Publications by authors named "Beata Kos-Kudła"

177 Publications

Endoscopic treatment of rectal neuroendocrine tumors in a 13-year retrospective single-center study: are we following the guidelines?

Pol Arch Intern Med 2021 03 23;131(3):241-248. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Department of Gastroenterology, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin, Poland

Introduction: Rectal neuroendocrine neoplasms (rNENs) are potentially metastatic lesions. False endoscopic diagnosis and subsequent treatment may lead to nonradical resection and metastases.

Objectives: This study aimed to analyze the clinical characteristics of rNENs, investigate whether the lesion origin was suspected by endoscopists during examination and if those lesions were subsequently removed using the appropriate method, and assess the outcomes of patients after curative and noncurative resections.

Patients And Methods: We analyzed the records of patients hospitalized in our department (2006-2019) with a diagnosis of rNENs. We included 40 patients with rNENs, evaluated their clinical characteristics, and investigated whether the neuroendocrine origin of the lesions was suspected on endoscopy. We compared the outcomes of patients treated with the proper method (endoscopic submucosal dissection / endoscopic mucosal resection [ESD / EMR]) and those treated with polypectomy.

Results: Abnormalities appeared as typical, yellowish subepithelial lesions (n = 24), lesions resembling hyperplastic polyps (n = 12), or tumors with central depression (n = 4). The median size was 5.5 mm and most of them were G1 lesions (n = 36). Only 14 of them were suspected to be of neuroendocrine origin at the first endoscopic examination, and 12 were removed by ESD / EMR. The remaining tumors (n = 26) were removed using polypectomy. Most of the patients were disease‑free at follow‑up, but 2 patients after polypectomy and a single patient after nonradical ESD developed metastases.

Conclusion: In most cases, the origin of the lesion was not suspected on colonoscopy and subsequently the tumor was removed using an inappropriate method. Endoscopists do not follow the guidelines when dealing with patients with rNENs and more emphasis should be placed on education on the management of rNENs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.20452/pamw.15823DOI Listing
March 2021

The Safety and Efficacy of the Repeated PRRT with [Y]Y/[Lu]Lu-DOTATATE in Patients with NET.

Int J Endocrinol 2021 23;2021:6615511. Epub 2021 Jan 23.

Nuclear Medicine Department, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.

Purpose: The peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) is a treatment option for patients with disseminated, inoperable G1 and G2 neuroendocrine tumours (NETs). The study aims to evaluate the safety, efficacy, and progression-free survival (PFS) of patients after retreatment (R-PRRT) and re-retreatment (RR-PRRT) with tandem isotopes [Y]Y/[Lu]Lu-DOTATATE. . Out of 99 treated patients with G1 and G2 NETs, 26 were included in the study and treated with the repeated PRRT (with 5 undergoing the re-repeated PRRT treatment) after an initial positive response to four PRRT cycles and later progression of the disease. [Ga]Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT and CT/MRI procedures were performed before and after the treatment. Patients were treated with [Y]Y/[Lu]Lu-DOTATATE (1 : 1) with mixed amino acid infusion for kidney protection. Toxicity was evaluated using the CTCAE 3.0 criteria.

Results: The median follow-up was 88 months (the range: 42-164). The median cumulative administered activity was 22.2 GBq (the range: 17.8-30.7 GBq). Myelodysplastic syndrome occurred in one patient (3.8%), and grade 4 renal toxicity was also detected in one patient (3.8%). No other cases of grade 3 or 4 bone marrow and renal toxicity were observed. The median PFS rate was 31 months after the PRRT and 23 months following the R-PRRT. The OS rate from the diagnosis (OS-d) was 109 months and from the start of the PRRT (OS-t)-92.4 months. During the restaging, 3-6 months after the PRRT, PR, SD, and PD were observed in 19.2%, 80.8%, and 0% of the patients, respectively. After the R-PRRT, PR, SD, and PD were observed in 50%, 42.3%, and 7.7% of the patients, respectively.

Conclusions: The repeated therapy with [Y]Y/[Lu]Lu-DOTATATE is safe and effective for patients with disseminated, inoperable G1 and G2 neuroendocrine tumours.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6615511DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7847334PMC
January 2021

LUNG NODULE 25 YEARS AFTER LOBECTOMY - RECURRENCE OF BRONCHIAL CARCINOID.

Wiad Lek 2020 ;73(10):2309-2312

DEPARTMENT OF ENDOCRINOLOGY AND NEUROENDOCRINE TUMOURS, DEPARTMENT OF PATHOPHYSIOLOGY AND ENDOCRINOLOGY, MEDICAL UNIVERSITY OF SILESIA, KATOWICE, POLAND.

Objective: Introduction: Bronchopulmonary (BP) carcinoids are low and intermediate grade tumors, seen in adults between fourth to sixth decade, where no clear association with tobacco smoking is established. Most often they are sporadic lesions (95%). Half of patients have no symptoms and the tumor is incidentally found on a chest x- ray. BP carcinoids have a good prognostic, however there is a risk of distant metastasis and the recurrences are frequent. Therefore a crucial role of vigilant follow- up, extending far beyond 5 years.

Patients And Methods: Case presentation: We report a case of 73 years old women, with history of recurrent pulmonary infections, and positive family history for lung cancer. Patient underwent left inferior lobectomy for BP carcinoid 25 years before and completed a 5 years long follow- up. On a thoracic computed tomography scan a nodule in the right lung was detected. Patient benefited from surgery and the pathological result was typical carcinoid with Ki67<1%. Follow- up CT scans showed stable images, with no signs of spread or recurrence.

Conclusion: Conclusions: Although there is a low risk of distant spread in such tumors, the recurrences are frequent. Moreover, patients may exhibit a higher risk of development of second tumors and there is a risk of metachronous tumors. The post-operative follow-up should be prolonged.
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December 2020

NETest is superior to chromogranin A in neuroendocrine neoplasia: a prospective ENETS CoE analysis.

Endocr Connect 2021 Jan;10(1):110-123

Department of Endocrinology and Neuroendocrine Tumours, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland.

Introduction: The absence of a reliable, universal biomarker is a significant limitation in neuroendocrine neoplasia (NEN) management. We prospectively evaluated two CgA assays, (NEOLISA, EuroDiagnostica) and (CgA ELISA, Demeditec Diagnostics (DD)) and compared the results to the NETest.

Methods: NEN cohort (n = 258): pancreatic, n = 67; small intestine, n = 40; appendiceal, n = 10; rectal, n = 45; duodenal, n = 9; gastric, n = 44; lung, n = 43. Image-positive disease (IPD) (n = 123), image & histology- negative (IND) (n = 106), and image-negative and histology positive (n = 29). CgA metrics: NEOLISA, ULN: 108 ng/mL, DD: ULN: 99 ng/mL. Data mean ± s.e.m. NETest: qRT-PCR - multianalyte analyses, ULN: 20. All samples de-identified and assessed blinded. Statistics: Mann-Whitney U-test, Pearson correlation and McNemar-test.

Results: CgA positive in 53/258 (NEOLISA), 32 (DD) and NETest-positive in 157/258. In image- positive disease (IPD, n = 123), NEOLISA-positive: 33% and DD: 19%. NETest-positive: 122/123 (99%; McNemar's Chi2= 79-97, P < 0.0001). NEOLISA was more accurate than DD (P = 0.0003). In image- negative disease (IND), CgA was NEOLISA-positive (11%), DD (8%), P = NS, and NETest (33%). CgA assays could not distinguish progressive (PD) from stable disease (SD) or localized from metastatic disease (MD). NETest was significantly higher in PD (47 ± 5) than SD (29 ± 1, P = 0.0009). NETest levels in MD (35 ± 2) were elevated vs localized disease (24 ± 1.3, P = 0.008).

Conclusions: NETest, a multigenomic mRNA biomarker, was ~99% accurate in the identification of NEN disease. The CgA assays detected NEN disease in 19-33%. Multigenomic blood analysis using NETest is more accurate than CgA and should be considered the biomarker standard of care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/EC-20-0417DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7923057PMC
January 2021

Assessing the blood concentration of new adipocytokines in patients with ischaemic stroke.

Endokrynol Pol 2020 7;71(6):504-511. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

Department of Pathophysiology and Endocrinology, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry in Zabrze, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Zabrze, Poland.

Introduction: Ischaemic stroke (IS) is a disease that is a common cause of death and one of the most common causes of disability in adults. There is a continuous need to conduct stroke pathogenesis studies. A certain role here can be attributed to adipose-derived hormones. The aim of this paper is to assess the blood concentration for selected adipocytokines: omentin-1, irisin, protein-1 related with C1q/TNF (CTRP1), vaspin and nesfatin-1 in IS patients, and an attempt to define their role as risk factors for ischaemic stroke.

Material And Methods: The study included 46 patients with ischaemic stroke (27 females, 19 males, average 67.6 years of age). The control group consisted of 32 patients (16 females, 16 males, average 64.1 years of age) who had never had cerebrovascular diseases.

Results: The concentration of omentin-1 and CTRP1 in the group of stroke patients was higher than in the control group, whereas the concentrations of nesfatin-1 and irisin was significantly lower than in the control group. The vaspin level was similar in both groups of patients. Statistical analysis using logistic regression allows us to find that CTRP1 can be a significant stroke risk factor. A statistically significant positive correlation was found between the concentration of CTRP1 and NIHSS. However, no correlation between the concentration of other adipocytokines under investigation and the severity of ischaemic stroke was found.

Conclusions: From among the adipocytokines under investigation, higher concentrations of omentin-1 and CTRP1 and lower blood concentrations of nesfatin-1, irisin significantly increase the odds of getting to the group of ischaemic patients. It seems that CTRP1 can be an independent predictive factor of IS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/EP.a2020.0082DOI Listing
December 2020

Expert opinion on liquid L-thyroxine usage in hypothyroid patients and new liquid thyroxine formulation - Tirosint SOL [Opinia ekspertów dotycząca stosowania płynnej postaci lewotyroksyny oraz nowego preparatu Tirosint SOL u chorych na niedoczynność tarczycy].

Endokrynol Pol 2020 ;71(5):441-465

Department of Endocrinology, Medical Centre of Postgraduate Education, Warsaw, Poland.

Hypothyroidism is a common endocrine disorder affecting 3-15% of the adult population in subclinical form and 0.3-0.8% as overt disease. The mainstay of treatment is replacement monotherapy with levothyroxine (LT4). Currently several oral LT4 formulations including tablets, softgel capsules, and liquid formulations are available. Liquid LT4 is manufactured as LT4 solution in 85% glycerol and 96% ethanol and as LT4 solution in purified water and glycerol. The latest formulation, Tirosint SOL, gained FDA approval in 2017. To evaluate the clinical utility of liquid LT4 we reviewed the literature using three databases: PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, and Embase and found 405 articles among which 23 prospective and two retrospective studies were further evaluated. Finally, several case reports on rare clinical conditions were discussed. Our review demonstrated that liquid LT4 was more effective than tablet formulation in patients with malabsorption caused by interfering diseases, drugs, and bariatric surgery. The better pharmacokinetics of liquid LT4 was also confirmed in subjects without malabsorption: patients on replacement or suppressive therapy, who switched from tablet to liquid formulation in equivalent dose, gained better hormonal control, and required less frequent TSH measurements. The drug also appeared effective and easy to handle in patients fed by enteric tube. Liquid LT4 appeared equally effective whenever taken before or during breakfast. The analysis of the drug utility in particular populations including newborns, pregnant women, and the elderly confirmed the high value and safety of liquid LT4. However, in neonates the higher incidence of TSH suppression on liquid in comparison to tablet LT4 therapy was noted, and particular attention to avoid over-treatment must be paid. Concluding: the literature review revealed that liquid LT4 is especially advantageous in patients with malabsorption and the critically ill, but it seems also very promising in common therapy. The lack of alcohol content in the new formulation makes Tirosint SOL especially attractive.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/EP.a2020.0065DOI Listing
January 2020

The Effect of Immunosuppression on Selected Antioxidant Parameters in Patients with Graves' Disease with Active Thyroid-Associated Orbitopathy.

Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 2020 Nov 6. Epub 2020 Nov 6.

Division of Pathophysiology, Department of Pathophysiology and Endocrinology, Faculty of Medical Sciences in Zabrze, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice.

Background And Study Aims: Thyroid-associated orbitopathy, the most common extrathyroidal manifestation of Graves' disease, is an autoimmune inflammation of orbital soft tissue. We report the study assessing the effect of immunosuppressive treatment with methylprednisolone on selected antioxidant parameters in patients with Graves' disease with active thyroid-associated orbitopathy.

Patients And Methods: Activity and serum levels of selected antioxidant parameters as well as lipid peroxidation products were determined in a group of 56 patients with active thyroid-associated orbitopathy at three time-points: at baseline, after the discontinuation of intravenous methylprednisolone treatment and at 3 months after the discontinuation of additional oral methylprednisolone treatment. A control group consisted of 20 healthy age- and sex-matched volunteers.

Results: We found an increased activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase and increased serum levels of uric acid, malondialdehyde and conjugated dienes, as well as a reduced activity of paraoxonase-1 and reduced serum vitamin C level in the study group at baseline. Systemic intravenous and oral methylprednisolone therapy led to normalization of activity and concentration of the most studied parameters.

Conclusion: Results of our study confirmed that oxidative stress is one of the factors involved in the pathogenesis of thyroid-associated orbitopathy and the methyloprednisolone treatment is effective in reducing both clinical symptoms and oxidative stress in patients with this disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1274-0998DOI Listing
November 2020

Endoscopic management of rectal neuroendocrine tumours. How to avoid a mistake and what to do when one is made?

Endokrynol Pol 2020 ;71(4):343-349

Department of Gastroenterology, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin, Poland, Poland.

Rectal neuroendocrine tumours are subepithelial lesions that are potentially malignant. Although the biology of these lesions has become increasingly understood and their management has been established, the endoscopic management of these tumours remains controversial. Recent studies demonstrated that compliance with guidelines is poor, and the majority of rectal neuroendocrine tumours are removed by an improper method, making management more complex and putting patients at risk of metastatic spread. Thus, there is a need to educate physicians who care for patients with these disorders. Our review has some tips and pointers for preventing mistakes in primary treatment and salvage therapy after polypectomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/EP.a2020.0045DOI Listing
January 2020

The effect of thyroid hormone status on selected antioxidant parameters in patients with Graves' disease and active thyroid-associated orbitopathy.

Endokrynol Pol 2020 14;71(5):418-424. Epub 2020 Aug 14.

Division of Pathophysiology, Department of Pathophysiology and Endocrinology, Faculty of Medical Sciences in Zabrze, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland.

Introduction: Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO) in patients with Graves' disease (GD). This study assessed the effect of thyroid hormone abnormalities on selected antioxidant parameters in patients with active TAO.

Material And Methods: The study group consisted of 56 patients with GD and active TAO treated with antithyroid medication. Depending on the thyroid hormone level, they were subdivided into two groups: Group 1 - hyperthyroid patients (n = 34) and Group 2 - euthyroid patients (n = 22). The total oxidant status expressed as the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as well as selected enzymatic and nonenzymatic components of the antioxidant system, including the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and paraoxonase 1 (PON-1), as well as the levels of vitamin C, uric acid, and lipid peroxidation products: malondialdehyde (MDA) and conjugated dienes (CD) were assessed in all enrolled participants.

Results: The FRAP values in Group 1 were significantly higher than in controls. The FRAP values in Group 2 were lower than in Group 1 and higher than in controls. However, the differences were not significant. In Group 1, the activity of SOD and GPx, as well as serum levels of uric acid, MDA, and CD, were significantly higher than in controls. At the same time, serum PON-1 activity and vitamin C levels were significantly lower in Group 1 than in controls. In Group 2, the SOD activity as well as MDA and CD levels were non-significantly lower than in Group 1 and non-significantly higher than in controls. The activity of GPx in euthyroid patients with TAO was significantly higher than in controls.

Conclusions: Hyperthyroidism is a significant contributor to oxidative stress in patients with active TAO, which manifests as upregulated lipid peroxidation and antioxidant system activation. Euthyroid state restoration leads to a relative reduction in activity and levels of most studied antioxidant parameters, which still remain above the normal values. The autoimmune inflammation of the orbital tissue seems to be a thyroid hormone status-independent modifier of oxidative stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/EP.a2020.0049DOI Listing
August 2020

Differences between Well-Differentiated Neuroendocrine Tumors and Ductal Adenocarcinomas of the Pancreas Assessed by Multi-Omics Profiling.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Jun 23;21(12). Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Department of Genetics, Maria Sklodowska-Curie National Research Institute of Oncology, 02-781 Warsaw, Poland.

Most pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) are indolent, while pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs) are particularly aggressive. To elucidate the basis for this difference and to establish the biomarkers, by using the deep sequencing, we analyzed somatic variants across coding regions of 409 cancer genes and measured mRNA/miRNA expression in nine PNETs, eight PDACs, and four intestinal neuroendocrine tumors (INETs). There were 153 unique somatic variants considered pathogenic or likely pathogenic, found in 50, 57, and 24 genes in PDACs, PNETs, and INETs, respectively. Ten and 11 genes contained a pathogenic mutation in at least one sample of all tumor types and in PDACs and PNETs, respectively, while 28, 34, and 11 genes were found to be mutated exclusively in PDACs, PNETs, and INETs, respectively. The mRNA and miRNA transcriptomes of PDACs and NETs were distinct: from 54 to 1659 differentially expressed mRNAs and from 117 to 250 differentially expressed miRNAs exhibited high discrimination ability and resulted in models with an area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC-ROC) >0.9 for both miRNA and mRNA. Given the miRNAs high stability, we proposed exploring that class of RNA as new pancreatic tumor biomarkers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21124470DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7352720PMC
June 2020

The effect of prophylactic surgery in survival and HRQoL in appendiceal NEN.

Endocrine 2020 10 24;70(1):178-186. Epub 2020 Jul 24.

Endocrine Oncology Unit, 1st Department of Propaupedic Internal Medicine, Laiko Hospital, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

Background/aims: Long-term outcomes are understudied in patients with well-differentiated appendiceal neuroendocrine neoplasms (WD-ANENs). We aimed to evaluate the validity of currently applied criteria for completion prophylactic right hemicolectomy (pRHC) and determine its association with patient outcomes, including health-related quality of life (HRQoL).

Methods: Eligible patients from five European referral centers were divided between those who underwent appendectomy alone and those who underwent completion pRHC. HRQoL EORTC-QLC-C30 questionnaires and cross-sectional imaging data were prospectively collected. Age- and sex-matched healthy controls were recruited for HRQoL analysis' validation.

Results: We included 166 patients (119 women [71.2%]: mean age at baseline: 31 ± 16 years). Mean follow-up was 50.9 ± 54 months. Most patients (152 [92%]) had tumors ≤20 mm in size. Fifty-eight patients (34.9%) underwent pRHC that in final analysis was regarded as an overtreatment in 38/58 (65.5%). In multivariable analysis, tumor size >20 mm was the only independent predictor for lymph node (LN) involvement (p = 0.002). No mortality was reported, whereas 2-, 5- and 10-year recurrence-free survival in patients subjected to postoperative cross-sectional imaging (n = 136) was 98.5%, 97.8%, and 97.8%, respectively. Global HRQoL was not significantly impaired in patients with WD-ANEN compared with age- and sex-matched healthy individuals (median scores 0.83[0.08-1] vs 0.83[0.4-1], respectively; p = 0.929). Among patients with WD-ANEN impaired social functioning (p = 0.016), diarrhea (p = 0.003) and financial difficulties (0.024) were more frequently reported in the pRHC group.

Conclusions: WD-ANEN is a low-malignant neoplasm with unconfirmed associated mortality, low recurrence rate, and overall preserved HRQoL. pRHC comes at a price of excessive surgery, functional HRQoL issues, and diarrhea. The value per se of a prophylactic surgical approach to patients with WD-ANENs <20 mm is challenged.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12020-020-02356-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7524808PMC
October 2020

Prospective Evaluation of the NETest as a Liquid Biopsy for Gastroenteropancreatic and Bronchopulmonary Neuroendocrine Tumors: An ENETS Center of Excellence Experience.

Neuroendocrinology 2021 24;111(4):304-319. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Department of Endocrinology and Neuroendocrine Tumors, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland.

Background: There is a substantial unmet clinical need for an accurate and effective blood biomarker for neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN). We therefore evaluated, under real-world conditions in an ENETS Center of Excellence (CoE), the clinical utility of the NETest as a liquid biopsy and compared its utility with chromogranin A (CgA) measurement.

Methods: The cohorts were: gastroenteropancreatic NEN (GEP-NEN; n = 253), bronchopulmonary NEN (BPNEN; n = 64), thymic NEN (n = 1), colon cancer (n = 37), non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC; n = 63), benign lung disease (n = 59), and controls (n = 86). In the GEPNEN group, 164 (65%) had image-positive disease (IPD, n = 135) or were image-negative but resection-margin/biopsy-positive (n = 29), and were graded as G1 (n = 106), G2 (n = 49), G3 (n = 7), or no data (n = 2). The remainder (n = 71) had no evidence of disease (NED). In the BPNEN group, 43/64 (67%) had IPD. Histology revealed typical carcinoids (TC, n = 14), atypical carcinoids (AC, n = 14), small-cell lung cancer (SCLC, n = 11), and large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC, n = 4). Disease status (stable or progressive) was evaluated according to RECIST v1.1. Blood sampling involved NETest (n = 563) and NETest/CgA analysis matched samples (n = 178). NETest was performed by PCR (on a scale of 0-100), with a score ≥20 reflecting a disease-positive status and >40 reflecting progressive disease. CgA positivity was determined by ELISA. Samples were deidentified and measurements blinded. The Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U, and McNemar tests, and the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) were used in the statistical analysis.

Results: In the GEPNEN group, NETest was significantly higher (34.4 ± 1.8, p < 0.0001) in disease-positive patients than in patients with NED (10.5 ± 1, p < 0.0001), colon cancer patients (18 ± 4, p < 0.0004), and controls (7 ± 0.5, p < 0.0001). Sensitivity for detecting disease compared to controls was 89% and specificity was 94%. NETest levels were increased in G2 vs. G1 (39 ± 3 vs. 32 ± 2, p = 0.02) and correlated with stage (localized: 26 ± 2 vs. regional/distant: 40 ± 3, p = 0.0002) and progression (55 ± 5 vs. 34 ± 2 in stable disease, p = 0.0005). In the BPNEN group, diagnostic sensitivity was 100% and levels were significantly higher in patients with bronchopulmonary carcinoids (BPC; 30 ± 1.3) who had IPD than in controls (7 ± 0.5, p < 0.0001), patients with NED (24.1 ± 1.3, p < 0.005), and NSCLC patients (17 ± 3, p = 0.0001). NETest levels were higher in patients with poorly differentiated BPNEN (LCNEC + SCLC; 59 ± 7) than in those with BPC (30 ± 1.3, p = 0.0005) or progressive disease (57.8 ± 7), compared to those with stable disease (29.4 ± 1, p < 0.0001). The AUC for differentiating disease from controls was 0.87 in the GEPNEN group and 0.99 in BPC patients (p < 0.0001). Matched CgA analysis was performed in 178 patients. In the GEPNEN group (n = 135), NETest was significantly more accurate for detecting disease (99%) than CgA positivity (53%; McNemar test χ2 = 87, p < 0.0001). In the BPNEN group (n = 43), NETest was significantly more accurate for disease detection (100%) than CgA positivity (26%; McNemar's test χ2 = 30, p < 0.0001).

Conclusions: The NETest is an accurate diagnostic for GEPNEN and BPNEN. It exhibits tumor biology correlation with grading, staging, and progression. CgA as a biomarker is significantly less accurate than NETest. The NETest has substantial clinical utility that can facilitate patient management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000508106DOI Listing
April 2020

Effect of peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) with tandem isotopes - [90Y]Y/[177Lu]Lu-DOTATATE in patients with disseminated neuroendocrine tumours depending on [18F]FDG PET/CT qualification in Polish multicentre experience - do we need [18F]FDG PET/CT for qualification to PRRT?

Endokrynol Pol 2020 15;71(3):240-248. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Nuclear Medicine Department, Medical University of Warsaw, Poland.

Introduction: Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) using radiolabelled somatostatin analogues is a treatment option for patients with disseminated neuroendocrine tumours (NET). The aim of the study was the evaluation of the role of [¹⁸F]FDG PET/CT in predicting response, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) after tandem therapy [⁹⁰Y]Y/[¹⁷⁷Lu]Lu-DOTATATE.

Material And Methods: Seventy-five patients with histopathologically proven NET G1 and G2 were included in the study. Before treatment [⁶⁸Ga]Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT and [¹⁸F]FDG PET/CT was performed. Patients were treated with [⁹⁰Y]Y/[¹⁷⁷Lu]Lu-DOTATATE (1:1) with mixed amino-acid infusion for kidney protection.

Results: Progression-free survival was 22.2 months for [¹⁸F]FDG-positive patients and 59.3 months for [¹⁸F]FDG-negative patients (p = 0.003). The OS from diagnosis (OS-D) and from the start of PRRT (OS-T) was not reached in [¹⁸F]FDG-negative patients, and in [¹⁸F]FDG-positive patients it was 71.8 months and 55.8 months, respectively. The observed overall one-year survival in [¹⁸F]FDG-positive vs. [¹⁸F]FDG-negative patients was 96.8% vs. 99.1%, two-year survival was 88.9% vs. 96%, and five-year survival was 58.8% vs. 88%, respectively. The one-year and two-year risk of progression was 15%vs. 58.9% in [¹⁸F]FDG-positive patients and 11% vs. 32% in [18F]FDG-negative patients. The objective response rate (ORR) [¹⁸F]FDG-positive vs. [¹⁸F]FDG-negative patients was 41.7% vs. 17%.

Conclusions: [¹⁸F]FDG-positive patients have statistically significant shorter survival parameters than [¹⁸F]FDG-negative patients. The risk of progression in [¹⁸F]FDG-positive vs. [¹⁸F]FDG-negative patients in one-year follow-up is comparable, whereas in two-year follow-up it is nearly two times higher for [¹⁸F]FDG PET/CT-positive patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/EP.a2020.0014DOI Listing
April 2020

Tandem peptide receptor radionuclide therapy using Y/Lu-DOTATATE for neuroendocrine tumors efficacy and side-effects - polish multicenter experience.

Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2020 04 24;47(4):922-933. Epub 2020 Jan 24.

Nuclear Medicine Department, Medical University of Warsaw, ul. Banacha 1 a, 02-097, Warsaw, Poland.

Introduction: One of the concepts of theranostics in nuclear medicine is peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT), whereby labeled somatostatin analogs are used for imaging and treating inoperable or disseminated neuroendocrine tumors (NET).

Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the therapeutic efficacy and toxicity of tandem Y /Lu-DOTATATE in patients with disseminated NET in a multicenter trial.

Materials And Methods: 103 patients with NET G1/G2 treated with Y/Lu-DOTATATE (1:1) with amino-acid infusion for nephroprotection were included in the study.

Results: Overall survival from the disease diagnosis (OS-D) was 127.4 months and from the time of PRRT (OS-T) was 89.5 months. Progression-free survival (PFS) was 29.9 months. An analysis based on the proliferation index revealed a statistically significant impact on PFS and OS-T (PFS G1 vs G2, 59.3 vs 24.3 months; OS-T G1 vs G2, not reached vs 79.9 months). The effect of the primary disease site was also analyzed. For pancreatic vs small bowel vs large bowel, the PFS was 30.8 vs 30.3 vs 40.6 months, the OS-T was 94 vs 61.9 vs 131.2 months and OS-D was 130.4 vs 89.2 vs not reached months, respectively. The 2-year risk of progression was 42%. The probability of 2-year and 5-year overall survival was 89% and 62%, respectively. PRRT was well tolerated by all patients. One patient (1%) developed myelodysplastic syndrome. No other grade 3 and 4 hematological or renal toxicity was observed.

Conclusions: This multicenter trial showed that tandem Y/Lu-DOTATATE is highly effective and safe therapy for patients with disseminated NET.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00259-020-04690-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7075861PMC
April 2020

Liver transplantation as an option of treatment for a giant primary hepatic neuroendocrine tumour.

Endokrynol Pol 2019 ;70(6):520-521

Department of General, Vascular and Transplant Surgery, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland.

There are no clear guidelines for the treatment of hepatic neuroendocrine tumours. Surgical resections - though rarely radical - seem to be the treatment of choice. Thermoablation, chemoembolisation, or cytoreductive surgery of hepatic focal lesions are often recommended. Pharmacological treatment is based on somatostatin analogues. Liver transplantation is available for a strictly selected group of patients with hepatic neuroendocrine tumours [5]. In the case described above, there were a number of factors that affected the decision about eligibility: first of all - very slow growth of the tumour, its size, and typical multifocality, which made it impossible to perform resection, lack of neoplastic focus outside the liver, and low Ki-67 proliferation index of ≤ 2%. The surgical risk was escalated due to the giant tumour mass and the laparotomy, which was performed twice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/EP.a2019.0052DOI Listing
May 2020

Selected adipose tissue hormones in the blood of patients with ischaemic cerebral stroke.

Endokrynol Pol 2020 18;71(1):21-26. Epub 2019 Dec 18.

Department of Pathophysiology and Endocrinology, Faculty of Medical Sciences in Zabrze, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Zabrze, Poland.

Introduction: Despite considerable progress in knowledge, ischaemic stroke is still a disease that causes serious clinical problems. A role in its pathogenesis can be attributed to i.a. adipose tissue hormones. The aim of this paper is to assess the blood levels of selected adipocytokines in patients during the acute phase of ischaemic stroke as compared to healthy persons, and an attempt to indicate a correlation between their blood concentrations and the level of stroke severity and its outcomes.

Material And Methods: The study included 46 patients with fresh ischaemic stroke (27 females, 19 males, average age 67.6 years). All patients had a CT scan of the head, their neurological condition was assessed using a stroke severity scale, and their blood levels of resistin, chemerin, and visfatin were tested. The control group consisted of 32 patients (16 females, 16 males, average age 64.1 years) who had never suffered cerebrovascular diseases.

Results: Elevated levels of both resistin and chemerin were found in the group of patients with ischaemic stroke (9.17 ± 2.95 ng/mL vs. 6.55 ± 2.01 ng/mL for resistin and 265.0 ± 59.3 ng/mL vs. 191.0 ± 43.6 ng/mL for chemerin). It was also found that the blood concentration of chemerin was higher in females than in males with stroke. However, no difference was found in visfatin blood concentration between the group with ischaemic stroke and the control group (1.65 ± 1.09 ng/mL vs. 1.5 ± 1.39 ng/mL).

Conclusions: Higher resistin and chemerin blood concentrations significantly increase the risk of ischaemic stroke. The level of stroke severity at the moment of its occurrence and during its course do not depend on the concentrations of adipocytokines under analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/EP.a2019.0057DOI Listing
November 2020

The clinical applications of a multigene liquid biopsy (NETest) in neuroendocrine tumors.

Adv Med Sci 2020 Mar 13;65(1):18-29. Epub 2019 Dec 13.

Gastroenterological Surgery, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.

Purpose: There are few effective biomarkers for neuroendocrine tumors. Precision oncology strategies have provided liquid biopsies for real-time and tailored decision-making. This has led to the development of the first neuroendocrine tumor liquid biopsy (the NETest). The NETest represents a transcriptomic signature of neuroendocrine tumor (NETs) that captures tumor biology and disease activity. The data have direct clinical application in terms of identifying residual disease, disease progress and the efficacy of treatment. In this overview we assess the available published information on the metrics and clinical efficacy of the NETest.

Material And Methods: Published data on the NETest have been collated and analyzed to understand the clinical application of this multianalyte biomarker in NETs.

Results: NETest assay has been validated as a standardized and reproducible clinical laboratory measurement. It is not affected by demographic characteristics, or acid suppressive medication. Clinical utility of the NETest has been documented in gastroenteropancreatic, bronchopulmonary NETs, in paragangliomas and pheochromocytomas. The test facilitates accurate diagnosis of a NET disease, and real-time monitoring of the disease status (stable/progressive disease). It predicts aggressive tumor behavior, identifies operative tumor resection, and efficacy of the medical treatment (e.g. somatostatin analogues), or peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). NETest metrics and clinical applications out-perform standard biomarkers like chromogranin A.

Conclusions: The NETest exhibits clinically competent metrics as an effective biomarker for neuroendocrine tumors. Measurement of NET transcripts in blood is a significant advance in neuroendocrine tumor management and demonstrates that blood provides a viable source to identify and monitor tumor status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.advms.2019.10.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7453408PMC
March 2020

Antibodies involved in the development of pernicious anemia and other autoimmune diseases.

Pol Arch Intern Med 2020 01 9;130(1):31-37. Epub 2019 Dec 9.

Department of Pathophysiology and Endocrinology, Faculty of Medical Sciences in Zabrze, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Zabrze, Poland.

Introduction: Pernicious anemia (PA) is an autoimmune hematopoietic disease.

Objectives: The aim of the study was to determine autoantibodies involved in the pathogenesis of PA and the development of other autoimmune disorders such as connective tissue diseases and celiac disease. We also aimed to assess the potential usefulness of the specific diagnostic and screening tests in patients with PA.

Patients And Methods: The study group comprised 124 women and men with newly diagnosed PA and 41 healthy controls. Intrinsic factor (IF) antibodies, gastric parietal cell (GPC) antibodies, endomysium antibodies (EmAs), and antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) were determined in blood samples.

Results: IF or GPC antibodies were present in 61.3% of patients, GPC antibodies, in 46%, IF antibodies, in 30.6%, IF and GPC antibodies, in 15.3%. There was no difference in the occurrence of ANAs and EmAs between the PA and control groups. However, ANAs were found in 16.1% of patients with PA and in 4.9% of controls. The occurrence of EmAs in both groups was similar (3.2% vs 2.4%); however, it has been shown that patients with IF or GPC antibodies are more prone to be EmA positive (P = 0.009).

Conclusions: Simultaneous determination of IF and GPC antibodies increases the chances of confirming the diagnosis of PA. Also, screening for connective tissue diseases and celiac disease may be considered in patients with PA, due to the presence of ANAs and EmAs in that population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.20452/pamw.15094DOI Listing
January 2020

Letter to Readers [List do Czytelników].

Authors:
Beata Kos-Kudła

Endokrynol Pol 2019;70(4):1-2

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May 2020

Assessment of selected adipocytokines in obese women with postmenopausal osteoporosis.

Endokrynol Pol 2019 30;70(6):478-483. Epub 2019 Sep 30.

Department of Pathophysiology and Endocrinology, Medical University of Silesia, Zabrze, Poland.

Introduction: Osteoporosis and obesity are considered civilisation diseases. Menopause is a time of increased bone resorption and increased mass of adipose tissue. Adipocytokines secreted by the adipose tissue are believed to be a potential factor in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis.

Material And Methods: The aim of this research was to assess leptin, adiponectin, and resistin secretion in obese postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and determine whether obesity might be a factor mitigating the risk of osteoporosis. The study involved 80 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis divided into groups: I with BMI of 30.0 34.9, obese; and II with BMI of 18-24.9, normoweight. Leptin, adiponectin and resistin concentrations were assessed, and bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in the L1-L4 section of the spine using the DXA densitometric method.

Results: The results of the comparison of the two groups indicate a statistically significant dependence in groups regarding leptin secretion; the group of obese women demonstrated significantly higher concentrations. No differences between the groups were demonstrated for adiponectin or resistin secretion.

Conclusions: Higher leptin concentration and a positive correlation with BMI was confirmed in obese postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. It was also demonstrated that BMD increases with growing BMI. No effect of obesity on the secretion of adiponectin or resistin in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis was found. From among the investigated adipocytokines, only leptin can be considered a bone tissue protective factor in postmenopausal women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/EP.a2019.0043DOI Listing
May 2020

Circulating MicroRNAs in Small-bowel Neuroendocrine Tumors: A Potential Tool for Diagnosis and Assessment of Effectiveness of Surgical Resection.

Ann Surg 2019 Aug 1. Epub 2019 Aug 1.

Department of Surgery & Cancer, Imperial College, Hammersmith Hospital campus, Du Cane Road, London, UK.

Objective: To discover serum-based microRNA (miRNA) biomarkers for small-bowel neuroendocrine tumors (SBNET) to help guide clinical decisions.

Background: MiRNAs are small noncoding RNA molecules implicated in the initiation and progression of many cancers. MiRNAs are remarkably stable in bodily fluids, and can potentially be translated into clinically useful biomarkers. Novel biomarkers are needed in SBNET to determine disease aggressiveness, select patients for treatment, detect early recurrence, and monitor response.

Methods: This study was performed in 3 stages (discovery, validation, and a prospective, longitudinal assessment). Discovery comprised of global profiling of 376 miRNA in sera from SBNET patients (n = 11) versus healthy controls (HCs; n = 3). Up-regulated miRNAs were subsequently validated in additional SBNET (n = 33) and HC sera (n = 14); and then longitudinally after SBNET resection (n = 12), with serial serum sampling (preoperatively day 0; postoperatively at 1 week, 1 month, and 12 months).

Results: Four serum miRNAs (miR-125b-5p, -362-5p, -425-5p and -500a-5p) were significantly up-regulated in SBNET (P < 0.05; fold-change >2) based on multiple normalization strategies, and were validated by RT-qPCR. This combination was able to differentiate SBNET from HC with an area under the curve of 0.951. Longitudinal assessment revealed that miR-125b-5p returned towards HC levels at 1 month postoperatively in patients without disease, whereas remaining up-regulated in those with residual disease (RSD). This was also true at 12 months postoperatively. In addition, miR-362-5p appeared up-regulated at 12 months in RSD and recurrent disease (RCD).

Conclusions: Our study represents the largest global profiling of serum miRNAs in SBNET patients, and the first to evaluate ongoing serum miRNA expression changes after surgical resection. Serum miR-125b-5p and miR-362-5p have potential to be used to detect RSD/RCD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SLA.0000000000003502DOI Listing
August 2019

Efficacy and safety of high-dose long-acting repeatable octreotide as monotherapy or in combination with pegvisomant or cabergoline in patients with acromegaly not adequately controlled by conventional regimens: results of an open-label, multicentre study.

Endokrynol Pol 2019 5;70(4):305-312. Epub 2019 Jul 5.

Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Isotope Therapy, Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland.

Introduction: Long-acting repeatable (LAR) octreotide i.m. is a potent, synthetic somatostatin analogue (SSA) that requires less frequent dosing and offers quality of life (QoL) benefits in acromegaly patients compared to its shorter-acting predecessor. This study investigated the efficacy and safety of high-dose Sandostatin® LAR® as monotherapy or in combination with pegvisomant or cabergoline in acromegalic patients with pituitary adenomas following previous failure of conventional SSA treatment.

Material And Methods: After three months of high-dose Sandostatin® LAR® monotherapy (40 mg), patients who achieved biochemical control (n = 7) continued to receive the same treatment for an additional four months, whereas uncontrolled patients were randomised to receive high-dose Sandostatin® LAR® in combination with pegvisomant (n = 31) or cabergoline (n = 32). Outcomes included biochemical response at eight months, QoL, and safety.

Results: After three months, 3 of 68 (4.4%) evaluable patients achieved a biochemical control (BC) as assessed by levels of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1. At eight months, 4 of 67 (6.0%) patients achieved BC, including one receiving monotherapy and three receiving Sandostatin® LAR® plus cabergoline. Partial response rate, improvements in acromegaly signs and symptoms, and changes in QoL were similar for all three groups. All treatments were well tolerated with a slight excess of adverse events in the combination arms. There were no deaths or serious adverse events leading to treatment discontinuation.

Conclusion: These data demonstrate that high-dose Sandostatin® LAR® as monotherapy or in combination with pegvisomant or cabergoline is a feasible salvage option in patients with pituitary adenomas not adequately controlled on conventional SSA regimens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/EP.a2019.0023DOI Listing
February 2020

An Assessment of Circulating Chromogranin A as a Biomarker of Bronchopulmonary Neuroendocrine Neoplasia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Neuroendocrinology 2020 5;110(3-4):198-216. Epub 2019 Jul 5.

Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA,

Background: Management of bronchopulmonary neuroendocrine neoplasia (NEN; pulmonary carcinoids [PCs], small-cell lung cancer [SCLC], and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma) is hampered by the paucity of biomarkers. Chromogranin A (CgA), the default neuroendocrine tumor biomarker, has undergone wide assessment in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.

Objectives: To evaluate CgA in lung NEN, define its clinical utility as a biomarker, assess its diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive efficacy, as well as its accuracy in the identification of disease recurrence.

Methods: A systematic review of PubMed was undertaken using the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses guidelines. No language restrictions were applied. Overall, 33 original scientific papers and 3 case reports, which met inclusion criteria, were included in qualitative analysis, and meta-analysis thereafter. All studies, except 2, were retrospective. Meta-analysis statistical assessment by generic inverse variance methodology.

Results: Ten different CgA assay types were reported, without consistency in the upper limit of normal (ULN). For PCs (n = 16 studies; median patient inclusion 21 [range 1-200, total: 591 patients]), the CgA diagnostic sensitivity was 34.5 ± 2.7% with a specificity of 93.8 ± 4.7. CgA metrics were not available separately for typical or atypical carcinoids. CgA >100 ng/mL (2.7 × ULN) and >600 ng/mL (ULN unspecified) were anecdotally prognostic for overall survival (n = 2 retrospective studies). No evidence was presented for predicting treatment response or identifying post-surgery residual disease. For SCLC (n = 19 studies; median patient inclusion 23 [range 5-251, total: 1,241 patients]), the mean diagnostic sensitivity was 59.9 ± 6.8% and specificity 79.4 ± 3.1. Extensive disease typically exhibited higher CgA levels (diagnostic accuracy: 61 ± 2.5%). An elevated CgA was prognostic for overall survival (n = 4 retrospective studies). No prospective studies evaluating predictive benefit or prognostic utility were identified.

Conclusion: The available data are scarce. An assessment of all published data showed that CgA exhibits major limitations as an effective and accurate biomarker for either PC or SCLC. Its utility especially for localized PC/limited SCLC (when surgery is potentially curative), is limited. The clinical value of CgA remains to be determined. This requires validated, well-constructed, multicenter, prospective, randomized studies. An assessment of all published data indicates that CgA does not exhibit the minimum required metrics to function as a clinically useful biomarker for lung NENs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000500525DOI Listing
February 2021

Activity and Safety of Standard and Prolonged Capecitabine/Temozolomide Administration in Patients with Advanced Neuroendocrine Neoplasms.

Neuroendocrinology 2019 3;109(4):333-345. Epub 2019 Jun 3.

1st Department of Propaedeutic Internal Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

Background: Capecitabine and temozolomide combination (CAPTEM) is associated with high response rates in patients with advanced neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs). We evaluated the real-world activity and safety of CAPTEM from 3 NEN centers.

Methods: Clinicopathological characteristics and outcomes of patients treated with CAPTEM for bulky or progressive disease (PD) were retrospectively analyzed. -Results: Seventy-nine patients with gastroenteropancreatic (grades 1-2 [n = 38], grade 3 [n = 24]) and lung/thymic (n = 17) NENs were included. Median treatment duration was 12.1 months (range 0.6-55.6). Overall, partial responses (PRs) occurred in 23 (29.1%), stable (SD) in 24 (30.4%), and PD in 28 (35.4%) patients. Median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 10.1 (6-14.2) and 102.9 months (43.3-162.5), respectively. On univariate analysis, NENs naive to chemotherapy and low Ki67 were associated with favorable responses (partial response [PR] + SD; p = 0.011 and 0.045), PFS (p < 0.0001 and 0.002) and OS (p = 0.005 and 0.001). Primary site (pancreas and lung/thymus) was also a significant prognostic factor for PFS (p < 0.0001) and OS (p < 0.0001). On multivariate analysis, gastrointestinal and unknown primary NENs (hazard ratio [HR] 0.3, 95% CI 0.1-0.8, p = 0.009 and p = 0.018) and prior surgery (HR 2.4, 95% CI 11-4.9, p = 0.021) were independent prognostic factors for PFS. Ki-67 was a poor predictor for favorable response in receiver operating characteristic analysis (area under the curve 0.678). Safety analysis of CAPTEM indicated rare events of serious (grades 3-4) toxicities (n = 4) and low discontinuation rates (n = 8) even in patients with prolonged administration (>12 months).

Conclusions: CAPTEM treatment can be an effective and safe treatment even after prolonged administration for patients with NENs of various sites and Ki67 labeling index, associated with significant favorable responses and PFS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000500135DOI Listing
May 2020

Blood Chromogranin A Is Not Effective as a Biomarker for Diagnosis or Management of Bronchopulmonary Neuroendocrine Tumors/Neoplasms.

Neuroendocrinology 2020 16;110(3-4):185-197. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Gastroenterological and Endoscopic Surgery, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.

Background: Identification of circulating tumor markers for clinical management in bronchopulmonary (BP) neuroendocrine tumors/neoplasms (NET/NEN) is of considerable clinical interest. Chromogranin A (CgA), a "universal" NET biomarker, is considered controversial as a circulating biomarker of BPNEN.

Aim: Assess utility of CgA in the diagnosis and management of BPNEN in a multicentric study.

Material And Methods: CgA diagnostic metrics were assessed in lung NET/NENs (n = 200) and controls (n = 140), randomly assigned to a Training and Test set (100 BPC and 70 controls in each). Assay specificity was evaluated in neoplastic lung disease (n = 137) and nonneoplastic lung disease (n = 77). CgA efficacy in predicting clinical status was evaluated in the combined set of 200 NET/NENs. CgA levels in bronchopulmonary neuroendocrine tumor (BPNET) subtypes (atypical [AC] vs. typical [TC]) and grade was examined. The clinical utility of an alteration of CgA levels (±25%) was evaluated in a subset of 49 BPNET over 12 months. CgA measurement was by NEOLISATM kit (EuroDiagnostica).

Results: Sensitivity and specificity in the training set were 41/98%, respectively. Test set data were 42/87%. Training set area under receiver operator characteristic analysis differentiated BPC from control area under the curve (AUC) 0.61 ± 0.05 p = 0.015. Test set the data were AUC 0.58 ± 0.05, p = 0.076. In the combined set (n = 200), 67% BPNET/NEN (n = 134) had normal CgA levels. CgA levels did not distinguish histological subtypes (TC vs. AC, AUC 0.56 ± 0.04, p = 0.21), grade (p = 0.45-0.72), or progressive from stable disease (AUC 0.53 ± 0.05 p = 0.47). There was no correlation of CgA with Ki-67 index (Pearson r = 0.143, p = 0.14). For nonneoplastic diseases (chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis), CgA was elevated in 26-37%. For neoplastic disease (NSCLC, squamous cell carcinoma), CgA was elevated in 11-16%. The neuroendocrine SCLC also exhibited elevated CgA (50%). Elevated CgA was not useful for differentiating BPNET/NEN from these other pathologies. Monitoring BPNET/NEN over a 12-month period identified neither CgA levels per se nor changes in CgA were reflective of somatostatin analog treatment outcome/efficacy or the natural history of the disease (progression).

Conclusions: Blood CgA levels are not clinically useful as a biomarker for lung BPNET/NEN. The low specificity and elevations in both nonneoplastic as well as other common neoplastic lung diseases identified limited clinical utility for this biomarker.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000500202DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7472424PMC
February 2021

NETest liquid biopsy is diagnostic of small intestine and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors and correlates with imaging.

Endocr Connect 2019 Mar 1. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

B Kos-Kudła, Department of Endocrinology and Neuroendocrine Tumors, Department of Pathophysiology and Endocrinology, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland.

Introduction: Current monoanalyte biomarkers are ineffective in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs). NETest, a novel multianalyte signature, provides molecular information relevant to disease biology.

Aim(s): Independently validate NETest to diagnose GEP-NETs and identify progression in a tertiary referral center.

Materials And Methods: Cohorts: 67 pancreatic NET (PNETs), 44 small intestine NETs (SINETs), 63 controls. Well-differentiated (WD): PNETs, n=62, SINETs, all (n=44). Disease extent assessment at blood draw: anatomical (n=110)- CT(n=106), MRI(n=7) and/or functional- 68Ga-SSA-PET/CT(n=69) or 18F-FDG-PET/CT (n=8). Image positive disease (IPD) was defined as either CT/MRI or 68Ga-SSA-PET/CT/18F-FDG-PET/CT-positive. Both CT/MRI and 68Ga-SSA-PET/CT-negative in WD-NETs was considered image negative disease (IND). NETest (normal: 20): PCR (spotted plates).

Data: mean±SD.

Results: Diagnosis: NETest was significantly increased in NETs (n=111; 26±21) vs. controls (8±4, p<0.0001). 75 (42 PNET, 33 SINET) were image-positive. Eleven (8 PNET, 3 SINET; all WD) were IND. In IPD, NETest was significantly higher (36±22) vs. IND (8±7, p<0.0001). NETest accuracy, sensitivity, specificity: 97%, 99%, 95%. Concordance with imaging: NETest was 92% (101/110) concordant with anatomical imaging, 94% (65/69) with 68Ga-SSA-PET/CT, 96% (65/68) dual modality (CT/MRI and 68Ga-SSA-PET/CT). In 70 CT/MRI-positive, NETest was elevated in all (37±22). In 40 CT/MRI-negative, NETest was normal (11±10) in 31. In 56 68Ga-SSA-PET/CT-positive, NETest was elevated (36±22) in 55. In 13 68Ga-SSA-PET/CT-negative, NETest was normal (9±8) in 10. Disease status: NETest was significantly higher in progressive (61±26; n=11) vs. stable disease (29±14; n=64; p<0.0001) (RECIST 1.1).

Conclusion: NETest is an effective diagnostic for PNETs and SINETs. Elevated NETest is as effective as imaging in diagnosis and accurately identifies progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/EC-19-0030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6479193PMC
March 2019

Capecitabine and temozolomide combination for treatment of high-grade, well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumour and poorly-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma - retrospective analysis.

Endokrynol Pol 2019 7;70(4):313-317. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland.

Introduction: Many retrospective studies have confirmed that capecitabine combined with temozolomide is effective in neuroendocrine neoplasms. Most of the studies focused on grade 1 and grade 2 neuroendocrine tumours, mainly of pancreatic origin. There are limited data regarding the efficacy capecitabine with temozolomide in grade 3 neuroendocrine tumours. The new World Health Organisation 2017 classification distinguished well-differentiated grade 3 neuroendocrine tumours from poorly differentiated grade 3 neuroendocrine carcinomas. Treatment options for grade 3 neuroendocrine neoplasms are limited, and the overall prognosis is better in the subgroup of patients with grade 3 neuroendocrine tumours.

Material And Methods: It was a retrospective study in the population of patients with diagnosed grade 3 neuroendocrine neoplasms of different origin treated with capecitabine and temozolomide. Data on clinical and demographic characteristics of the population were collected from four Polish clinical centres. This study aimed to evaluate response and survival parameters and compare outcomes of treatment of neuroendocrine tumours and carcinomas.

Results: The study included 32 patients with grade 3 neuroendocrine tumours treated with capecitabine and temozolomide. The disease control rate was twice as high in the group of patient with neuroendocrine tumours in comparison to carcinomas (70 vs. 30%). The progression-free survival for patients with neuroendocrine tumours was 15.3 months (95% CI: 3.9-30.4), and for patients with neuroendocrine carcinomas it was 3.3 months (95% CI: 2.5-7.1). Median overall survival was 22 months (95% CI: 11.8-22.0) and 4.6 months (95% CI: 2.2-5.9) for patients with tumours and carcinomas, respectively. The treatment regimen was generally well tolerated.

Conclusions: The combination of capecitabine and temozolomide is an effective treatment for patients with grade 3 neuroendocrine tumours with Ki-67 index ranging between 20 and 54%. The treatment did not overcome the aggressive character of neuroendocrine carcinomas and resulted in low response and survival outcomes in comparison to those achieved in tumour therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/EP.a2019.0010DOI Listing
February 2020

Diagnostics and treatment of acromegaly - updated recommendations of the Polish Society of Endocrinology.

Endokrynol Pol 2019 ;70(1):2-18

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Disorders, Medical University, Lodz, Poland.

Acromegaly is a rare disease caused by excessive production of growth hormone (GH), typically by a pituitary tumour. The diagnosis is usually delayed, and patients frequently develop various complications that cause premature mortality. In patients with hypertension, heart failure, diabetes, and arthropathies that are not age-specific, attention should be paid to signs of acromegaly. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) assay should be used as a screening test whenever acromegaly is suspected. Further diagnostic investigations and treatment should be carried out at specialist centres. First-line treatment involves selective excision of pituitary adenoma using transsphenoidal access. Patients with chances of cure with surgical removal of the pituitary tumour should be referred to centres that have experience in this type of procedure, following pharmacological preparation. Other patients, as well as patients after failed neurosurgical treatment, should first receive chronic treatment with first-generation somatostatin analogues. For second-line treatment, pasireotide, pegvisomant, cabergoline, or combinations thereof should be considered. In every case, acromegaly sequelae require life-long monitoring and active treatment. Current recommendations, being an updated version of the recommendations published in Endokrynologia Polska in 2014, which take into account the Polish situation, should prove useful in the management of patients with acromegaly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/EP.a2018.0093DOI Listing
July 2019

The efficacy of microperimetry and contrast sensitivity test in the diagnosis of optic chiasm compression due to pituitary adenomas.

Endokrynol Pol 2019 30;70(3):241-247. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine in Katowice, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland.

Introduction: The aim of the study was to determine which microperimetry and contrast sensitivity test parameters would prove the most valuable during diagnosing optic chiasm compression due to pituitary adenomas.

Material And Methods: A control group comprised healthy individuals (Group 1). Patients with pituitary macroadenoma were divided into two groups: Group 2 - absent optic chiasm compression; and Group 3 - present optic chiasm compression detected on contrastenhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Each group comprised 20 patients (40 eyes), i.e. a total of 60 patients (120 eyes) were examined. A complete ocular examination, intraocular pressure, microperimetry, contrast sensitivity test, kinetic Goldmann visual field, and static Octopus visual field test were performed.

Results: Group 1 and 2 variables showed no statistically significant differences with respect to the mean sensitivity (MS) and mean defect (MD) in microperimetry. After dividing the microperimetry area into quadrants, a difference was shown in the mean sensitivity of the lower-nasal quadrant (MS LN) and mean defect of the lower-nasal quadrant (MD LN) between those groups. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves analysis revealed that the microperimetry parameter - MS LN as well as row D and E contrast sensitivity test could be highly specific in the assessment of early damage of the optic nerve in patients suffering from pituitary adenoma.

Conclusions: Microperimetry and contrast sensitivity test are non-invasive diagnostic investigations adjunctive to MRI, which facilitate detection of early chiasmal compression caused by pituitary adenomas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/EP.a2019.0003DOI Listing
December 2019