Publications by authors named "Behpour Yousefi"

17 Publications

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Corrigendum to "Microinjection of the BDNF receptor antagonist ANA-12 into the nucleus accumbens and medial-prefrontal cortex attenuates morphine-induced reward memory, and alterations of BDNF levels and apoptotic cells in rats" [Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 201 (2021) 173111].

Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2021 Apr 16;203:173150. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Laboratory of Animal Addiction Models, Research Center of Physiology, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, Iran; Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, Iran. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pbb.2021.173150DOI Listing
April 2021

Microinjection of the BDNF receptor antagonist ANA-12 into the nucleus accumbens and medial-prefrontal cortex attenuates morphine-induced reward memory, and alterations of BDNF levels and apoptotic cells in rats.

Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2021 02 12;201:173111. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Laboratory of Animal Addiction Models, Research Center of Physiology, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, Iran; Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, Iran. Electronic address:

This study was designed to examine the effects of intra- nucleus accumbens (NAc) of BDNF receptor antagonist ANA-12 on the acquisition and expression and intra- medial-prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of ANA-12 on the extinction and reinstatement of morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) and also BDNF levels and apoptotic neurons in the NAc and mPFC of rats. In this study, adult male Wistar rats (200-250 g) were used. Two separate cannulas were inserted bilaterally into the NAc and/or mPFC. ANA-12 (3 μg/0.5 μl/side) was injected into the NAc and/or mPFC to evaluate the rewarding effects of morphine using a CPP paradigm. Then, the levels of BDNF and apoptotic in the NAc and mPFC were assessed at the end of each treatment phase using ELISA and TUNEL methods, respectively. All of vehicle-treated rats following morphine CPP showed the increase of BDNF levels and apoptotic neurons in the NAc and mPFC. ANA-12 significantly attenuated the acquisition and expression of morphine-induced CPP, BDNF levels and apoptotic neurons in the NAc during the acquisition, but not the expression phase. Also, ANA-12 significantly facilitated the extinction, but no effect on reinstatement of morphine CPP, and decreased BDNF levels and apoptotic neurons in the mPFC during the extinction, but not the reinstatement. We conclude that blocking TrkB with ANA-12 showed therapeutic effects on morphine-associated reward memory and neuronal death in the NAc and mPFC induced by morphine CPP. Thus, the BDNF-TrkB signaling may be important in the acquisition, expression, extinction, but not the reinstatement of morphine CPP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pbb.2021.173111DOI Listing
February 2021

Exercise and crocin prevent adolescent-stress induced impairment of spatial navigation and dendritic retraction in the hippocampal CA3 area in adult male rats.

Brain Res 2021 03 7;1754:147274. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Research Center of Physiology, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, Iran. Electronic address:

Adolescent chronic stress has been shown to induce functional, biochemical and morphological modifications of the hippocampus, leading to stress-related disorders in adulthood. The present study investigated the effects of exercise, crocin and their combination on spatial learning and memory impairment and dendritic retraction of the CA3 pyramidal neurons induced by chronic adolescent stress in adult male rats. Rats were exposed to restraint stress 2 h/day for 10 days during postnatal days (PNDs) 30-40. Following this period, separate groups of animals were treated with crocin (25 and 50 mg/kg), exposed to running wheel, and or received the combined treatment during PNDs 41-55. Following the interventions, plasma levels of corticosterone, spatial learning and memory, apical dendritic length of CA3 pyramidal neurons and BDNF levels in the CA3 area were assessed. Findings showed that adolescent stress significantly increased corticosterone levels and caused a tendency to reduce CA3 BDNF levels. Adolescent stress also impaired spatial learning and memory, and retracted apical dendritic length of CA3 pyramidal neurons. Crocin, voluntary exercise, and their combination recovered stress-induced spatial learning and impairment and CA3 pyramidal neurons dendritic length retraction. All treatments also reduced significantly corticosterone levels and enhanced CA3 BDNF levels in the stress groups. Finally, these treatments even increased apical dendritic length of CA3 pyramidal neurons in the non-stress groups. These findings indicate that detrimental effects of adolescent stress on cognitive function and hippocampal morphology in adulthood could be restored by early interventions with physical activity and crocin treatment during adolescent period.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2020.147274DOI Listing
March 2021

Co-administration of Aluminum Sulfate and Propolis Regulates Matrix Metalloproteinases-2/9 Expression and Improves the Uterine Leiomyoma in Adult Rat Model.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2021 Mar 27;199(3):1002-1012. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Abnormal Uterine Bleeding Research Center, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, Iran.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aluminum sulfate (alum) with propolis (PR) on uterine leiomyoma (UL) in rat model. One hundred and four female Wistar rats (180-200 g) were allocated into two main groups of control (Co, n = 8) and experiment (UL model [estradiol benzoate 200 μg/kg/IM twice/week/8 weeks] with/without treatment) defined in 13 subgroups with/without treatment with coil oil (UL + COi), PR (100 or 200 mg/kg) as UL + PR100 or 200, alum (35, 75 or 150 mg/Kg) as UL + AL 35, 75, or 150, and PR (100 mg/kg or 200) with alum (35, 75, or 150 mg/Kg) as UL + PR100 or 200 + AL35, 75, or 150. Subgroups received doses of therapeutics for 14 days (IP). In the end, rats were sacrificed, and the uteri were isolated for molecular and histopathological investigations. The myometrium thickness, collagen contents, and gene expression of MMP-2 and 9 increased significantly in experimental groups with/without treatment (P ˂ 0.05). PR administration (100 and 200 mg/kg) alone or with alum (35 and 75 mg/kg) significantly decreased myometrium collagen contents and the gene expression and protein concentration of MMP-2 and 9 compared with UL and UL + Coi subgroups (P ˂ 0.05). Alum (75 mg/kg) with PR (200 mg/kg) could improve UL features and reduce MMP-2 and 9 gene expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-020-02200-0DOI Listing
March 2021

Clomiphene citrate impairs the endometrial CD98 expression in ovariectomized and non-ovariectomized rats: Role of HCG.

Int J Reprod Biomed 2019 Jun 29;17(6):385-394. Epub 2019 Jul 29.

Department of Anatomy, Medicine Faculty, Semnan University of Medical Science, Semnan, Iran.

Background: Clomiphene citrate (CC) is one of the widely used drugs as an ovulation stimulant, but its adverse effects on the endometrium results in lowering down the pregnancy rate. Endometrium CD98 is also important in the process of implantation.

Objective: To evaluate the immunohistochemistry expression levels of endometrial CD98 following injection of CC with and without Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) in ovariectomized and non-ovariectomized rats.

Materials And Methods: Seventy two (12-14 wk old) female Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups (n = 36): (a) ovariectomized and (b) non-ovariectomized. Each group was further divided into six subgroups (n = 6/each): (1) CC 10 mg/kg, (2) CC 20 mg/kg, (3) HCG, (4) CC 10 mg/kg with HCG, (5) CC 20 mg/kg with HCG, and (6) control. The experimental subgroups received a single dose of CC (daily, five days) and HCG (after the last injection of CC) alone or in combination. Immunohistochemistry staining was performed on paraffin-embedded endometrial tissues to evaluate the expression levels of CD98.

Results: Animals undergoing ovariectomy presented a significantly lower expression level of endometrial CD98 (p 0.001) when compared with non-ovariectomized in the same condition that groups were subdivided. There was also a dose-dependent reduction (p 0.001) in the expression of CD98 in non-ovariectomized subgroups when compared with control group. In addition, injection of HCG following treatment with CC improved its expression.

Conclusion: It was concluded that CC impairs CD98 expression in endometrium and this impairment is intensified the removal of the ovary. Also, an injection of HCG following treatment with CC can slightly improve the expression of CD98.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18502/ijrm.v17i6.4809DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6719513PMC
June 2019

Effects of Co-Administration of Bone Marrow Stromal Cells and L-Carnitine on The Recovery of Damaged Ovaries by Performing Chemotherapy Model in Rat.

Int J Fertil Steril 2019 Oct 14;13(3):196-202. Epub 2019 Jul 14.

Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: L-carnitine (Lc) as a type of flavonoid antioxidants and bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) as a type of mesenchymal stem cells may recover damaged ovaries. It seems that Lc has favorable effects on differentiation, increasing lifespan and decreasing apoptosis in BMSCs. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of co-administration of BMSC+Lc on damaged ovaries after creating a chemotherapy model with cyclophosphamide in rats.

Materials And Methods: In this experimental study, cyclophosphamide was intraperitoneally (IP) injected to forty female wistar rats for 14 days, in terms of chemotherapy-induced ovarian destruction. The rats were then randomly divided into four groups: control, Lc, BMSCs and co-administration of BMSC+Lc. Injection of BMSCs into bilateral ovaries and intraperitoneal injection of Lc were performed individually and together. Four weeks later, levels of serum estradiol (E2) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit, number of ovarian follicles at different stages using hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) staining and expression of ovarian Bcl-2 and Bax proteins using western blot were assessed.

Results: Co-administration of BMSC+Lc increased E2 and decreased FSH levels compared to the control group (P<0.001). The number of follicles was higher in the co-administrated group compared to the control group (P<0.001). Co-administration of BMSC+Lc increased Bcl-2 protein level, decreased Bax protein level and increased Bcl-2/Bax ratio (P<0.001).

Conclusion: The effect of co-administration of BMSC+Lc is probably more effective than the effect of their separate administration on the recovery of damaged ovaries by chemotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22074/ijfs.2019.5725DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6642421PMC
October 2019

Beneficial effects of Spirulina platensis, voluntary exercise and environmental enrichment against adolescent stress induced deficits in cognitive functions, hippocampal BDNF and morphological remolding in adult female rats.

Horm Behav 2019 06 30;112:20-31. Epub 2019 Mar 30.

Laboratory of Learning and Memory, Research Center of Physiology, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, Iran; Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, Iran. Electronic address:

Chronic exposure to stress during adolescent period has been demonstrated to impair cognitive functions and the dendritic morphology of pyramidal neurons in the rat hippocampal CA3 area. The present study investigated the combined protective effects of Spirulina platensis (SP), a supplement made from blue-green algae with neuroprotective properties, voluntary exercise (EX) and environmental enrichment (EE) against cognitive deficits, alternations in hippocampal BDNF levels, and abnormal neuronal remodeling in adult female rats (PND 60) induced by exposure to chronic restraint stress during adolescent period (PND 30-40). Rats were exposed to restraint stress (2 h/day for 10 days, PND 30-40). Then, the animals were subjected to treatment with SP (200 mg/kg/day), EX, EE and the combined treatments (SP + EX, and SP + EE) between PND 41 and 55 of age. Following the interventions, spatial learning and memory, passive avoidance performance, hippocampal dendritic morphology and BDNF levels were assessed. Results showed that plasma corticosterone levels increased at PND 40 and remained elevated at PND 55 and 70 in the stressed rats. Stressed rats showed deficits in spatial learning and memory and passive avoidance performance, decreased BDNF levels in the hippocampus, and reduced apical dendritic length and branch points of the CA3 pyramidal neurons. These deficits were alleviated by the SP, EX and EE, and the combined treatments, which accompanied with a decline in serum corticosterone in stressed animals. Some treatments even enhanced cognitive functions, and BDNF levels and neuroanatomical remodeling in the hippocampus of non-stressed animals. Our findings provide important evidences that physical activity, exposure to EE, and the SP treatment during adolescent period can protect against adolescent stress induced behavioral, biochemical and neuroanatomical impairments in adulthood.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yhbeh.2019.03.004DOI Listing
June 2019

Beneficial Effects of Physical Activity and Crocin Against Adolescent Stress Induced Anxiety or Depressive-Like Symptoms and Dendritic Morphology Remodeling in Prefrontal Cortex in Adult Male Rats.

Neurochem Res 2019 Apr 17;44(4):917-929. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Laboratory of Learning and Memory, Research Center of Physiology, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, 15131-38111, Semnan, Iran.

Increasing evidence suggests that exposure to chronic stress during adolescent period may lead to behavioral and neuronal morphology deficits in adulthood. This study examined whether crocin, the main active saffron constituent, and voluntary exercise, alone or combined, could prevent the detrimental influences of chronic restraint stress during adolescent (postnatal days, PND, 30-40) on behavioral and morphological deficits in adult (PND60) male rats. Results showed that plasma corticosterone levels increased at PND40, but not PND60 in stressed rats. Moreover, stressed rats demonstrated enhanced anxiety levels and depression like behaviors in adulthood. These behavioral abnormalities were accompanied by a decline in apical dendritic length in both infralimbic and prelimbic regions and dendritic branches in infralimbic region of the prefrontal cortex. Treatment with crocin, exposure to wheel running activity, and the combined interventions alleviated both behavioral and morphological deficits induced by adolescent stress. Moreover, these treatments exerted positive neuronal morphological effects in the prefrontal cortex in non-stressed animals. Our findings provide important evidences that exercise as a non-pharmacological intervention and crocin treatment during pre-pubertal period can protect against adolescent stress induced behavioral and morphological abnormalities in adulthood.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-019-02727-2DOI Listing
April 2019

The Flavone Luteolin Improves Central Nervous System Disorders by Different Mechanisms: A Review.

J Mol Neurosci 2018 Aug 6;65(4):491-506. Epub 2018 Aug 6.

Nervous System Stem Cells Research Center, Semnan University of Medicaid Sciences, Semnan, Iran.

Development and design of agents derived from natural sources with neuroprotective properties have received considerable attention. In the literature, it has been stated that these polyphenolic molecules have low adverse impacts and high efficacy when used in pathological conditions. Dietary flavonoids as a subgroup of polyphenols are bioactive products, extracted from several types of vegetables and fruits. Luteolin (3',4',5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone, LUT) is a widespread flavone known to have antioxidant and cytoprotective properties related to nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2-(Nrf2) pathway. Extensive in vitro and in vivo investigations have indicated that LUT exhibits beneficial neuroprotective properties via different mechanisms. However, its psychopharmacological mechanisms are presently investigated in fewer studies. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the neuroprotective impacts of LUT against central nervous system (CNS) disorders by reviewing available literature. Herein, we also reviewed the studies to understand the underlying mechanisms of LUT for curing CNS disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12031-018-1094-2DOI Listing
August 2018

Effects of treadmill exercise on methadone withdrawal-induced locomotor sensitization and the ventral pallidum and ventral tegmental area BDNF levels in morphine withdrawn rats receiving methadone maintenance treatment.

Neurosci Lett 2018 09 21;683:33-37. Epub 2018 Jun 21.

Laboratory of Animal Addiction Models, Research Center of Physiology, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, Iran; Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, Iran. Electronic address:

This study examined the effects of treadmill exercise on the methadone withdrawal -induced locomotor sensitization, the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and ventral pallidum (VP) BDNF levels in morphine withdrawn rats receiving methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). The rats were chronically treated with bi-daily doses (10 mg/kg, at 12 h intervals) of morphine for 14 days. The exercising rats receiving MMT were forced to run on a motorized treadmill for 30 days during morphine withdrawal. Then, rats were exposed to a 14-day methadone withdrawal period, without any exercise and then challenged with morphine (1 mg/kg, ip) and evaluated for locomotor activity. Also, the VTA-VP BDNF levels were assessed before and after receiving MMT. The sedentary morphine-dependent rats receiving MMT and morphine-dependent rats receiving saline challenged to morphine exhibited a higher level of locomotor activity compared to Sal/Sal/Sed group after withdrawal of drug. While, the level of locomotor activity was lower in the D/Meth/Sed than in D/Sal/Sed rats. The VP BDNF level and the locomotors response were higher and lower, respectively in the D/Meth/Sed and D/Sal/Exc than the D/Sal/Sed rats. Exercise had no effect on the locomotors response and the VP BDNF levels in morphine-dependent rats receiving MMT. Our results showed that the sedentary morphine-dependent rats challenged to morphine enhanced the morphine-induced hyperlocomotion, whereas decreased the VP BDNF levels. MMT resulted in a persistent of locomotor sensitization caused by morphine withdrawal, though milder. Exercise had no effect on the locomotors response and the VTA-VP BDNF levels in the D/Meth/Exc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2018.06.037DOI Listing
September 2018

Effect of L-carnitine on in vitro developmental rate, the zona pellucida and hatching of blastocysts and their cell numbers in mouse embryos.

Int J Reprod Biomed 2016 Oct;14(10):649-656

Research Center of Nervous System Stem Cells, Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, Iran.

L-carnitine (LC) is an antioxidant with the ability to promote the growth in vitro embryo.

Objective: The goal was to evaluate the effect of LC on some indicators of embryo development and blastocyst quality including zona pellucid (ZP) thickness, the hatching of blastocysts and their cell numbers.

Materials And Methods: Mouse embryos were randomly divided into five groups and incubated with different concentrations of LC (I; 0, II; 0.5, III; 1, IV; 2 and V; 4 mg/ml) from 2-cell to hatched blastocyst. The percentage of blastocysts and hatched blastocysts was calculated. Blastocysts ZP thickness was measured and the number of blastocyst cells was counted using Hoechst and propidium iodide (PI) staining.

Results: The results showed concentration of 0.5 mg/ml of LC had an antioxidant effect as in this group, the percentage of blastocysts and hatched blactocysts (p=0.01), the ZP thickness (p=0.00) and the number of blastocyst inner cell mass were significantly more favorable than the control group (p=0.03); and concentration of 4 mg/ml of LC had a toxic effect on embryo development and blastocyst quality (p=0.00).

Conclusion: The results suggest that LC may increase the number of blastocyst cells, which probably helps to expand the blastocyst and thinning of the ZP thickness and, therefore, creating a successful hatching for implantation.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5124328PMC
October 2016

Globozoospermia syndrome: two case reports.

J Med Liban 2014 Jul-Sep;62(3):183-5

Globozoospermia is a rare but severe cause of male infertility. The presence of 100% round-headed spermatozoa and lack of acrosome are the diagnostic criteria of total globozoospermia. The pathogenesis of globozoospermia most probably originates in spermiogenesis, specifically in acrosome formation and sperm head elongation. Mutations of a numbers of genes are linked to the globozoospermic phenotype. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) combined with assisted oocyte activation improves the fertilization rate of these cases. Two cases of globozoospermia with infertility are presented in this study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12816/0006222DOI Listing
November 2014

Maternal serum copper and zinc levels and premature rupture of the foetal membranes.

J Pak Med Assoc 2014 Jul;64(7):770-4

Objective: To examine the correlation of zinc and copper serum concentration level, body mass index, age and parity with premature rupture of the membranes.

Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted between 2009 and 2010 at the fertility ward of Amiralmomenin Hospital of Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Iran. It comprised 100 full-term pregnant women with and without premature rupture of the membranes and 50 non-pregnant women as controls The diagnosis of rupture of membranes was made on the basis of gross leakage of fluid within the vagina and a positive nitrazin test. A sample of 5 mL blood was collected. The levels of zinc and copper were determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Mean values among the three equal groups were compared using standard analysis of variance. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05.

Results: Pregnant women with (p < 0.027) and without (p < 0.019) premature rupture of the membranes had significantly lower serum zinc concentration than non-pregnant women. Inversely, the maternal serum copper concentration level was higher in both groups of pregnant women than in the controls (p < 0.001). However, the results suggest that the decreased plasma zinc concentration and increased copper concentration in pregnant women were not the cause of premature rupture of the membranes at term.

Conclusion: Zinc and copper concentration levels in maternal serum had no effect on premature rupture of the membranes.
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July 2014

The effects of schwann and bone marrow stromal stem cells on sciatic nerve injury in rat: a comparison of functional recovery.

Cell J 2012 13;14(1):39-46. Epub 2012 Jun 13.

1. Department of Anatomy, Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran ; 2. Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, Iran.

Objective: Transplantation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) or Schwann cells (SCs) can facilitate axonal regeneration in peripheral nerve injuries. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of transplantation of BMSCs and SCs on functional recovery after injury to the sciatic nerve in the rat.

Materials And Methods: In this experimental research, adult male Wistar rats (n=24, 250-300 g) were used, BMSCs and SCs were cultured, and SCs were confirmed with anti S100 antibody. Rats were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=8 in each group): 1; control group: silicon tube filled with fibrin gel without the cells, 2; BMSCs group: silicon tube filled with fibrin gel seeded with BMSCs and 3; SCs group: silicon tube filled with fibrin gel seeded with SCs. The left sciatic nerve was exposed, a 10 mm segment removed, and a silicone tube interposed into this nerve gap. BMSCs and SCs were separately transplanted into the gap in the two experimental groups and were labeled with anti BrdU and DiI respectively. After 12 weeks electrophysiological and functional assessments were performed and analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA).

Results: Electrophysiological and functional assessments showed a significant difference between the experimental groups compared with the control group. Electrophysiological measures were significantly better in the SCs transplantation group compared with the BMSCs treatment group (p <0.05). Functional assessments showed no statistically significant difference between the BMSCs and SCs groups (p <0.05).

Conclusion: Although both BMSCs and SCs have the potential to produce functional recovery after injury to the sciatic nerve in rats, electrophysiological evaluation confirms that the improvement after SCs transplantation is greater than that after BMSCs transplantation.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3635819PMC
April 2013

Predictive factors of intrauterine insemination success of women with infertility over 10 years.

J Pak Med Assoc 2011 Feb;61(2):165-8

Department of Anatomical Sciences, School of Medicine, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, Iran.

Objective: The relationship between maternal age, duration of infertility, pre-ovulatory follicles, endometrial thickness and motile sperms with intra uterine insemination (IUI) success in women with infertility over 10 years was surveyed.

Methods: We performed a descriptive - cross sectional study among couples (n=26) with a history of infertility for more than 10 years who were treated with IUI. The data was collected between 2000 and 2007 in the fertility ward of Amiralmomenin Hospital of Semnan University of Medical Sciences. Patients underwent a basic fertility workup and the ovarian hyperstimulation was done with clomiphene citrate (CC) and human chorionic gonadotrophin (hMG) alone or in combination. A volume of 0.3-0.4 ml suspension of processed spermatozoa (after swim-up procedure) was introduced into the uterine cavity 36h after human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) administration. The comparison between variables was performed by chi-square and student's test on SPSS (Version 10.0).

Results: The total number of women with infertility over 10 years referring to fertility ward was 26. Seven of them became pregnant after treatment (27%). Majority of these pregnancies (87.5%) were achieved in the first cycle. Pregnant cases were 30-37 years of age with a history of infertility for up to ten years. The comparison of data between two groups showed that maternal age (P<0.03) and number of motile sperms (P<0.05) had a significant relationship with the results of treatment.

Conclusion: Number of motile spermatozoa and women age are factors with the highest impact on pregnancy after IUI treatment in women with infertility for over 10 years.
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February 2011

The effects of all-trans retinoic acid on blood cells in rat's embryo.

Authors:
Behpour Yousefi

Pak J Pharm Sci 2009 Jan;22(1):23-6

Department of Anatomical Sciences, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, Iran.

All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) has beneficial and teratogenicity effects when used in a variety conditions. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of ATRA on the Progenitors of red blood cell and platelets in rat's embryo. Single oral dose (100 mg/kg) of ATRA was administered to rat on gestation day (GD) 10 and fetuses were observed on GD 18 and compared with untreated group. In the experimental embryos of GD 18, the mean number of red blood cells (RBC, 10.5%) and platelets number (15%) were decreased. There was a significant relationship in RBC and platelets count. The mean diameter of RBC and nucleated red blood (NRBC) were compared in two groups. There was no significant relationship between experimental and control groups, except in NRBC diameter. Thus, the present data shows that ATRA may have negative effects on proliferation, differentiation and maturation of erythroid cells and platelets, without having any deleterious effects on the dimenation of RBC.
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January 2009
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