Publications by authors named "Beatrice Anna Zannetti"

10 Publications

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Low-Dose Cyclophosphamide versus Intermediate-High-Dose Cyclophosphamide versus Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor Alone for Stem Cell Mobilization in Multiple Myeloma in the Era of Novel Agents: A Multicenter Retrospective Study.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Mar 28;27(3):244.e1-244.e8. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Hematology Unit, Romagna Transplant Center, Hospital of Ravenna, Ravenna, Italy. Electronic address:

The optimal stem cell (SC) mobilization strategy for patients with multiple myeloma (MM) remains a matter of debate. Possible approaches include low or high doses of cyclophosphamide (Cy), other chemotherapeutic agents, or granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) alone. The scope of the study was to compare low-dose Cy plus G-CSF versus intermediate-high-dose Cy plus G-CSF versus G-CSF alone for SC mobilization in MM, in terms of efficacy and safety. We retrospectively analyzed 422 MM patients undergoing SC mobilization in 6 Italian centers, including 188 patients who received low-dose Cy (LD-Cy group, defined as 2 g/m), 163 patients who received intermediate-high-dose Cy (HD-Cy group, defined as ≥ 3 g/m), and 71 patients who received G-CSF alone (G-CSF group). The median peak of circulating CD34+ cells was 77/µL in the LD-Cy group, 92/µL in the HD-Cy group, and 55/µL in the G-CSF group (P = .0001). The median amount of SCs collected was 9.1 × 10/kg, 9.7 × 10/kg, and 5.6 × 10/kg in the 3 groups, respectively (P = .0001). The rate of mobilization failure (defined as failure to collect ≥2 × 10/kg) was 3.7% in the LD-Cy group, 3.4% in the HD-Cy group, and 4.3% in the G-CSF group (P = .9). The target SC dose of at least 4 × 10/kg was reached in 90.4%, 91.1%, and 78.6% of the patients in these 3 groups, respectively (P = .014). The "on demand" use of plerixafor was higher in the G-CSF group (76%) compared with the LD-Cy group (19%) and the HD-Cy group (6%). In multivariate analysis, G-CSF mobilization and previous use of melphalan or radiotherapy were independently associated with failure to collect the target SC dose of ≥4 × 10/kg. No impacts of age, blood counts, or previous treatment with lenalidomide, bortezomib, or carfilzomib were observed. Our results suggest that LD-Cy may be considered for successful SC mobilization in patients with MM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2020.12.009DOI Listing
March 2021

Novel Insights in Anti-CD38 Therapy Based on CD38-Receptor Expression and Function: The Multiple Myeloma Model.

Cells 2020 12 11;9(12). Epub 2020 Dec 11.

Hematology Unit and Romagna Transplant Network, Ravenna Hospital, 48121 Ravenna, Italy.

Multiple myeloma (MM) is a hematological disease characterized by the proliferation and accumulation of malignant plasmacells (PCs) in the bone marrow (BM). Despite widespread use of high-dose chemotherapy in combination with autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) and the introduction of novel agents (immunomodulatory drugs, IMiDs, and proteasome inhibitors, PIs), the prognosis of MM patients is still poor. CD38 is a multifunctional cell-surface glycoprotein with receptor and ectoenzymatic activities. The very high and homogeneous expression of CD38 on myeloma PCs makes it an attractive target for novel therapeutic strategies. Several anti-CD38 monoclonal antibodies have been, or are being, developed for the treatment of MM, including daratumumab and isatuximab. Here we provide an in-depth look atCD38 biology, the role of CD38 in MM progression and its complex interactions with the BM microenvironment, the importance of anti-CD38 monoclonal antibodies, and the main mechanisms of antibody resistance. We then review a number of multiparametric flow cytometry techniques exploiting CD38 antigen expression on PCs to diagnose and monitor the response to treatment in MM patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells9122666DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7764337PMC
December 2020

Novel agent-based salvage autologous stem cell transplantation for relapsed multiple myeloma.

Ann Hematol 2017 Dec 24;96(12):2071-2078. Epub 2017 Oct 24.

"Seràgnoli" Institute of Hematology, Sant'Orsola-Malpighi University Hospital, Bologna, Italy.

High-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is a standard frontline therapy for multiple myeloma (MM). Therapeutic options for patients with relapsed MM after ASCT include novel agents in different combos, salvage ASCT (sASCT), and allogeneic transplant, with no unique standard of care. We retrospectively analyzed 66 MM patients who relapsed after up-front single or double ASCT(s) and received novel agent-based sASCT at five Italian centers. Median event-free survival from up-front ASCT(s) to first relapse (EFS1) was 44 months. Seventy-three percent of patients received sASCT at first disease progression. Re-induction regimens were bortezomib based in 87% of patients. Response to re-induction therapy included complete response (CR) 18%, ≥ very good partial response (VGPR) 48%, and overall response rate (ORR) 83%. Response to sASCT included CR 44%, ≥ VGPR 77%, and ORR 94%. With a median follow-up of 24 months after sASCT, 39 patients experienced disease progression. Median EFS from sASCT (EFS2) was 17 months. Median overall survival from ASCT (OS1) and sASCT (OS2) was 166 and 43 months, respectively. EFS2 and OS2 were significantly shorter in patients with EFS1 ≤ 24 months, in patients who did not receive sASCT at first disease progression and in patients with extramedullary disease (EMD). In multivariate analysis, EFS1 ≤ 24 months was associated with shorter EFS2 and OS2, EMD was associated with shorter EFS2, and < CR after sASCT was associated with shorter OS2. Novel agent-based sASCT is a safe and effective procedure for relapsed MM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-017-3140-5DOI Listing
December 2017

Prognostic impact of serial measurements of serum-free light chain assay throughout the course of newly diagnosed multiple myeloma treated with bortezomib-based regimens.

Leuk Lymphoma 2016 09 14;57(9):2058-64. Epub 2016 Jan 14.

a Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine, "Seràgnoli" Institute of Hematology , Bologna University School of Medicine , Bologna , Italy.

We retrospectively investigated the role of serial serum-free light chain (sFLC) evaluations in 150 multiple myeloma (MM) patients treated with first-line bortezomib-based regimens. Baseline sFLC ratio (sFLCR) identified three groups of patients - normal, lightly abnormal (<100), and highly abnormal (≥100) - with different progression-free survival (PFS: 3-year estimate 72% versus 61% versus 44%, respectively, p = 0.03). Moreover, the achievement of a normal sFLCR correlated with extended PFS (49 versus 17 months, p < 0.0001) and overall survival (75 versus 43 months, p < 0.0001) as compared with abnormal sFLCR, a gain maintained in a multivariate analysis for PFS. At relapse, a high sFLCR was associated with earlier start of salvage therapy compared with sFLCR <100 (3-month probability: 89% versus 64%, p = 0.0426). In 20% of patients, sFLC escape preceded the conventional relapse by a median of 3.8 months. Our results highlight the role of sFLC assay in the prognosis and follow-up of MM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/10428194.2015.1124994DOI Listing
September 2016

Bortezomib-based therapy combined with high cut-off hemodialysis is highly effective in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients with severe renal impairment.

Am J Hematol 2015 Jul;90(7):647-52

"Seràgnoli" Institute of Hematology, Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine Bologna, University School of Medicine, Sant'Orsola-Malpighi University Hospital, Bologna, Italy.

Multiple myeloma (MM) is often associated with renal insufficiency (RI) which adversely influences the prognosis. Several studies demonstrated that bortezomib can improve both renal function and outcome. We prospectively evaluated 21 newly diagnosed MM patients with severe renal impairment secondary to tubular-interstitial damage, most of them due to myeloma kidney, who were primarily treated with bortezomib-based therapy combined with high cut-off hemodialysis (HCOD). The median serum creatinine level at baseline was 6.44 mg dL(-1) and calculated median estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), according to Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) creatinine equation, was 8 mL/min/1.73 m(2) . Serum free light chain (sFLC) median concentration was 6,040 mg L(-1) . Post induction and best stringent complete response rates were 19 and 38%, respectively. Responses were fast, occurring within a median of 1.4 months. The combination of bortezomib and HCOD led to a prompt and remarkable (>90%) decrease in sFLC levels. Sixteen patients (76%) became dialysis independent within a median of 32 days. With a median follow up of 17.2 months, the 3-year PFS and OS were 76 and 67%, respectively. No early deaths were observed. This study demonstrates that incorporation of bortezomib into induction therapy combined with HCOD is a highly effective strategy in rescuing renal function and improving outcomes in patients with MM and RI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.24035DOI Listing
July 2015

HIF-1α inhibition blocks the cross talk between multiple myeloma plasma cells and tumor microenvironment.

Exp Cell Res 2014 Nov 26;328(2):444-55. Epub 2014 Sep 26.

Department of Experimental Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine (DIMES), "L. & A. Seràgnoli", Bologna University School of Medicine, S. Orsola׳s University Hospital, Italy.

Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignant disorder of post-germinal center B cells, characterized by the clonal proliferation of malignant plasma cells (PCs) within the bone marrow (BM). The reciprocal and complex interactions that take place between the different compartments of BM and the MM cells result in tumor growth, angiogenesis, bone disease, and drug resistance. Given the importance of the BM microenvironment in MM pathogenesis, we investigated the possible involvement of Hypoxia-Inducible transcription Factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) in the PCs-bone marrow stromal cells interplay. To test this hypothesis, we used EZN-2968, a 3rd generation antisense oligonucleotide against HIF-1α, to inhibit HIF-1α functions. Herein, we provide evidence that the interaction between MM cells and BM stromal cells is drastically reduced upon HIF-1α down-modulation. Notably, we showed that upon exposure to HIF-1α inhibitor, neither the incubation with IL-6 nor the co-culture with BM stromal cells were able to revert the anti-proliferative effect induced by EZN-2968. Moreover, we observed a down-modulation of cytokine-induced signaling cascades and a reduction of MM cells adhesion capability to the extracellular matrix proteins in EZN-2968-treated samples. Taken together, these results strongly support the concept that HIF-1α plays a critical role in the interactions between bone BM cells and PCs in Multiple Myeloma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yexcr.2014.09.018DOI Listing
November 2014

Bortezomib and dexamethasone as salvage therapy in patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma: analysis of long-term clinical outcomes.

Ann Hematol 2014 Jan 18;93(1):123-8. Epub 2013 Jul 18.

"Seràgnoli" Institute of Hematology, Bologna University School of Medicine, Bologna, Italy.

Bortezomib (bort)-dexamethasone (dex) is an effective therapy for relapsed/refractory (R/R) multiple myeloma (MM). This retrospective study investigated the combination of bort (1.3 mg/m(2) on days 1, 4, 8, and 11 every 3 weeks) and dex (20 mg on the day of and the day after bort) as salvage treatment in 85 patients with R/R MM after prior autologous stem cell transplantation or conventional chemotherapy. The median number of prior lines of therapy was 2. Eighty-seven percent of the patients had received immunomodulatory drugs included in some line of therapy before bort-dex. The median number of bort-dex cycles was 6, up to a maximum of 12 cycles. On an intention-to-treat basis, 55 % of the patients achieved at least partial response, including 19 % CR and 35 % achieved at least very good partial response. Median durations of response, time to next therapy and treatment-free interval were 8, 11.2, and 5.1 months, respectively. The most relevant adverse event was peripheral neuropathy, which occurred in 78 % of the patients (grade II, 38 %; grade III, 21 %) and led to treatment discontinuation in 6 %. With a median follow up of 22 months, median time to progression, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 8.9, 8.7, and 22 months, respectively. Prolonged PFS and OS were observed in patients achieving CR and receiving bort-dex a single line of prior therapy. Bort-dex was an effective salvage treatment for MM patients, particularly for those in first relapse.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-013-1828-8DOI Listing
January 2014