Publications by authors named "Beatty J"

633 Publications

Heart failure in single right ventricle congenital heart disease: physiological and molecular considerations.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2020 04 28;318(4):H947-H965. Epub 2020 Feb 28.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, Colorado.

Because of remarkable surgical and medical advances over the past several decades, there are growing numbers of infants and children living with single ventricle congenital heart disease (SV), where there is only one functional cardiac pumping chamber. Nevertheless, cardiac dysfunction (and ultimately heart failure) is a common complication in the SV population, and pharmacological heart failure therapies have largely been ineffective in mitigating the need for heart transplantation. Given that there are several inherent risk factors for ventricular dysfunction in the setting of SV in addition to probable differences in molecular adaptations to heart failure between children and adults, it is perhaps not surprising that extrapolated adult heart failure medications have had limited benefit in children with SV heart failure. Further investigations into the molecular mechanisms involved in pediatric SV heart failure may assist with risk stratification as well as development of targeted, efficacious therapies specific to this patient population. In this review, we present a brief overview of SV anatomy and physiology, with a focus on patients with a single morphological right ventricle requiring staged surgical palliation. Additionally, we discuss outcomes in the current era, risk factors associated with the progression to heart failure, present state of knowledge regarding molecular alterations in end-stage SV heart failure, and current therapeutic interventions. Potential avenues for improving SV outcomes, including identification of biomarkers of heart failure progression, implications of personalized medicine and stem cell-derived therapies, and applications of novel models of SV disease, are proposed as future directions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00518.2019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7191494PMC
April 2020

Time-Integrated Neutrino Source Searches with 10 Years of IceCube Data.

Phys Rev Lett 2020 Feb;124(5):051103

DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.

This Letter presents the results from pointlike neutrino source searches using ten years of IceCube data collected between April 6, 2008 and July 10, 2018. We evaluate the significance of an astrophysical signal from a pointlike source looking for an excess of clustered neutrino events with energies typically above ∼1  TeV among the background of atmospheric muons and neutrinos. We perform a full-sky scan, a search within a selected source catalog, a catalog population study, and three stacked Galactic catalog searches. The most significant point in the northern hemisphere from scanning the sky is coincident with the Seyfert II galaxy NGC 1068, which was included in the source catalog search. The excess at the coordinates of NGC 1068 is inconsistent with background expectations at the level of 2.9σ after accounting for statistical trials from the entire catalog. The combination of this result along with excesses observed at the coordinates of three other sources, including TXS 0506+056, suggests that, collectively, correlations with sources in the northern catalog are inconsistent with background at 3.3σ significance. The southern catalog is consistent with background. These results, all based on searches for a cumulative neutrino signal integrated over the 10 years of available data, motivate further study of these and similar sources, including time-dependent analyses, multimessenger correlations, and the possibility of stronger evidence with coming upgrades to the detector.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.124.051103DOI Listing
February 2020

Injury patterns of less lethal kinetic impact projectiles used by law enforcement officers.

J Forensic Leg Med 2020 01 19;69:101892. Epub 2019 Dec 19.

Wake Forest School of Medicine, Dept. of Emergency Medicine, USA. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jflm.2019.101892DOI Listing
January 2020

Identification of A Novel Papillomavirus Associated with Squamous Cell Carcinoma in A Domestic Cat.

Viruses 2020 01 20;12(1). Epub 2020 Jan 20.

Sydney School of Veterinary Science, Faculty of Science, University of Sydney, Sydney NSW 2006, Australia.

Papillomaviruses infect the skin and mucosal surfaces of diverse animal hosts with consequences ranging from asymptomatic colonization to highly malignant epithelial cancers. Increasing evidence suggests a role for papillomaviruses in the most common cutaneous malignancy of domestic cats, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Using total DNA sequencing we identified a novel feline papillomavirus in a nasal biopsy taken from a cat presenting with both nasal cavity lymphoma and recurrent squamous cell carcinoma affecting the nasal planum. We designate this novel virus as Felis catus papillomavirus 6 (FcaPV6). The complete FcaPV6 7453 bp genome was similar to those of other feline papillomaviruses and phylogenetic analysis revealed that it was most closely related to FcaPV3, although was distinct enough to represent a new viral type. Classification of FcaPV6 in a new genus alongside FcaPVs 3, 4 and 5 is supported. Archived excisional biopsy of the SCC, taken 20 months prior to presentation, was intensely positive on p16 immunostaining. FcaPV6, amplified using virus-specific, but not consensus, PCR, was the only papillomavirus detected in DNA extracted from the SCC. Conversely, renal lymphoma, sampled at necropsy two months after presentation, tested negative on FcaPV6-specific PCR. In sum, using metagenomics we demonstrate the presence of a novel feline papillomavirus in association with cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v12010124DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7019393PMC
January 2020

Seroprevalence and Risk Factors for Infection in Owned Domestic Cats in Australia.

Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2020 04 30;20(4):275-280. Epub 2019 Dec 30.

Sydney School of Veterinary Science, Faculty of Science, University of Sydney, Camperdown, New South Wales, Australia.

Ongoing surveillance of seroprevalence and exposure risks in owned cats is important to identify effective mechanisms to decrease the prevalence of this global zoonotic parasite. We aimed to determine the seroprevalence of and risk factors for seropositivity in owned domestic cats in Australia. Sera, signalment data, postcode, and completed owner-questionnaires surveying diet composition and lifestyle factors were collected for cats presenting to 18 veterinary clinics across Australia. -specific IgG was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Data were analyzed using univariable and multivariable logistic regression to evaluate risk factors associated with positive IgG serology. Among 417 cats, seroprevalence was 39%. More than two-thirds of cats tested (69%) had outdoor access and 59% were fed a diet containing raw meat. Univariable analyses identified, age (>1 year,  < 0.001), a diet containing any raw meat ( = 0.001), raw kangaroo ( = 0.008), raw chicken ( = 0.012), or raw beef ( = 0.017), and hunting ( = 0.049) as risk factors for infection. Age (>1 year, odds ratio [OR]: 7.15) and feeding of raw meat (OR: 2.23) remained significant risk factors ( < 0.001) in multivariable analyses. seroprevalence did not differ between cats domiciled in urban and semiurban or rural areas. Pet cats in Australia are commonly infected with . Feeding raw meat to cats, a common practice in Australia, is associated with infection, highlighting the need for education about the health implications for cats from feeding a diet containing raw meat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2019.2520DOI Listing
April 2020

Distinct Lineages of Feline Parvovirus Associated with Epizootic Outbreaks in Australia, New Zealand and the United Arab Emirates.

Viruses 2019 12 13;11(12). Epub 2019 Dec 13.

Sydney School of Veterinary Science, Faculty of Science, University of Sydney, Camperdown NSW 2050, Australia.

Feline panleukopenia (FPL), a frequently fatal disease of cats, is caused by feline parvovirus (FPV) or canine parvovirus (CPV). We investigated simultaneous outbreaks of FPL between 2014 and 2018 in Australia, New Zealand and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) where FPL outbreaks had not been reported for several decades. Case data from 989 cats and clinical samples from additional 113 cats were obtained to determine the cause of the outbreaks and epidemiological factors involved. Most cats with FPL were shelter-housed, 9 to 10 weeks old at diagnosis, unvaccinated, had not completed a primary vaccination series or had received vaccinations noncompliant with current guidelines. Analysis of parvoviral VP2 sequence data confirmed that all FPL cases were caused by FPV and not CPV. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that each of these outbreaks was caused by a distinct FPV, with two virus lineages present in eastern Australia and virus movement between different geographical locations. Viruses from the UAE outbreak formed a lineage of unknown origin. FPV vaccine virus was detected in the New Zealand cases, highlighting the difficulty of distinguishing the co-incidental shedding of vaccine virus in vaccinated cats. Inadequate vaccination coverage in shelter-housed cats was a common factor in all outbreaks, likely precipitating the multiple re-emergence of infection events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v11121155DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6950618PMC
December 2019

Population Characteristics of Cats Adopted from an Urban Cat Shelter and the Influence of Physical Traits and Reason for Surrender on Length of Stay.

Animals (Basel) 2019 Nov 8;9(11). Epub 2019 Nov 8.

Sydney School of Veterinary Science, Faculty of Science, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.

Measures aimed at reducing the length of stay (LOS) of cats in shelters can promote animal welfare and more efficient use of resources. The extent to which variables shown to impact LOS are broadly applicable is unclear. The aim of this study was to describe a population of cats adopted from an urban shelter, and to analyze the association between potential predictor variables and LOS. A study cohort was identified retrospectively from shelter records ( = 2584), 48.8% of which were < 12 weeks old at admission, and 80.7% were stray. Among 445 cats relinquished by owners, reasons for surrender were primarily owner-related (87.2%). Overall, reason for surrender and coat color were significantly associated with LOS. Hazard ratios showed that all reasons for surrender for owner-relinquished cats were associated with a shorter LOS than stray cats and this association was significant ( < 0.05) for all except cat behavioral or medical reasons. In contrast to previous reports, white cats had a significantly ( < 0.05) longer LOS than black cats. This study highlights an important role for shelter-specific baseline data to inform and measure the effect of interventional studies aimed at improving animal welfare by reducing LOS in shelter-housed cats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani9110940DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6912321PMC
November 2019

Prevalence and risk factors for Felis catus gammaherpesvirus 1 detection in domestic cats in Italy.

Vet Microbiol 2019 Nov 22;238:108426. Epub 2019 Sep 22.

Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Bari, Valenzano, Bari, Italy. Electronic address:

Felis catus gammaherpesvirus 1 (FcaGHV1), a novel gammaherpesvirus of domestic cats identified in 2014, has been detected in different countries demonstrating a worldwide distribution. The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of FcaGHV1 in Italy using a molecular epidemiological approach. FcaGHV1 DNA was detected with virus-specific real-time PCR in ≃1% of 2659 feline blood samples tested. Analysis of risk factors showed that being male and coinfection with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) increase the likelihood of FcaGHV1 detection. One-third of FcaGHV1-positive cats also tested positive for FIV provirus, whereas coinfections with feline panleukopenia virus were not demonstrated. Further studies are necessary to confirm the risk factors for FcaGHV1 detection and the pathobiology of the virus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2019.108426DOI Listing
November 2019

Effects of a novel bites, steps and eating rate-focused weight loss randomised controlled trial intervention on body weight and eating behaviours.

J Hum Nutr Diet 2020 06 23;33(3):330-341. Epub 2019 Oct 23.

Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences, The University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI, USA.

Background: Eating rate (ER), comprising the amount of food consumed per unit of time, is associated with obesity and energy intake (EI).

Methods: The present study tested whether adding a self-monitoring wearable device to a multifaceted 8-week weight loss intervention increased weight loss. In addition, the device's effect on secondary change outcomes in EI, ER and estimated energy expenditure was explored. Tertiary outcomes included examining eating behaviours measured by the Weight-Related Eating Questionnaire (WREQ). Seventy-two adults who were overweight or obese [mean (SD) age, 37.7 (15.3) years; body mass index, 31.3 (3.2) kg m ] were randomised into two groups: intervention workbook plus device (WD) or intervention workbook only (WO). Three 24-h dietary recalls were obtained before weeks 0 and 8. Participants were weighed, consumed a test meal and completed 7-day Physical Activity Recall and WREQ at weeks 0 and 8.

Results: There was no significant difference between WD and WO groups with respect to weight change [-0.46 (1.11) vs. 0.26 (0.82) kg, respectively], ER, EI, energy expenditure or WREQ scores, although there were significant changes over time, and within-group changes on all of these variables. At week 8, participants were dichotomised into weight loss or weight stable/gainers groups. A significant time by group change was seen in susceptibility to external cues scores, with significant time effects for susceptibility and restraint.

Conclusions: An intervention focused on reducing ER, energy density and increasing steps was effective for weight loss, although the wearable device provided no additional benefit. Participants with higher susceptibility to external eating may be more responsive to this intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jhn.12704DOI Listing
June 2020

A Novel Hepadnavirus is Associated with Chronic Hepatitis and Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Cats.

Viruses 2019 10 21;11(10). Epub 2019 Oct 21.

Faculty of Science, Sydney School of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW 2006, Australia.

In 2015, over 850,000 people died from chronic hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV). A novel hepatitis B-like virus has recently been identified in domestic cats. The pathogenic potential of domestic cat hepadnavirus (DCH), for which 6.5% to 10.8% of pet cats are viremic, is unknown. We evaluated stored formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded biopsies of diseased and normal feline liver for the presence of DCH using PCR and in situ hybridization (ISH). DCH was detected in 43% (6/14) of chronic hepatitis cases and 28% (8/29) of HCCs, whereas cholangitis ( = 6), biliary carcinoma ( = 18) and normal liver ( = 15) all tested negative for DCH. Furthermore, in DCH-associated cases, the histologic features of inflammation and neoplasia, and the viral distribution on ISH were strikingly similar to those seen with HBV-associated disease. Several histological features common in human HBV-associated hepatitis, including piecemeal necrosis and apoptotic bodies, were identified in DCH-positive cases of chronic hepatitis. In two cases of HCC examined, the proliferation index in regions that were ISH-positive was higher than in ISH-negative regions. The intracellular distribution of virus in both hepatitis and HCC demonstrated that viral nucleic acid is present in both nuclear and cytoplasmic forms. Collectively, these findings demonstrate a compelling association between DCH and some cases of chronic hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma in the cat that mirrors features of HBV-associated hepatopathies. Future investigations of viral epidemiology and natural history are needed to establish the impact of DCH on feline health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v11100969DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6832243PMC
October 2019

The Creativity of Natural Selection? Part II: The Synthesis and Since.

Authors:
John Beatty

J Hist Biol 2019 12;52(4):705-731

Department of Philosophy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1, Canada.

This is the second of a two-part essay on the history of debates concerning the creativity of natural selection, from Darwin through the evolutionary synthesis and up to the present. In the first part, I focussed on the mid-late nineteenth century to the early twentieth, with special emphasis on early Darwinism and its critics, the self-styled "mutationists." The second part focuses on the evolutionary synthesis and some of its critics, especially the "neutralists" and "neo-mutationists." Like Stephen Gould, I consider the creativity of natural selection to be a key component of what has traditionally counted as "Darwinism." I argue that the creativity of natural selection is best understood in terms of (1) selection initiating evolutionary change, and (2) selection directing evolutionary change, for example by creating the variation that it subsequently acts upon. I consider the respects in which both of these claims sound non-Darwinian, even though they have long been understood by supporters and critics alike to be virtually constitutive of Darwinism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10739-019-09583-4DOI Listing
December 2019

Induction of Gene Transfer Agent Gene Expression Is a Bistable Stochastic Process Repressed by an Extracellular Calcium-Binding RTX Protein Homologue.

J Bacteriol 2019 12 5;201(23). Epub 2019 Nov 5.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

Bacteriophage-like gene transfer agents (GTAs) have been discovered in both of the prokaryotic branches of the three-domain phylogenetic tree of life. The production of a GTA (RcGTA) by the phototrophic alphaproteobacterium is regulated by quorum sensing and a phosphorelay homologous to systems in other species that control essential functions such as the initiation of chromosome replication and cell division. In wild-type strains, RcGTA is produced in <3% of cells in laboratory cultures. Mutants of that exhibit greatly elevated production of RcGTA were created decades ago by chemical mutagenesis, but the nature and molecular consequences of the mutation were unknown. We show that the number of cells in a population that go on to express RcGTA genes is controlled by a stochastic process, in contrast to a genetic process. We used transposon mutagenesis along with a fluorescent protein reporter system and genome sequence data to identify a gene, , that encodes an RTX family calcium-binding protein homologue. The Rc280 protein acts as an extracellular repressor of RcGTA gene expression by decreasing the percentage of cells that induce the production of RcGTA. GTAs catalyze horizontal gene transfer (HGT), which is important for genomic evolution because the majority of genes found in bacterial genomes have undergone HGT at some point in their evolution. Therefore, it is important to determine how the production of GTAs is regulated to understand the factors that modulate the frequency of gene transfer and thereby specify the tempo of evolution. This work describes a new type of genetic regulation in which an extracellular calcium-binding protein homologue represses the induction of the GTA, RcGTA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JB.00430-19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6832060PMC
December 2019

Genetic polymorphisms in toll-like receptors 1, 2, and 4 in feline upper respiratory tract aspergillosis.

Vet Immunol Immunopathol 2019 Nov 7;217:109921. Epub 2019 Aug 7.

Sydney School of Veterinary Science, Faculty of Science, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia; Marie Bashir Institute of Infectious Diseases and Biosecurity, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.

Fungal species in the genus Aspergillus are environmental saprophytes that can act as opportunistic pathogens of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses in humans, cats and other species. Upper respiratory tract aspergillosis (URTA) presents as non-invasive and invasive forms with the latter occurring almost exclusively in immunocompromised hosts. However, in domestic cats, invasive URTA affects apparently immunocompetent patients. A defect in innate immunity has been proposed as a predisposing factor in invasive feline URTA. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in pattern recognition receptor genes have been implicated in the pathogenesis of aspergillosis in humans. The aims of this study were to identify non-synonymous SNPs in the coding regions of toll-like receptors involved in the immune response to Aspergillus spp. and to compare the frequency of these SNPs between affected and control cats. The coding and flanking regions of TLR1, TLR2 and TLR4 were sequenced in 14 cats with URTA and the sequences were compared with those in 20 control cats without aspergillosis. In total, 23 non-synonymous SNPs were identified in TLR1 (n = 11), TLR2 (n = 3) and TLR4 (n = 10). Differences in allelic frequency of non-synonymous SNPs between affected and controls were not identified either within breeds or overall or between non-invasive and invasive disease phenotypes. Although allelic frequency differed between cat breeds that are overrepresented for URTA and underrepresented breeds there was no association differences identified between affected cats and underrepresented breeds. The difference in allelic frequency of an INDEL point mutation identified in intron 1 of TLR4, between cats with non-invasive versus invasive aspergillosis approached significance (p = 0.054). While results from this study do not support a role for non-synonymous SNPs in the pathogenesis of feline URTA they do provide evidence that investigation for polymorphisms in non-coding regions of these genes and in other pattern recognition receptors are warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetimm.2019.109921DOI Listing
November 2019

Testing the efficacy of motivational strategies, empathic reflections, and lifelike features in a computerized intervention for alcohol use: A factorial trial.

Psychol Addict Behav 2019 Sep 22;33(6):511-519. Epub 2019 Aug 22.

Merrill Palmer Skillman Institute, Wayne State University.

Although computer delivered brief interventions (CDBIs) have been effective in reducing alcohol use, few studies have examined which components of CDBIs are most associated with drinking reductions. The current factorial trial deconstructed a brief alcohol intervention into component parts to identify main and interaction effects on drinking outcomes. Participants (N = 352) were randomly assigned to 1 of 16 possible combinations of four dichotomous (present vs. absent) CDBI components for which theoretical and empirical support was available: empathic reflections, motivational strategies, a spoken voice, and an animated narrator. We measured main and interaction effects of these components on the primary outcome of self-reported mean drinks per day at 1- and 3-month follow-up, as well as on secondary outcomes, including binge drinking, intentions to reduce drinking, and alcohol consequences. Participants reduced drinking across all alcohol use indices over the 3-month assessment period. These effects were stronger for participants who were exposed to motivational strategies, F = 7.7, p < .001. Empathic reflections, use of a spoken voice, and use of an animated narrator were not associated with reductions in alcohol use, either as main effects or in interaction with other factors. Results suggest that CDBIs using motivational strategies are effective in reducing alcohol use. However, empathic reflections and lifelike characteristics (e.g., narrator, voice) may operate differently in CDBIs than they do in person-delivered interventions. More research is needed to better understand how these (or other factors) may influence efficacy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/adb0000502DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6742543PMC
September 2019

Identification of hepadnavirus in the sera of cats.

Sci Rep 2019 07 23;9(1):10668. Epub 2019 Jul 23.

Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Bari, Valenzano, Italy.

Hepadnaviruses infect several animal species. The prototype species, human hepatitis B virus (HBV), increases the risk of liver diseases and may cause cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Recently a novel hepadnavirus, similar to HBV, has been identified through transcriptomics studies in a domestic cat with large cell lymphoma in Australia. Herewith, a collection of 390 feline serum samples was screened for hepadnavirus. Overall, the virus was identified in 10.8% of the sera with a significantly higher prevalence (17.8%) in the sera of animals with a clinical suspect of infectious disease. Upon genome sequencing, the virus was closely related (97.0% nt identity) to the prototype Australian feline virus Sydney 2016. The mean and median values of hepadnavirus in the feline sera were 1.3 × 10 and 2.1 × 10 genome copies per mL (range 3.3 × 10-2.5 × 10 genome copies per mL). For a subset of hepadnavirus-positive samples, information on the hemato-chemical parameters was available and in 10/20 animals a profile suggestive of liver damage was present. Also, in 7/10 animals with suspected hepatic disease, virus load was >10 genome copies per mL, i.e. above the threshold considered at risk of active hepatitis and liver damage for HBV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-47175-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6650429PMC
July 2019

Feline Foamy Virus Infection: Characterization of Experimental Infection and Prevalence of Natural Infection in Domestic Cats with and without Chronic Kidney Disease.

Viruses 2019 07 19;11(7). Epub 2019 Jul 19.

Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA.

Foamy viruses (FVs) are globally prevalent retroviruses that establish apparently apathogenic lifelong infections. Feline FV (FFV) has been isolated from domestic cats with concurrent diseases, including urinary syndromes. We experimentally infected five cats with FFV to study viral kinetics and tropism, peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) phenotype, urinary parameters, and histopathology. A persistent infection of primarily lymphoid tropism was detected with no evidence of immunological or hematologic perturbations. One cat with a significant negative correlation between lymphocytes and PBMC proviral load displayed an expanded FFV tissue tropism. Significantly increased blood urea nitrogen and ultrastructural kidney changes were noted in all experimentally infected cats, though chemistry parameters were not outside of normal ranges. Histopathological changes were observed in the brain, large intestine, and other tissues. In order to determine if there is an association of FFV with Chronic Kidney Disease, we additionally screened 125 Australian pet cats with and without CKD for FFV infection and found that FFV is highly prevalent in older cats, particularly in males with CKD, though this difference was not statistically significant compared to controls. Acute FFV infection was clinically silent, and while some measures indicated mild changes, there was no overt association of FFV infection with renal disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v11070662DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6669521PMC
July 2019

Accuracy of five self-report screening instruments for substance use in pregnancy.

Addiction 2019 09 19;114(9):1683-1693. Epub 2019 Jun 19.

Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.

Background And Aims: The accuracy of current screening instruments for identification of substance use in pregnancy is unclear, particularly given methodological shortcomings in existing research. This diagnostic accuracy study compared five existing instruments for ability to identify illicit drug, opioid and alcohol use, under privacy expectations consistent with applied practice and using a gold standard incorporating toxicological analysis.

Design: Prospective cross-sectional screening accuracy study.

Setting: Three sites encompassing four prenatal care clinics in the United States.

Participants: Convenience sample of 1220 racially, ethnically and socio-economically diverse pregnant women aged 18 years and over.

Measurements: In Phase I, participants completed the five screening instruments in counterbalanced order. Instruments included the Substance Use Risk Profile-Pregnancy (SURP-P), CRAFFT (acronym for five-item screener with items related to car, relax, alone, forget, friends and trouble), 5Ps (parents, peers, partner, pregnancy, past), Wayne Indirect Drug Use Screener (WIDUS) and the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) Quick Screen. In Phase II, participants provided a urine sample and completed a calendar recall-based interview regarding substance use. These screeners were tested, using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and accuracy statistics, against a reference standard consisting of substance use in three classes (illicit drugs, opioids and alcohol), considered positive if use was evident via 30-day calendar recall or urine analysis.

Findings: Three hundred and fifteen of 1220 participants (26.3%) met reference standard criteria for positivity. The single-item screening questions from the NIDA Quick Screen showed high specificity (0.99) for all substances, but very poor sensitivity (0.10-0.27). The 5Ps showed high sensitivity (0.80-0.88) but low specificity (0.35-0.37). The CRAFFT, SURP-P and 5Ps had the highest area under the curve (AUC) for alcohol (0.67, 0.66 and 0.62, respectively), and the WIDUS had the highest AUC for illicit drugs and opioids (0.70 and 0.69, respectively). Performance of all instruments varied significantly with race, site and economic status.

Conclusions: Of five screening instruments for substance use in pregnancy tested (Substance Use Risk Profile-Pregnancy (SURP-P), CRAFFT, 5Ps, Wayne Indirect Drug Use Screener (WIDUS) and the National Institute on Drug Abuse (Quick Screen), none showed both high sensitivity and high specificity, and area under the curve was low for nearly all measures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/add.14651DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8407406PMC
September 2019

The Burmese cat as a genetic model of type 2 diabetes in humans.

Anim Genet 2019 Aug 10;50(4):319-325. Epub 2019 Jun 10.

Sydney School of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, 2006, Australia.

The recent extension of genetic tools to the domestic cat, together with the serendipitous consequences of selective breeding, have been essential to the study of the genetic diseases that affect them. Cats are increasingly presented for veterinary surveillance and share many of human's heritable diseases, allowing them to serve as natural models of these conditions. Feline diabetes mellitus is a common condition in domestic cats that bears close pathological and clinical resemblance to type 2 diabetes in humans, including pancreatic β-cell dysfunction and peripheral insulin resistance. In Australia, New Zealand and Europe, diabetes mellitus is almost four times more common in cats of the Burmese breed than in other breeds. This geographically based breed predisposition parallels familial and population clustering of type 2 diabetes in humans. As a genetically isolated population, the Australian Burmese breed provides a spontaneous, naturally occurring genetic model of type 2 diabetes. Genetically isolated populations typically exhibit extended linkage disequilibrium and increased opportunity for deleterious variants to reach high frequencies over many generations due to genetic drift. Studying complex diseases in such populations allows for tighter control of confounding factors including environmental heterogeneity, allelic frequencies and population stratification. The homogeneous genetic background of Australian Burmese cats may provide a unique opportunity to either refine genetic signals previously associated with type 2 diabetes or identify new risk factors for this disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/age.12799DOI Listing
August 2019

Examining changes in respiratory exchange ratio within an 8-week weight loss intervention.

Authors:
J Beatty K Melanson

J Hum Nutr Diet 2019 12 7;32(6):737-744. Epub 2019 May 7.

Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences, The University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI, USA.

Background: Maintaining weight loss is difficult, partly as a result of accompanying reductions in fat oxidation. The present study examined fat oxidation [reflected by respiratory exchange ratio (RER)] within an 8-week, self-led weight loss intervention. Changes in RER, body fat (BF%) and estimated energy expenditure (EE) were examined.

Methods: Twenty-two adults [13 females, nine males; mean (SD) age 34.6 (16.5) years; body mass index 32.0 (4.3) kg m ] received a self-directed workbook; twelve were also randomised to receive a self-monitoring wrist-worn device. At weeks 0 and 8, RER (indirect calorimetry), BF% (BodPod) and estimated EE [7-day physical activity recall (PAR-EE) were collected. Participants were pooled and paired t-tests were used to examine changes over time. Correlations explored associations among variables. Participants were then dichotomised into weight loss group (WL) or weight stable/gainers group (WSG) and eating behaviours [Intuitive Eating Scale (IES-2)] were examined by 2 × 2 repeated measures multivariate analysis of covariance.

Results: There were no significant changes in RER, body fat percentage and PAR-EE. A significant negative association was found between week 8 PAR-EE and week 8 RER, as well as between BF% change and RER change. There was a significant time by WL versus WSG group effect of IES-2 scores, with the WL group self-reporting significantly increased scores in Eating for Physical Reasons rather than Emotional Reasons (EPR) subscale.

Conclusions: Increased physical activity after an 8-week weight loss intervention was associated with a higher fasting fat oxidation. Participants who increased EPR scores were more successful in weight loss than those without a change in this subscale.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jhn.12664DOI Listing
December 2019

Mobile Health Interventions: Exploring the Use of Common Relationship Factors.

JMIR Mhealth Uhealth 2019 04 15;7(4):e11245. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Merrill-Palmer Skillman Institute, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, United States.

The use of mobile health (mHealth) interventions has risen dramatically over the past two decades. It is important to consider mHealth intervention research within the broader therapy outcome literature. Among other key findings, this broader literature suggests that common relationship factors such as empathy, positive regard, and genuineness may play a critical role in therapy effectiveness. These findings raise intriguing questions for mobile interventions. For example, can mobile interventions incorporate aspects of common factors to augment their efficacy? Will the absence of relationship-based common factors make mobile interventions less effective? This viewpoint paper addresses these questions as well as related issues such as how to operationalize relationship qualities in the context of a mobile intervention and whether common relationship factors apply to computers or computerized narrators. The paper concludes by outlining a future research agenda guided by theory and empirical studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/11245DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6487346PMC
April 2019

Breed-specific variations in the coding region of toll-like receptor 4 in the domestic cat.

Vet Immunol Immunopathol 2019 Mar 26;209:61-69. Epub 2019 Feb 26.

Sydney School of Veterinary Science, Faculty of Science, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia; Marie Bashir Institute of Infectious Diseases and Biosecurity, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia. Electronic address:

Specific point mutations in the human toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) confer altered risk for diverse diseases including sepsis, aspergillosis and inflammatory bowel disease. Some of these TLR4 polymorphisms are racially specific. We hypothesised that feline TLR4 polymorphisms might underlie an observed increased risk to infectious and inflammatory diseases in some cat breeds. The aim of this study was to identify breed-specific variations in the coding region of feline TLR4 and to model the effect of mutations on protein structure and function in silico. The entire coding region of TLR4 was sequenced in 8 groups (7 pure-bred, 1 crossbred) of domestic cats (Felis catus) comprising 158 individuals. Twenty-two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in TLR4, with 16 located in the coding region (11 non-synonymous) and four in the 3'UTR. Comparison of breed specific allelic frequencies indicated that Burmese and British shorthairs most commonly differed from other breeds. In silico analyses to predict the impact of the 11 non-synonymous variants indicated a deleterious effect on protein structure for one SNP (c.869 G > A), which was not associated with a specific breed. Overall, findings from this study do not support a role of TLR4 dysfunction in breed-predispositions to infectious diseases in domestic cats in Australia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetimm.2019.02.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7126157PMC
March 2019

Porphyrin Excretion Resulting From Mutation of a Gene Encoding a Class I Fructose 1,6-Bisphosphate Aldolase in .

Front Microbiol 2019 22;10:301. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

This paper describes a mutant (called SB1707) of the wild type strain SB1003 in which a transposon-disrupted gene resulted in a ∼25-fold increase in the accumulation of coproporphyrin III in the medium of phototrophic (anaerobic) cultures grown in a yeast extract/peptone medium. There was little or no stimulation of pigment accumulation in aerobic cultures. Therefore, this effect of mutation appears to be specific for the anaerobic coproporphyrinogen III oxidase HemN as opposed to the aerobic enzyme HemF. The protein encoded by is homologous to Class I fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolases, which catalyze a glycolytic reaction that converts fructose 1, 6-bisphosphate to dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, precursors of pyruvate. There were significant differences in coproporphyrin III accumulation using defined media with individual organic acids and sugars as the sole carbon source: pyruvate, succinate and glutamate stimulated accumulation the most, whereas glucose suppressed coproporphyrin III accumulation to 10% of that of succinate. However, although quantitatively lesser, similar effects of carbon source on the amount of accumulated pigment in the culture medium were seen in a wild type control. Therefore, this mutation appears to exaggerate effects also seen in the wild type strain. It is possible that mutation of causes a metabolic bottleneck or imbalance that was not rectified during growth on the several carbon sources tested. However, we speculate that, analogous to other fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolases, the gene product has a "moonlighting" activity that in this case is needed for the maximal expression of the gene. Indeed, it was found that the gene is needed for maximal expression of a promoter- reporter. With the decrease in expression due to the absence of the gene product, coproporphyrinogen III accumulates and is released from the cell, yielding the spontaneous oxidation product coproporphyrin III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2019.00301DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6395792PMC
February 2019

Constraints on Minute-Scale Transient Astrophysical Neutrino Sources.

Phys Rev Lett 2019 Feb;122(5):051102

Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas 66045, USA.

High-energy neutrino emission has been predicted for several short-lived astrophysical transients including gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), core-collapse supernovae with choked jets, and neutron star mergers. IceCube's optical and x-ray follow-up program searches for such transient sources by looking for two or more muon neutrino candidates in directional coincidence and arriving within 100 s. The measured rate of neutrino alerts is consistent with the expected rate of chance coincidences of atmospheric background events and no likely electromagnetic counterparts have been identified in Swift follow-up observations. Here, we calculate generic bounds on the neutrino flux of short-lived transient sources. Assuming an E^{-2.5} neutrino spectrum, we find that the neutrino flux of rare sources, like long gamma-ray bursts, is constrained to <5% of the detected astrophysical flux and the energy released in neutrinos (100 GeV to 10 PeV) by a median bright GRB-like source is <10^{52.5}  erg. For a harder E^{-2.13} neutrino spectrum up to 30% of the flux could be produced by GRBs and the allowed median source energy is <10^{52}  erg. A hypothetical population of transient sources has to be more common than 10^{-5}  Mpc^{-3}  yr^{-1} (5×10^{-8}  Mpc^{-3}  yr^{-1} for the E^{-2.13} spectrum) to account for the complete astrophysical neutrino flux.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.122.051102DOI Listing
February 2019

Suspected adverse drug interaction between spinosad and milbemycin oxime in a cat.

JFMS Open Rep 2019 Jan-Jun;5(1):2055116918820733. Epub 2019 Jan 9.

University Veterinary Teaching Hospital Sydney, Sydney School of Veterinary Science, Faculty of Science, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Case Summary: A 12-year-old male neutered Tonkinese cat was presented for acute ataxia, weakness, altered mentation and generalised tremors. The cat had been administered oral spinosad (140 mg; 33.5 mg/kg) 48 h prior to the onset of clinical signs, and an oral anthelmintic containing milbemycin oxime (16 mg; 3.8 mg/kg) and praziquantel (40 mg; 9.6 mg/kg) 12 h before the onset of clinical signs. On physical examination, dull-to-obtunded mentation, tetraparesis, ataxia and mild tremors of facial, limb and trunk muscles were noted. Serum biochemical changes and urinalysis were consistent with haemoconcentration. The results of a complete blood count, urine culture and serology for feline leukaemia virus, feline immunodeficiency virus and cryptococcal antigen were negative. The patient was monitored in hospital and all clinical signs resolved within 24 h.

Relevance And Novel Information: The neurological signs in this case were consistent with macrocyclic lactone neurotoxicity, which is suspected to have occurred from an adverse drug interaction between spinosad and milbemycin oxime. This report serves to highlight the potential for this adverse drug interaction between these commonly used prophylactic drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2055116918820733DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6330730PMC
January 2019

Outcomes of European Basic Laparoscopic Urological Skills (EBLUS) Examinations: Results from European School of Urology (ESU) and EAU Section of Uro-Technology (ESUT) over 6 Years (2013-2018).

Eur Urol Focus 2020 11 17;6(6):1190-1194. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Department of Urology and Kidney Transplant, Grande Ospedale Metropolitano, Reggio Calabria, Italy.

Background: The European School of Urology (ESU) and EAU Section of Uro-Technology (ESUT) started hands-on-training (HOT) sessions in 2007 along with structured European Basic Laparoscopic Urological Skills (EBLUS) examinations in 2013. EBLUS includes an online theoretical course, HOT by expert tutors on a set of dry-lab exercises, and finally a standardised examination for skill assessment and certification.

Objective: To analyse the results and predictors of success from the EBLUS examinations that were conducted during the European Urology Residents Education Programme (EUREP) and other international and national dedicated ESU events.

Design, Setting, And Participants: ESU has been delivering EBLUS courses and examinations over the past 6 yr (2013-2018) in more than 40 countries worldwide. Trainees were asked about their laparoscopic background (procedures assisted/performed) and about the availability of HOT or simulator/box trainer in their facility. Apart from the online theoretical course, 4 HOT tasks [(1) peg transfer, (2) pattern cutting, (3) single knot tying, and (4) clip and cut] with its quality assessment of depth perception, bimanual dexterity, and efficiency were a part of the assessment and were considered critical to pass the EBLUS examination.

Results And Limitations: A total of 875 EBLUS examinations were delivered (EUREP, n=385; other ESU events, n=490), with complete data available for 533 (61%) participants among which 295 (55%) passed the examinations. Pass rate increased on a yearly basis from 35% to 70% (p<0.001) and was similar between EUREP (56%) and other ESU/ESUT events (55%). The significant predictors of success were passing tasks 1 [odds ratio (OR): 869.9, 95% confidence interval (CI): 89.6-8449.0, p<0.001] and 2 (OR: 3045.0, 95% CI: 99.2-93 516.2, p<0.001) of the examinations. A limitation of EBLUS was its inability to provide more advanced training such as wet-lab or cadaveric training.

Conclusions: Over the past few years more trainees have passed the European Basic Laparoscopic Urological Skills (EBLUS) examinations. Trainees who spend more time on laparoscopic procedures demonstrated a better performance and pass rate. We found almost no difference between the EBLUS results collected from EUREP and other ESU/ESUT events, which confirms the robustness of the training and examinations conducted worldwide.

Patient Summary: Training in laparoscopy helps trainees pass the European Basic Laparoscopic Urological Skills (EBLUS) examinations, reflected by an increase in the pass rate over the past 6 yr. Our results also confirm the robustness of EBLUS training and examinations worldwide.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.euf.2019.01.007DOI Listing
November 2020

Feasibility and Acceptability of e-Screening and Brief Intervention and Tailored Text Messaging for Marijuana Use in Pregnancy.

J Womens Health (Larchmt) 2019 09 18;28(9):1295-1301. Epub 2019 Jan 18.

Department of Psychology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia.

There are at present no evidence-based interventions for marijuana use during pregnancy, despite it being by far the most commonly used illicit drug during pregnancy. Lack of treatment-seeking, combined with implementation challenges, has limited the extent to which at-risk women receive interventions of any kind. This study sought to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of two high-reach technology-based interventions: electronic screening and brief intervention (e-SBI) and tailored text messaging, delivered either alone or in combination. In this exploratory feasibility trial, pregnant women seeking prenatal care services and scoring positive for marijuana use risk ( = 45) were randomly assigned to e-SBI, text messaging, or e-SBI plus text messaging. We examined completion rates and acceptability ratings as a function of intervention condition and participant characteristics. All participants assigned to receive the e-SBI ( = 30) were able to complete it during the in-clinic baseline session. Participants assigned to text messaging ( = 30) received a median of 24 text messages before giving birth; 6 of 30 (20%) chose to end text messages before giving birth. Acceptability ratings for the e-SBI were high, with most being above 4.4 on a 5-point scale (., for ease of use, respectfulness, and helpfulness). Acceptability ratings for some aspects of the texting intervention were also high (., for ease of understanding and respectfulness). Participants in the combined e-SBI plus texting condition chose to stop messages at a rate of 13.3% (2 of 15), versus 26.7% (4 of 15) in the texting-only condition ( = 0.37). These two high-reach intervention elements showed strong feasibility and modest to high acceptability. Future efforts evaluating efficacy are warranted, and should specifically examine the possibility that combining text messaging with a brief intervention may promote retention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jwh.2018.7169DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6743084PMC
September 2019

Novel viruses: Update on the significance of papillomavirus infections in cats.

J Feline Med Surg 2019 05 27;21(5):409-418. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

University of Sydney, Faculty of Science, Sydney School of Veterinary Science, NSW 2006, Australia.

Practical Relevance: Prior to 1990 papillomaviruses (PVs) were not recognised to infect or cause disease in domestic cats. Since this time, the use of histology, immunohistochemistry and, more recently, molecular techniques has revealed that PVs almost certainly cause feline viral plaques and Bowenoid in situ carcinomas, oral papillomas and feline sarcoids. In addition, there is increasing evidence that PVs play a significant role in the development of feline cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas, one of the most common skin cancers of cats. Recent studies have also revealed that most cats are asymptomatically infected with PVs. This raises a critical question that is currently unanswered: why do only a small proportion of infected cats develop disease? In the future it may be possible to prevent PV-induced diseases by using a vaccine to prevent PV infection. Alternatively, novel therapies may be developed that prevent PVs from causing clinical disease by stimulating the host immune response.

Clinical Challenges: A recognition of the skin diseases caused by PVs is important to more accurately predict disease progression. Unfortunately, there are currently no non-surgical treatments that have been proven to be beneficial in cats and clinical management of PV-induced skin disease in cats can be challenging.

Global Importance: PVs have a worldwide distribution and negatively impact feline health and welfare globally.

Audience: This review is aimed at clinicians, especially those who regularly treat cats with skin disease. The review will also be useful to oncologists and researchers who have an interest in how cancer develops in cats.

Evidence Base: In producing this update the authors have drawn on recently published peer-reviewed literature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1098612X18808105DOI Listing
May 2019

Novel feline viruses: Emerging significance of gammaherpesvirus and morbillivirus infections.

J Feline Med Surg 2019 01 26;21(1):5-11. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

4 School of Veterinary Science, Massey University, Palmerston North, 4410, New Zealand.

Practical Relevance: New technologies capable of sequencing the genetic material in any given biological sample, combined with computer-based algorithms for sequence assembly and analysis, have revolutionised infectious disease research. The rate at which novel viruses are being discovered now exceeds our understanding of their clinical relevance. Novel viruses may contribute to diseases that are major causes of feline morbidity and mortality, including cancer and chronic kidney disease. The identification of new viral pathogens raises the prospect of not only improved patient outcomes through specific treatment but even disease prevention through viral control measures.

Clinical Challenges: It can be difficult to determine the role of a novel virus in disease development. Disease may be an occasional outcome, often years after infection. A high prevalence of infection in the general population can make disease associations harder to identify and almost impossible to rule out. Host cofactors such as immune dysfunction, genetic background or coinfections may be required for manifestation of disease, and one virus species may be linked to a range of pathological sequelae. Establishing causality relies on evaluating accumulating evidence from multiple investigations, which is often hard to access by practitioners.

Global Importance: The worldwide distribution of gammaherpesvirus and morbillivirus infections in domestic cats underlines the potential of these viruses to negatively impact feline health and welfare globally.

Evidence Base: This review relies on grade la-III evidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1098612X18808102DOI Listing
January 2019

Performance Improvement (Pi) score: an algorithm to score Pi objectively during E-BLUS hands-on training sessions. A European Association of Urology, Section of Uro-Technology (ESUT) project.

BJU Int 2019 04 28;123(4):726-732. Epub 2018 Dec 28.

ICVS/3B's, PT Government Associate Laboratory, Braga/Guimarães, Portugal.

Objective: To evaluate the variability of subjective tutor performance improvement (Pi) assessment and to compare it with a novel measurement algorithm: the Pi score.

Materials And Methods: The Pi-score algorithm considers time measurement and number of errors from two different repetitions (first and fifth) of the same training task and compares them to the relative task goals, to produce an objective score. We collected data during eight courses on the four European Association of Urology training in Basic Laparoscopic Urological Skills (E-BLUS) tasks. The same tutor instructed on all courses. Collected data were independently analysed by 14 hands-on training experts for Pi assessment. Their subjective Pi assessments were compared for inter-rater reliability. The average per-participant subjective scores from all 14 proctors were then compared with the objective Pi-score algorithm results. Cohen's κ statistic was used for comparison analysis.

Results: A total of 50 participants were enrolled. Concordance found between the 14 proctors' scores was the following: Task 1, κ = 0.42 (moderate); Task 2, κ = 0.27 (fair); Task 3, κ = 0.32 (fair); and Task 4, κ = 0.55 (moderate). Concordance between Pi-score results and proctor average scores per participant was the following: Task 1, κ = 0.85 (almost perfect); Task 2, κ = 0.46 (moderate); Task 3, κ = 0.92 (almost perfect); Task 4 = 0.65 (substantial).

Conclusion: The present study shows that evaluation of Pi is highly variable, even when formulated by a cohort of experts. Our algorithm successfully provided an objective score that was equal to the average Pi assessment of a cohort of experts, in relation to a small amount of training attempts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bju.14621DOI Listing
April 2019

Observation of an Unusual Upward-Going Cosmic-Ray-like Event in the Third Flight of ANITA.

Phys Rev Lett 2018 Oct;121(16):161102

Department of Physics, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716, USA.

We report on an upward traveling, radio-detected cosmic-ray-like impulsive event with characteristics closely matching an extensive air shower. This event, observed in the third flight of the Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna (ANITA), a NASA-sponsored long-duration balloon payload, is consistent with a similar event reported in a previous flight. These events could be produced by the atmospheric decay of an upward-propagating τ lepton produced by a ν_{τ} interaction, although their relatively steep arrival angles create tension with the standard model neutrino cross section. Each of the two events have a posteriori background estimates of ≲10^{-2} events. If these are generated by τ-lepton decay, then either the charged-current ν_{τ} cross section is suppressed at EeV energies, or the events arise at moments when the peak flux of a transient neutrino source was much larger than the typical expected cosmogenic background neutrinos.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.121.161102DOI Listing
October 2018
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