ test and logistic regression in StataCorp software (version 11) with 95% confidence interval.

Results: Totally, 84.9% of FSWs reported STI symptoms, while 12.1% of them were infected with N gonorrhoeae, HPV, or T vaginalis. Human papilloma virus and gonorrhea prevalence rates were 5.7% and 8% in FSWs with STI-associated symptoms. Sexually transmitted infections showed significant association with duration of prostitution (odds ratio [OR] = 1.009 [95% confidence interval [95% CI: 1.004-1.01]; OR = 1.01 [95% CI: 1.00-1.01]) and condom usage (OR = 0.11 [95% CI: 0.012-0.98]; OR = 0.04 [95% CI: 0.005-0.33]).

Conclusion: Due to the literature gap on the Iranian FSWs' sexual health and the intense stigma around this subject, in Iran, our results would be useful for developing an efficient intervention program. The prevalence of STIs in Isfahan FSWs can be controlled with programs such as consistent condom use and STI treatment. In addition, as just one-tenth of FSWs with an STI symptom were positive for an STI, symptomatic diagnosis of STIs might be insufficient.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2325957417732836DOI Listing
September 2018

Distribution of Elements and Presence of Panton-Valentine Leukocidin in Methicillin-Resistant Isolated from Clinical Samples in a University Hospital of Isfahan City, Iran.

J Clin Diagn Res 2017 Jul 1;11(7):DC27-DC31. Epub 2017 Jul 1.

Nosocomial Infection Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Introduction: Coagulase Negative (CoNS) is considered as a major pathogen of nosocomial infections among immunosuppressed patients.

Aim: The aim of this study was to identify the types of () and Panton-Valentine Leukocidin () gene among clinical Methicillin-Resistant isolates collected from Isfahan.

Materials And Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed from March 2014 to January 2015 at a tertiary care hospital of Isfahan, Iran. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests of isolates were performed by the disc diffusion method. All the strains were screened for methicillin resistance based on resistance to cefoxitin (30 μg) disc and presence of gene. Determination of typing and toxin gene were performed by PCR method. For categorical variables different groups were compared using the Chi-square test or Fisher exact test. A p-value of <0.05 was considered significant for all statistical tests.

Results: The frequency of MRSE was 53.8% according to the presence of gene. The overall resistance rate was high with ciprofloxacin (81.4%). PCR analysis showed that 17% (12/70) of MRSE isolate carried the PVL gene and 43% (30/70) were type I; 11.4% (8/70) were type II; and 34.2% (24/70) were type IV, whereas, 11.4% (8/70) of the MRSE isolates could not be typed.

Conclusion: type I was the major type of , which indicates an emergence of this type in the studied medical centers. Increased prevalence of types in community is cause of an increase in antibiotic resistance among microorganisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7860/JCDR/2017/25518.10258DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5583865PMC
July 2017

Monoclonal Antibodies Production Against a 40KDa Band of Hydatid Cyst Fluid.

Recent Pat Biotechnol 2018 ;12(1):57-64

Cancer Prevention Research Centre, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan. Iran.

Background And Objectives: Hydatid cyst is the larval stage of the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus. Hydatid cyst fluid, cyst membrane and Protoscolices, contain a complex mixture of antigens that can induce immune responses in the host. Anti-cancer properties of Protoscolices and hydatid cyst fluid has been shown. In order to identify antigens of hydatid cyst fluid that have anti-cancer effect, in this study production of monoclonal antibodies against one of the hydatid cyst fluid band (40KDa) has been investigated. There are many published patents about applications of monoclonal antibodies.

Methods: In this experimental study, 40KDa band of hydatid cyst fluid that has cross reaction with sera of patients with breast cancer was used as antigen. A group of mice were immunized with this antigen, and then their spleen cells were extracted and fused with SP2 cells. Monoclonal antibodies production was checked in wells with signs of cell growth using ELISA and western blotting. The reaction of the produced monoclonal antibodies with breast cancer cells was tested using flow cytometry method. Finally, effect of the monoclonal antibodies on growth of breast cancer cells was investigated in vitro.

Results: The results of this study showed that in the first plate antibody against 40KDa was detected in several wells. In the second plate monoclonal antibodies with high titer was detected in one well. The produced monoclonal antibodies reacted with the surface of breast cancer cells. However, they had no significant effect on growth of breast cancer cells in culture medium.

Conclusion: Monoclonal antibodies against hydatid cyst fluid 40KDa band were produced. These antibodies reacted with the surface of breast cancer cells but had no significant effect on growth of these cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1872208311666170317151346DOI Listing
July 2018

Antibiotic susceptibility patterns of isolates from children with urinary tract infection in Isfahan, Iran: Impact on empirical treatment.

J Glob Antimicrob Resist 2017 06 21;9:3-7. Epub 2017 Feb 21.

Child Growth and Development Research Center, Research Institute for Primordial Prevention of Non-communicable Disease, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran. Electronic address:

Objectives: The aim of this study was to identify the antibiotic susceptibility of bacteria causing urinary tract infections (UTIs) in children in Isfahan, Iran.

Methods: Retrospective and prospective analyses were conducted on isolates from children with UTIs in a referral teaching hospital of Isfahan during 2013-2015. Findings were compared between first episode versus recurrent, nosocomial versus community-acquired, previous antibiotic use versus no previous antibiotic use, and febrile versus afebrile cases.

Results: Among 364 patients, 68.1% had no previous UTI, 19.7% has received antibiotics prior to infection and 96.2% were infected outside the hospital. Escherichia coli was the leading cause of UTI (68.1%), followed by Enterobacter (9.3%), Klebsiella (8.8%) and other bacteria (13.7%). Most isolates were relatively highly susceptible to imipenem (79.2%), ciprofloxacin (78.0%) and nitrofurantoin (70.8%), whereas sensitivity to cefotaxime (53%), cefalexin (39.8%) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (SXT) (26.1%) was low. Resistance to imipenem, cefotaxime and cefalexin was more prevalent in recurrent cases as well as in patients consuming antibiotics prior to UTI. Resistance of nosocomial cases to nitrofurantoin and cefotaxime was higher. In addition, afebrile patients had isolates that were more resistant to imipenem, ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime. Significant cross-resistance was found between most of the studied antibiotics.

Conclusions: Urinary pathogens showed low susceptibility to cefalexin, SXT and cefotaxime and high susceptibility to imipenem, ciprofloxacin and nitrofurantoin. Therefore, use of imipenem and ciprofloxacin should be considered in hospitalised children with severe or complicated disease. In addition, nitrofurantoin is a good option in afebrile cases and for UTI chemoprophylaxis in this area.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jgar.2016.12.014DOI Listing
June 2017

Seroprevalence and risk factors of Coxiella burnetii infection among high-risk population in center of Iran, a neglected health problem.

Acta Trop 2017 May 5;169:107-111. Epub 2017 Feb 5.

Acquired Immunodeficiency Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

In order to evaluate the prevalence of antibodies against phase I and II antigens of Coxiella Burnetii and to identify related risk factors among high-risk groups in the center of Iran, a serological survey was performed in Isfahan County. In a cross-sectional study, 401 sera were collected from slaughterhouse workers, butchers, farmers and veterinarians in spring 2015. Samples were tested for specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against phase I and II of C. burnetii by indirect immunofluorescence assay. A checklist was fulfilled to document demographic information. Univariate analysis and multivariable binary logistic regression model were used to analyze data. IgG antibodies against phases I and II of C. burnetii were detected in 19% and 36.9% of participants, respectively. The overall seropositivity (IgG against phase I and/or II) was 43.1%. The present study shows a high seroprevalence of C. burnetii infection among high-risk population in center of Iran. It is suggested to carry out occupational health monitoring programs for individuals who may be exposed to C. burnetii.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.02.002DOI Listing
May 2017

Detection and risk factors of Coxiella burnetii infection in dairy cattle based on bulk tank milk samples in center of Iran.

Prev Vet Med 2016 Nov 5;134:139-144. Epub 2016 Oct 5.

Isfahan Veterinary Office, Health & Management of Animal Disease Section, Isfahan, Iran.

Infection with Coxiella burnetii has a worldwide distribution in ruminants and is associated with abortions and reproductive problems in this group of animals. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of C. burnetii DNA in bulk tank milk (BTM) of dairy cattle herds and to identify the risk factors of infection. This cross-sectional study was conducted in spring 2015. A total of 163 BTM samples from 74 commercial and 89 traditional dairy cattle herds in Isfahan, Iran was tested for the IS1111 transposon of C. burnetii by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A checklist containing general information of the herds was filled for each farm. Data were analyzed using univariate tests (chi square and t-tests) and multivariable binary logistic regression analysis. Bacterial DNA was detected in 8.6% of the samples (95% CI: 4.2- 12.9). In univariate analysis, the prevalence rate was higher in traditional herds than in commercial herds (n=12; 13.5% vs. n=2; 2.7%; P=0.01). The prevalence rate was inversely associated with the size and infection control score of the herd. In multivariable binary logistic regression, however, only herd size was found to be related with the infection rate, i.e. herds with ≥80 cattle were less likely to be infected (OR: 0.07; 95% CI: 0.01- 0.77; P=0.03). The only identified risk factor for this infection was the herd size. In fact, smaller herds (size <80) were more likely to be infected.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2016.10.003DOI Listing
November 2016

Comparison of the Prevalence and Risk Factors of Hepatitis A in 10 to 18-Year-Old Adolescents of Sixteen Iranian Provinces: The CASPIAN-III Study.

Hepat Mon 2016 Sep 17;16(9):e36437. Epub 2016 Aug 17.

Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran.

Background: Hepatitis A is a common health concern both in developing and developed countries. Hygienic and socioeconomic parameters deeply impact the prevalence and transmission of this disease. Evaluating the epidemiological distribution and risk factors for Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is necessary for policy makers to improve local and national preventive measures.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of hepatitis A infection in a sample of Iranian adolescents living in different provinces of Iran and to assess its family- and community-related risk factors.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, serum samples of 10 to 18-year-old adolescents, who were studied in a national health survey, were examined for anti-HAV antibodies. A total of 2,494 subjects were included from 16 provinces by multistage random cluster sampling. Demographic and socioeconomic factors related to HAV transmission were extracted by valid questionnaires. A multilevel analysis using mixed-effects logistic regression (melogit) was used to evaluate the association of risk factors with HAV infection.

Results: The weighted prevalence of HAV varied significantly across the studied provinces (P = 0.001), ranging from 50.43% in the Fars province to 78.81% in Markazi province. HAV was significantly more prevalent in children whose mothers worked outside of the home (OR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.14-2.62; P = 0.009).

Conclusions: The risk of symptomatic HAV infection is considerable in adolescents of all studied provinces; thus, universal HAV vaccination is recommended for all adolescents, regardless of their socioeconomic level. However, the risk is higher in some provinces, which seem to be transitioning from intermediate to low endemicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/hepatmon.36437DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5091029PMC
September 2016

Tenofovir in treatment of Iranian patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection: An open-label case series.

J Res Pharm Pract 2016 Jul-Sep;5(3):166-70

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Objective: Tenofovir is among the first-line treatments for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) virus infection. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of Tenofovir in treatment of Iranian patients with CHB.

Methods: Forty treatment-native patients with CHB but without concurrent hepatitis C or human immunodeficiency virus infections were treated with Tenobiovir(™) 300 mg/day. The hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA load, hepatitis B e antigen (HBe Ag), anti-hepatitis B e antibody (HBe Ab), liver enzymes, and creatinine were measured before and at least 3 months after the treatment.

Findings: The mean age of patients was 38.1 ± 12.4 years and 65% of them were male. Seventeen (42.5%) patients were HBe Ag-positive and 15 (37.5%) patients had alanine aminotransferase (ALT) of two times above the normal. The HBV DNA load was significantly decreased after the treatment (P < 0.001). Twenty-seven (67.5%) patients had viral load of ≤2000 IU/ml and 22 (55%) patients had undetectable HBV DNA level after the treatment. Among positive HBe Ag patients, the HBe Ag became negative in 15 (88.2%) patients after the treatment and HBe Ab became positive in 3 (17.6%) patients. Liver enzymes' levels were significantly decreased after the treatment (P <0.05) and ALT transaminase level became normalized in 86.7% (13 out of 15) of cases with baseline levels twice the normal.

Conclusion: Treatment response rate to Tenofovir in Iranian patients with CHB was high. The virological and serological response rate and safety of Tenofovir in our population was comparable to other populations. Considering availability and costs, Tenobiovir(™) could be recommended as the first-line therapy of chronic HBV infection in Iran.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2279-042X.185714DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4966234PMC
August 2016

Association Between Acute Infectious Mononucleosis and Vitamin D Deficiency.

Viral Immunol 2016 09 9;29(7):398-400. Epub 2016 Aug 9.

5 Department of Neurology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center , Los Angeles, California.

Epstein-Barr virus and vitamin D both have been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, especially multiple sclerosis (MS). Vitamin D influences both innate and adaptive immune responses and has been linked to increased susceptibility to other viral infections such as influenza. Here we aimed to examine the association between vitamin D and acute infectious mononucleosis (IM).This study is a case-control study that was conducted on IM patients and a control group of healthy individuals at infectious disease clinics of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Patients were recruited from January to December 2014. The viral capsid antigen (VCA) IgM titer and vitamin D levels were measured at the time of acute infection in IM patients. We also measured vitamin D levels in healthy controls recruited during the same period of time. A total number of 60 IM patients with the mean age of 23.26 ± 7.59 and a healthy control group with the mean age of 25.13 ± 6.72 were enrolled. In the IM patients, there was no significant association between 25(OH) D3 levels and VCA IgM titers (r = 0.190, p = 0.146). Mean 25(OH) D3 levels in IM patients were significantly lower than in the control group (15.61 ± 9.72 vs. 21.41 ± 12.64, p = 0.006). Our findings showed significantly lower vitamin D levels in IM patients at the time of infection than in the control group, providing some evidence that the two major risk factors for autoimmune diseases (e.g., MS) might not be independent risk factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/vim.2016.0038DOI Listing
September 2016

Comparison of the effect of co-trimoxazole and co-trimoxazole plus ciprofloxacin in urinary tract infection prophylaxis in kidney transplant patients.

Adv Biomed Res 2016 8;5:108. Epub 2016 Jun 8.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI) as an important infection in the setting of renal transplantation carries the high mortality and morbidity rate. Thus, the prevention of this infection should receive higher priority. However, bacterial resistance to antibiotics is on the rise, with limited data to guide prophylaxis. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SMZ/TMP) and SMZ/TMP plus ciprofloxacin for prophylaxis of UTI in renal transplant recipients.

Materials And Methods: In a clinical trial study, 50 patients were included and divided into two groups of 25 using block randomization. Patients in Group I received prophylactic SMZ/TMP and those in Group II received ciprofloxacin plus SMZ/TMP. The incidence of UTI in the two groups at 1, 3, and 6 months after transplantation was evaluated. This study was registered in Iranian Registry of Clinical Trial (IRCT number: IRCT 2015120823743N1).

Results: Of the 61 patients older than 18 years at the time of transplantation, 50 were included. UTI was documented in 8 patients (32%) in Group I and 3 (12%) in Group II (P = 0.026). The average time for the development of the first case of infection was the same for both groups (P = 0.241), and it was at its maximum in the 1(st) month. Urinary infections caused by Escherichia coli, the dominant strain, were the same in both groups (P = 0.673).

Conclusions: Our study shows that the addition of 1 month course of ciprofloxacin lowered the incidence of UTI. More studies are needed to confirm the efficacy of this approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2277-9175.183669DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4918205PMC
July 2016

Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Varicella Zoster Infection in Iranian Adolescents: A Multilevel Analysis; The CASPIAN-III Study.

PLoS One 2016 29;11(6):e0158398. Epub 2016 Jun 29.

Pediatrics Department, Child Growth and Development Research Center, Research Institute for Primordial Prevention of Non-communicable Disease, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

The objective of this study was to evaluate the varicella zoster virus (VZV) immunity in Iranian adolescents. It was conducted as a primary study for vaccine implementation, and to investigate the association of climatic and socioeconomic factors with the epidemiology of this infection. In this cross- sectional study, anti VZV antibodies were measured in serum samples obtained in a national school-based health survey (CASPIAN- III). Association of demographic, socio-economic, and climate of the living region with the frequency of VZV was investigated by multivariate multilevel analysis. Overall, sera of 2753 individuals aged 10-18 were tested for VZV antibodies, from those 87.4% were positive. The prevalence was statistically different in four socio-geographic regions (P<0.001), varying between 85.24% in West region (mostly mountainous areas with cold climate) to 94.59% in Southeast region (subtropical climate). Among variables studied, only age and mean daily temperature of the living area were positively associated with the VZV seroprevalence. Our findings show that most Iranians develop immunity to VZV before the age of 10, but a substantial proportion of them are yet susceptible to the infection. Therefore, it seems that the best strategy to reduce the burden of the disease is to vaccinate high- risk adults, i.e. those without a history of varicella infection. The regional temperature might be the only determinant of VZV epidemiology in Iran.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0158398PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4927171PMC
July 2017

Prevalence of interleukin-28B single nucleotide polymorphism genotypes in patients with hepatitis C infection in Isfahan, Iran.

Adv Biomed Res 2016 30;5:90. Epub 2016 May 30.

Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: Hepatitis C infection is one of the most common causes of liver-related morbidity and mortality. Due to limited efficacy and side-effects of treatment, identification of the determinants of response to treatment is an important issue. Nowadays, genotyping of interleukin (IL)-28B is one of the strongest tests used for prediction of sustained virological response. The prevalence of IL28B genotypes varies across different ethnicities. This study presents data on IL28B single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (rs12979860) in a group of Iranian hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients in Isfahan.

Materials And Methods: One hundred patients already diagnosed for hepatitis C enrolled the study. Genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood samples. Specific primers were used to amplify IL28B gene (rs12979860). The rs129679860 SNP was genotyped by real-time polymerase chain reaction using TaqMan(®) probes.

Results: The mean age of patients was 33.16 years (25-42 years). Ninety-nine subjects were male and 1 was female. The frequency of HCV genotypes was as follows: Genotype 3a: 53%, genotype 1a: 42%, genotype 1b: 2%, mixed genotype (1a + 3a): 1% and 2%: Nontypable. IL28B rs12979860 genotypes were TT in 17 patients (17%), CT in 41 patients (41%), and CC in the remaining 42 patients (42%).

Conclusion: The prevalence of C allele is much higher in our population study than in African American HCV patients (62.5% and 40% respectively), which can explain better response to treatment in our patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2277-9175.183138DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4908785PMC
June 2016

Evolution of hepatitis B virus surface gene and protein among Iranian chronic carriers from different provinces.

Iran J Microbiol 2015 Aug;7(4):214-20

Hepatitis B Molecular Laboratory-Department of Virology-School of Public Health-Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background And Objectives: Iranian chronic HBV carrier's population has shown a unique pattern of genotype D distribution all around the country. The aim of this study was to explore more details of evolutionary history of carriers based on structural surface proteins from different provinces.

Materials And Methods: Sera obtained from 360 isolates from 12 Different regions of country were used for amplification and sequencing of surface proteins. A detailed mutational analysis was undertaken.

Results: The total ratio for Missense/Silent nucleotide substitutions was 0.96. Sistan and Kermanshah showed the lowest rate of evolution between provinces (P = 0.055). On the other hand, Khorasan Razavi and Khoozestan contained the highest ratio (P = 0.055). The rest of regions were laid between these two extremes. Azarbayjan and Guilan showed the highest proportion of immune epitope distribution (91.3% and 96%, respectively). Conversely, Sistan and Tehran harbored the least percentage (66.6% and 68.8%, respectively). Kermanshah province contained only 5.2%, whereas Isfahan had 54.5% of B cell epitope distribution. In terms of T helper epitopes, all provinces showed a somehow homogeneity: 22.58% (Fars) to 46.6% (Khuzestan). On the other hand, distribution of substitutions within the CTL epitopes showed a wide range of variation between 6.6% (Khuzestan) and 63% (Kermanshah).

Conclusion: Further to low selection pressure found in Iranian population, the variations between different regions designate random genetic drift within the surface proteins. These finding would have some applications in terms of specific antiviral regimen, design of more efficient vaccine and public health issues.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4685166PMC
August 2015