Publications by authors named "Behnam Mansouri"

18 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Efficacy of mechanical thrombectomy in stroke patients with large vessel involvement.

Eur J Transl Myol 2022 Jun 22;32(2). Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Department of Neurosurgery, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran.

Ischemic stroke is a common disease worldwide and leads to a significant rate of mortality and disability in patients every year, and imposes high costs on the health care system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the invasive method of mechanical thrombectomy for rapid intervention in ischemic stroke patients with large vessel involvement. Patients suspected of having a stroke, who were referred to Imam Hossein Hospital, were examined, and the diagnosis of stroke was confirmed. In the next stage, patients' MRS index was measured and the possibility of emergency thrombectomy was evaluated in patients. Patients who underwent thrombectomy were considered as the case group and the other patients were contemplated as the control group; then, the cases of the two groups were evaluated and compared. The mean age of patients was 66.63 ± 12.26 years. the use of emergency thrombectomy in the study group significantly reduced the MRS index of patients after 90 days (p <0.001), while a significant increase in the mean scores of the MRS index was seen in patients receiving pharmacological treatments. Also, there was no significant difference in terms of gender between the group of patients undergoing thrombectomy and the group receiving other treatments (p = 0.375). Emergency mechanical thrombectomy significantly reduces disability in stroke patients in the long term and can be a good alternative to conventional drug treatments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4081/ejtm.2022.10456DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9295169PMC
June 2022

Carotid intima-media and epicardial adipose tissue thickness in adult patients with epilepsy taking anti-seizure medication and its long-term significance.

Epilepsy Behav 2021 12 24;125:108432. Epub 2021 Nov 24.

School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Objectives: We investigated epicardial adipose tissue thickness (EATT), carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), and lipid profile in adult patients with epilepsy (PWE) taking anti-seizure medication(s) (ASM) and compared with those of the healthy population. We also investigated whether duration of follow-up and number of ASM(s) (mono- vs. polytherapy) affect these risk factors.

Methods: Twenty PWE older than 18 years of age were recruited at the outpatient epilepsy clinic and compared to twenty controls. Patients who were 18 years old and younger, those with cardiovascular risk factors, and patients with follow-up duration less than 2 years were excluded from the study.

Results: Epicardial adipose tissue thickness and CIMT were thicker compared to controls. While patients' low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels were higher than controls, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels were lower, the levels were in normal ranges. Those patients with duration of follow-up more than five years had thicker EATT. The 5-year LDL was in normal ranges while HDL was abnormally low. Number of ASM(s) was not associated with increased risks of atherosclerosis. Increased CIMT in patients taking ASM(s) was independent of their lipid profile.

Conclusion: Anti-seizure medications contribute to accelerated atherosclerosis in people with epilepsy. Chronic use of ASMs may increase this chance. It is appropriate to use ASM(s) with lower chances of atherosclerosis in people with epilepsy and encourage them to change their lifestyle in order to modify cardiovascular risk factors. Meantime, it is reasonable to assess the risk of atherosclerosis periodically in these patients by noninvasive methods including lipid profile, CIMT, and EATT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yebeh.2021.108432DOI Listing
December 2021

Evaluation of neurosonology versus digital subtraction angiography in acute stroke patients.

J Clin Neurosci 2021 Sep 30;91:378-382. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Neurology, Imam Hossein Medical and Educational Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Stroke is one of the most common neurological disorders with a high incidence in Middle-eastern regions. We aimed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of neurovascular ultrasound to detect of cerebral artery stenosis compared to digital subtraction angiography (DSA) as a gold standard method. Eighty patients presenting with symptoms of cerebral ischemia were enrolled in the study. They were examined by cervical color Doppler ultrasound and TCCS to determine stenosis of extracranial and intracranial arteries, respectively. DSA was performed 24-48 h after the initial examination. The sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, positive predictive value, and accuracy of neurovascular ultrasound in comparison to DSA were calculated. The agreement between the two methods was determined by kappa statistics. Eighty patients (60% male, 40% female) with a mean age of 61.32 ± 12.6 years were included. In 65% of patients, stenosis in carotid artery caused ischemic symptoms. We did not observe any stenosis in anterior cerebral artery, posterior cerebral artery and basilar artery in patients. The agreement between the neurovascular ultrasound and DSA in various arterial vessels was 0.9 for common carotid artery, 0.86 for internal carotid artery, 0.78 for middle cerebral artery, and 0.86 for vertebral artery. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, accuracy, and kappa value of the neurovascular ultrasound for detecting stenosis regarding the arterial segments were 84.8%, 81%, 92.6%, 65.4%, 83.8, and 0.71, respectively. In conclusion, the neurovascular ultrasound is a valuable, non-invasive, and repeatable method to investigate cerebral artery stenosis with high diagnostic accuracy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jocn.2021.07.030DOI Listing
September 2021

Neurological features and outcome in COVID-19: dementia can predict severe disease.

J Neurovirol 2021 02 8;27(1):86-93. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Department of Neurology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The COVID-19 pandemic has infected more than 22 million people worldwide. Although much has been learned about COVID-19, we do not know much about its neurological features and their outcome. This observational study was conducted on the patients of Imam Hossein Hospital, and 361 adult patients (214 males) with confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 from March 5, 2020 to April 3, 2020, were enrolled. Data was gathered on age, sex, comorbidities, initial symptoms, symptoms during the disease course, neurological symptoms, and outcome. The mean age of the patients was 61.90 ± 16.76 years. The most common initial symptoms were cough, fever, and dyspnea. In 21 patients (5.8%), the initial symptom was neurological. History of dementia was associated with severe COVID-19 disease (odds ratio = 1.28). During the course of the disease, 186 patients (51.52%) had at least one neurological symptom, the most common being headache (109 [30.2%]), followed by anosmia/ageusia (69, [19.1%]), and dizziness (54, [15%]). Also, 31 patients had neurological complications (8.58%). Anosmia, ageusia, dizziness, and headache were associated with favorable outcome (P < 0.001), while altered mental status and hemiparesis were associated with poor outcome. The mortality rate of patients who had neurological complications was more than twice than that of patients without neurological complication (P = 0.008). Almost half of the patients experienced at least one neurological symptom, which may be the initial presentation of COVID-19. Dementia appears to be associated with severe COVID-19. Mortality was higher in patients with neurological complications, and these patients needed more intensive care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-020-00918-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7792552PMC
February 2021

Functional improvement and immune-inflammatory cytokines profile of ischaemic stroke patients after treatment with boswellic acids: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, pilot trial.

Inflammopharmacology 2019 Dec 12;27(6):1101-1112. Epub 2019 Aug 12.

HealthWeX Clinical Research Ltd. Co., Tehran, Iran.

Ischaemic stroke represents one of the main causes of disability. According to the broad investigations, it is widely assumed that the contribution of inflammatory mediators is strongly involved in its pathogenesis. Hence, it seems that stroke treatment needs more efficient and inflammatory-targeted compounds to modulate inflammatory-related pathways. Such strategies paved the way to achieve better clinical outcomes along with conventional therapies. Boswellic acids (BAs), the main bioactive compounds of Boswellia sp. resin; are triterpenoids with well-documented anti-inflammatory properties. Compared with NSAIDs, BAs cross blood-brain barrier yet they do not cause serious gastrointestinal adverse effects. Considering BAs anti-inflammatory features, we conducted a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled pilot trial of these compounds as a supplementary therapy. This trial randomized 80 ischaemic stroke patients (40-80-years old) with a 4-20 score according to the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), within 72 h of neurological sign onset, in 1-month follow-up period. We assessed NIHSS as primary and plasma levels of TNF-α, IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, IFN-γ, IP-10, MCP-1, 8-isoprostane, and PGE2 as secondary outcomes. According to NIHSS evaluation, patients who were allocated to BA group had a significant recovery in neurological function during the 1-month follow-up, compared with the placebo. The levels of plasma inflammatory markers were significantly decreased in BA group after 7 days of intervention in TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and PGE2. As a preliminary controlled trial in ischaemic stroke, BAs could improve clinical outcome in the early phases of stroke along with promising changes in plasma inflammatory factors.Clinical trial registrationhttps://www.irct.ir Unique identifier: IRCT20170315033086N5. IRCT is a primary registry in the WHO registry network (https://www.who.int/ictrp/network/primary/en/).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10787-019-00627-zDOI Listing
December 2019

Frequency of dyslipidemia in migraineurs in comparison to control group.

J Family Med Prim Care 2019 Mar;8(3):950-954

Department of Neurology, Imam Hossein Medical and Educational Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Migraine is a common disease with neurovascular nature, which is commonly prevalent in the general population. Due to the significant prevalence of migraine and its long-term complications, it is necessary to pay attention to its exacerbating factors. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency distribution of dyslipidemia in patients with migraine compared with control group.

Materials And Methods: This is a case-control study, in which 50 patients with migraine (with aura and without aura) were confirmed by the criteria of International Headache Society. Migraineurs and control group ( = 50) were selected from among patients who referred to the Neurology Clinic of Imam Hossein Hospital. The levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were measured in both the groups. SPSS software (version 21) was used to analyze the data.

Results: The findings showed that among migraineurs, 21 patients (42%) revealed high levels of cholesterol and 22 revealed high levels of LDL (44%); whereas among subjects without migraine, 12 subjects (24%) exhibited high levels of cholesterol and 12 (24%) high levels of LDL, where a significant correlation between the two groups was achieved.

Conclusion: The present results showed that migraine is associated with higher level of cholesterol and LDL when compared with the control group, where a significant relationship was found.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_9_19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6482739PMC
March 2019

Comparing Zonisamide With Sodium Valproate in the Management of Migraine Headaches: Double-Blind Randomized Clinical Trial of Efficacy and Safety.

Iran Red Crescent Med J 2016 Sep 30;18(9):e23768. Epub 2016 Apr 30.

Shohadaye Tajrish Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran.

Background: Migraine is one of the most debilitating medical conditions and has a high socioeconomic burden. As conventional therapeutic methods do not entirely alleviate the symptoms, new alternatives are being considered.

Objectives: This study evaluates the efficacy and safety of zonisamide compared with sodium valproate in the management of migraine headaches.

Patients And Methods: In the current double-blind, parallel, randomized, controlled trial, 96 patients with a migraine diagnosis based on the international headache society (HIS) criteria were selected. They were divided randomly into two groups; the case group was given zonisamide, and sodium valproate was given to a control group. In addition to the side effects of the drugs, the severity, duration, and frequency of migraine attacks were evaluated at baseline and at three months.

Results: The 96 selected patients were divided randomly into two treatment groups (zonisamide n = 48, sodium valproate n = 48). Seven patients were excluded from analysis because of early dropout, leaving 89 (n = 45; n = 44) patients for analysis. While using zonisamide, six (13%) patients complained of fatigue, and two (4%) patients encountered noticeable appetite and weight loss. In the control group, five (11%) patients reported dizziness, and four (9%) patients faced obvious appetite and weight gain. Both drugs were considerably efficient in reducing further attacks. There was no statistically significant correlation between frequency or severity of migraine attacks and the drug used for treatment in three months of follow-up.

Conclusions: Both medications are effective in reducing migraine attacks. It will be important to consider the drugs' adverse effects and availability and patients' medical and socioeconomic condition to select the appropriate treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/ircmj.23768DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5253208PMC
September 2016

The Efficacy of Gabapentin in Patients with Central Post-stroke Pain.

Iran J Pharm Res 2015 ;14(Suppl):95-101

Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. ; Pharmaceutical Care Unit, Emam Hossein Medical and Educational Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Thalamic pain syndrome, a type of central post-stroke pain (CPSP), may develops after a hemorrhagic or ischemic stroke and results in impairment of the thalamus. There is limited experience about gabapentin in treatment of central pains like CPSP. In a prospective observational study, the intensity of pain was recorded using the Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) at the entrance to the study. Patients eligible for treating with gabapentin, received gabapentin 300 mg twice-daily. The pain intensity was measured at entrance to the study and after one month using NRS. Decrease of 3 points from the initial NRS considered being clinically significant. From a total of 180 primarily screened patients, 84 (44 men and 40 women) were recruited. There was a significant difference between pre-treatment and post-treatment NRS (5.9 ± 2.51 vs. 4.7 ± 3.01; 95% CI: 0.442-1.962, p = 0.002). Fisher's exact test showed no statistically significant effect of clinical and demographic characteristics of patients on their therapeutic response to gabapentin. Given the safety, efficacy, well tolerability and lack of interaction with other drugs we suggest gabapentin to be more considered as a first line therapy or as add-on therapy for reducing the pain severity in patients with thalamic syndrome.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4499431PMC
July 2015

Relationship between intracerebral hemorrhage and diabetes mellitus: a case-control study.

J Clin Diagn Res 2015 Apr 1;9(4):OC08-10. Epub 2015 Apr 1.

Students' Research Committee, Faculty of Medicine, Shahid beheshti University of Medical Sciences , Tehran, Iran .

Introduction: The role of diabetes mellitus in the pathogenesis of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is controversial. Underlying comorbidities such as diabetes mellitus may increase the risk of intracerebral hemorrhage. In this study, we sought to assess the role of diabetes mellitus in the occurrence of intracerebral hemorrhage.

Materials And Methods: In this case-control study, the prevalence of diabetes mellitus was evaluated in 120 patients presenting with intracerebral hemorrhage and in a control group of 135 patients with low back pain. All patients were treated at the Departments of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Shohadaye Tajrish University Hospital, Tehran, Iran between 2008 and 2012. T-test was applied for analysing the quantitative variables and chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used to analyse qualitative variables.

Results: The mean age was 67.5±12.7 y in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage and 70.5±12.6 y in the control group (p=0.201). Diabetes mellitus was found in 39 patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (33.1%) and 30 (22.2%) control subjects (p=0.054). The prevalence of diabetes mellitus in patients younger than 60 y was 7.4% in the control group and 27.8% in the case group (p=0.042).

Conclusion: In our study, no significant relationship was found between diabetes mellitus and intracerebral hemorrhage (except in patients younger than 60 years) and diabetes mellitus did not cause bleeding in certain brain areas. However, more studies are required on the correlation of diabetes mellitus and intracerebral hemorrhage in the same population to reach a definite conclusion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7860/JCDR/2015/12226.3741DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4437093PMC
April 2015

Risk factors for increased multiple sclerosis susceptibility in the Iranian population.

J Clin Neurosci 2014 Dec 28;21(12):2207-11. Epub 2014 Jul 28.

Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex autoimmune disease with increasing prevalence. Many factors have been assessed in relation to its development and its worldwide geographical and racial distribution. Therefore, we decided to conduct a nationwide case-control matched study to estimate the possible influence of putative risk factors on MS status in an Iranian MS population. Between January 2008 and September 2013, 1403 patients diagnosed with MS according to the Poser or McDonald criteria and 883 controls were studied. Of all patients, there were 921 women and 296 men (ratio 3.1:1) with a mean age of 32.6 ± 8.7 years. In the multivariate model adjusted for sex and age (±2years), we found associated risk factors of MS to be: history of any allergic condition (Odds ratio (OR): 1.92, 95% Confidence interval (CI): 1.55-2.47, p<0.001), and smoking (OR: 1.93, 95% CI: 1.31-2.73, p<0.001). Sunlight exposure ⩾ 3 hours was found to be associated with a reduced risk of MS (OR: 0.23, 95% CI: 0.15-0.31, p<0.001). As expected, cases were more likely to have a positive family history of MS than controls (OR: 1.91, 95% CI: 1.33-2.75, p<0.001). A significant association was found between family history of other autoimmune diseases and MS risk (OR: 1.57, 95% CI: 1.18-2.09, p=0.002). These results support the hypothesis that sun exposure is associated with a decreased risk of MS while smoking, autoimmune family history, MS family history, and personal allergy history are risk factors for MS susceptibility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jocn.2014.04.020DOI Listing
December 2014

Intravenous promethazine versus lorazepam for the treatment of peripheral vertigo in the emergency department: A double blind, randomized clinical trial of efficacy and safety.

J Vestib Res 2014 ;24(1):39-47

Department of Emergency Medicine, Imam Hossein Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Vertigo imposes considerable health restrictions with significant impact on the patient's quality of life. The most effective antivertigo agent is undetermined thus far.

Objective: This study was performed to assess whether promethazine has superior vertigo reduction compared with lorazepam in ED patients.

Methods: In this randomized, double-blind, parallel group trial 184 patients were assigned (1:1 ratio) to receive either promethazine, 25 mg intravenously, or lorazepam, 2 mg intravenously. Primary endpoint was mean change in vertigo intensity at 2 hours measured using visual analog scale (VAS). Secondary endpoints were mean change in nausea score, need for second dose of study medications, and adverse events (AEs).

Results: Promethazine was associated with significantly more reduction (46.5 mm) in vertigo than lorazepam (25.7 mm, p< 0.001). Mean change in nausea score 2 hours after drug injection on the VAS was 28.7 mm for promethazine and 22.8 for lorazepam (p=0.002). The most frequently reported AEs were lethargy (14.1% in lorazepam group, 4.3% in promethazine group, p=0.013) and drowsiness (10.8% for promethazine, 2.1% for lorazepam, p=0.017).

Conclusion: Our study demonstrated the evidence that promethazine is superior to lorazepam in management of peripheral vertigo and vertigo-related nausea in ED adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/VES-130506DOI Listing
October 2014

Secondary headaches attributed to arterial hypertension.

Iran J Neurol 2013 ;12(3):106-10

Assistant Professor, Department of Neurology, Imam Hossein Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Mild (140 to 159/90 to 99 mmHg) or moderate (160 to 179/100 to 109 mmHg) chronic arterial hypertension does not appear to cause headache. Whether moderate hypertension predisposes patients to headache at all remains controversial, but there is little evidence that it does. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in patients with mild and moderate hypertension has shown no convincing relationship between blood pressure fluctuations over a 24-hour period and presence or absence of headache. However, headaches are associated to various disorders that lead to abrupt, severe, and paroxysmal elevations in blood pressure. In this paper, the secondary headaches attributed to acute crises of hypertension and the criteria for diagnosing each of them have been reviewed. These are headaches attributed to pheochromocytoma, hypertensive crisis without encephalopathy, hypertensive encephalopathy, pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, and acute pressure response to exogenous agents.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3829292PMC
June 2014

Superficial siderosis: A rare case of ataxia and otoneurological manifestations.

Iran J Neurol 2013 ;12(2):69-71

Imam Hossein Hospital, Department of Neurology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Superficial siderosis (SS) is a rare disease which affects people in all ages and both sexes, but three times more in men. Pathological etiology is deposition of hemosiderin (a product of the breakdown of blood) in leptomeninges, subpial layer, ependymal surface and other parts of central nervous system (CNS) and typically leads to neurological dysfunction and progressive irreversible signs and symptoms. We present a 33-year-old man with complete deafness in left ear, partial hearing loss in right ear, gait imbalance, bilateral frontotemporal throbbing headache and anosmia resulted from superficial siderosis.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3829287PMC
November 2013

A comparative study of intravenous paracetamol and fentanyl for pain management in ICU.

Iran J Pharm Res 2013 ;12(1):193-8

Emam Hossein Hospital, Shahid Beheshti Medical University, Tehran, Iran.

Pain in ICU patients should be managed effectively and safely. Fentanyl and Paracetamol are used frequently in ICU. However experience using IV Paracetamol in the setting of critically ill patients is limited. We evaluated the analgesic effect and adverse reactions of intravenous Paracetamol compared to Fentanyl in ICU patients with mild to moderate pain. Forty patients in a general ICU were randomized into two groups of IV Paracetamol and IV Fentanyl in a single blinded fashion. Pain was assessed by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) before drug administration and six hourly for 48 h of 1 g IV Paracetamol every 6 h for 48 h in the first group and 25 μg Fentanyl intravenously every three hours for 48 h in the second group. Patients were monitored for significant adverse reactions particularly of CNS and hepatic nature. Results showed the age, sex and pain score before analgesia was matched in both groups. Pain scores were similar in both groups at 24 h 2.60 (± 1.2) and 2.40 (± 1.5) and at 48 h 2.25 (± 0.96) and 2.05 (± 1.1) in Paracetamol and Fentanyl groups respectively. Clinical and laboratory adverse reactions were also similar in both groups. The analgesic properties of Paracetamol and Fentanyl were similar in this study. We did not observe any significant adverse effects in the two groups. Clinical and laboratory findings including liver functions remained without any statistically significant difference in two groups. This study demonstrates intravenous Paracetamol may be as safe and effective as Fentanyl in ICU patients with mild to moderate pain.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3813193PMC
November 2013

Sonographic Optic Nerve Sheath Diameter as a Screening Tool for Detection of Elevated Intracranial Pressure.

Emerg (Tehran) 2013 ;1(1):15-9

Department of Emergency Medicine, Imam Hossein Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: Timely diagnosis and treatment of post-traumatic elevated intracranial pressure (EICP) could be reduced morbidity and mortality, and improved patients' outcome. This study is trying to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of sonographic optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) in detection of EICP.

Methods: Sonographic ONSD of patients with head trauma or cerebrovascular accident suspicious for EICP were evaluated by a trained chief resident of emergency medicine, who was blind to the clinical and brain computed tomography scan (BCT) findings of patients. Immediately after ultrasonography, BCT was performed and reported by an expert radiologist without awareness from other results of the patients. Finally, ultrasonographic and BCT findings regarding EICP were compared. To evaluate the ability of sonographic ONSD in predicting the BCT findings and obtain best cut-off level, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were used. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), positive likelihood ratio (PLR), and negative likelihood ratio (NLR) of sonographic ONSD in determining of EICP was calculated. P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant.

Results: There were 222 patients (65.3% male), with mean age of 42.2±19.5 years (range: 16-90 years). BCT showed signs of EICP, in 28 cases (12.6%). The means of the ONSD in the patients with EICP and normal ICP were 5.5 ± 0.56 and 3.93 ± 0.53 mm, respectively (P<0.0001). ROC curve demonstrated that the best cut off was 4.85 mm. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, PLR, and NLR of ONSD for prediction of EICP were 96.4%, 95.3%, 72.2%, 98.9%, 20.6, and 0.04, respectively.

Conclusion: Sonographic diameter of optic nerve sheath could be considered as an available, accurate, and noninvasive screening tool in determining the elevated intracranial pressure in cases with head trauma or cerebrovascular accident.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4614555PMC
October 2015

Cigarette smoking and associated risk of multiple sclerosis in the Iranian population.

J Clin Neurosci 2013 Dec 20;20(12):1747-50. Epub 2013 Aug 20.

School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran.

Exposure to cigarette smoke is emerging as an environmental risk factor for multiple sclerosis (MS). We investigated the possible association between environmental tobacco smoke, its cumulative exposure, and MS risk. We used data from the Iranian Multiple Sclerosis Registry to identify a case-control of 662 patients who had MS and a comparison group of 394 patients. Information regarding current smoking status, including the number of cigarettes smoked per day, duration, and smoking pack-years indicative of cumulative dose of tobacco smoked was obtained. We analyzed the incidence of MS among ever-smokers who had been smokers during their disease course and prior to disease onset in comparison with never-smokers who had never been exposed by calculating the odds ratio (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) employing logistic regression. Of the 662 MS patients, there were 523 women (79.0%) and 139 men (21.0%), with a mean age of 31 ± 10.0 years at disease onset. The risk for MS was increased among ever-smokers (OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.22-2.59, p = 0.03) compared to never-smokers. As compared with never smokers, the OR for patients with 6-10 pack years was 2.91 for men (95% CI = 1.11-9.47, p = 0.03) and 1.69 for women (95% CI = 1.02-6.45, p = 0.04). Our results demonstrate that cigarette smoking is significantly associated with an increased risk for MS. The risk effects of smoking were more noticeable in male patients and at higher tobacco doses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jocn.2013.01.018DOI Listing
December 2013

Mortality and functional disability after spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage: the predictive impact of overall admission factors.

Neurol Sci 2013 Nov 30;34(11):1933-9. Epub 2013 Mar 30.

Department of Neurology, Imam Hossein Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

To determine the effects of different prognostic factors, including previous antiplatelet therapy, admission data, and radiographic findings on discharge and 3-month neurological condition using modified Rankin scale (mRS) and mortality at 30 days and 3-month follow-up in patients presenting to the emergency department with spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage (sICH). Between January and July 2012, 120 consecutive patients (males 62%, females 38%), who were admitted within 48 h of symptoms onset, were included. We recorded the following data on admission: demographics; functional scores of ICH, Glasgow Coma Scale, and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale; vital signs; smoking status; use of illicit drug; preadmission antiplatelet treatment; results of laboratory tests (platelet count, serum glucose, sodium and creatinine levels, and prothrombin time); and primary neuroimaging findings [intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), midline shift, and hydrocephalus]. In multivariate analysis using adjusted model for demographics and prior antiplatelet therapy; functional scores, laboratory results, and diabetes history correlated with mortality during 30 days after the event. Moreover, the parameters on the initial computed tomography scan significantly increased 30-day fatality rate and was correlated with increase in the discharge mRS score of survivors. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of early mortality associated with IVH presentation was 2.34 (CI 1.76-3.02, p = 0.003). The corresponding ORs in those with midline shift displacement and hydrocephalus were 2.18 (95% CI 2.08-3.80, p = 0.01) and 1.62 (95% CI 1.01-2.63, p = 0.02), respectively. In patients with ICH, prognostic factors, include various clinical parameters and paraclinical findings of admission time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10072-013-1410-0DOI Listing
November 2013

Use of the sonographic diameter of optic nerve sheath to estimate intracranial pressure.

Am J Emerg Med 2013 Jan 31;31(1):236-9. Epub 2012 Aug 31.

Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background And Aims: An increase in the intracranial pressure (ICP) might aggravate patient outcomes by inducing neurologic injuries. In patients with increased ICP the optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) increases due to its close association with the flow of cerebrospinal fluid. The present study was an attempt to evaluate the efficacy of sonographic ONSD in estimating ICP of patients who are candidates for lumbar puncture (LP).

Materials And Methods: In this descriptive prospective study, the ONSD was measured before LP using an ultrasonography in 50 nontraumatized patients who were candidates for LP due to varies diagnoses. Immediately after the sonography, the ICP of each patient was measured by LP. Correlation tests were used to evaluate the relationship between ICP and the sonographic diameter of the optic nerve sheath. Receiver operating characteristic curve was used to find the optimal cut-off point in order to diagnose ICP values higher than 20 cm H(2)O.

Results: The means of the ONSD were 5.17 ± 1.01 and 5.19 ± 1.06 mm on the left and right sides, respectively (P = .552). The mean ONSD for the patients with increased ICP and normal individuals were 6.66 ± 0.58 and 4.60 ± 0.41 mm, respectively (P < .001). This mean was significantly correlated with ICP values (P < .05; r = 0.88). The ONSD of greater than 5.5 mm predicted an ICP of ≥20 cm H(2)O with sensitivity and specificity of 100% (95% CI, 100-100) (P < .001).

Conclusion: The sonographic diameter of the optic nerve sheath might be considered a strong and accurate predicting factor for increased intracranial pressure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajem.2012.06.025DOI Listing
January 2013
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