Publications by authors named "Beñat Mallavia"

26 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Natural killer cells activated through NKG2D mediate lung ischemia-reperfusion injury.

J Clin Invest 2021 Feb;131(3)

Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, California.

Pulmonary ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is a clinical syndrome of acute lung injury that occurs after lung transplantation or remote organ ischemia. IRI causes early mortality and has no effective therapies. While NK cells are innate lymphocytes capable of recognizing injured cells, their roles in acute lung injury are incompletely understood. Here, we demonstrated that NK cells were increased in frequency and cytotoxicity in 2 different IRI mouse models. We showed that NK cells trafficked to the lung tissue from peripheral reservoirs and were more mature within lung tissue. Acute lung ischemia-reperfusion injury was blunted in a NK cell-deficient mouse strain but restored with adoptive transfer of NK cells. Mechanistically, NK cell NKG2D receptor ligands were induced on lung endothelial and epithelial cells following IRI, and antibody-mediated NK cell depletion or NKG2D stress receptor blockade abrogated acute lung injury. In human lung tissue, NK cells were increased at sites of ischemia-reperfusion injury and activated NK cells were increased in prospectively collected human bronchoalveolar lavage in subjects with severe IRI. These data support a causal role for recipient peripheral NK cells in pulmonary IRI via NK cell NKG2D receptor ligation. Therapies targeting NK cells may hold promise in acute lung injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI137047DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7852842PMC
February 2021

Complement activation on endothelium initiates antibody-mediated acute lung injury.

J Clin Invest 2020 11;130(11):5909-5923

Department of Medicine, UCSF, San Francisco, California, USA.

Antibodies targeting human leukocyte antigen (HLA)/major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins limit successful transplantation and transfusion, and their presence in blood products can cause lethal transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI). It is unclear which cell types are bound by these anti-leukocyte antibodies to initiate an immunologic cascade resulting in lung injury. We therefore conditionally removed MHC class I (MHC I) from likely cellular targets in antibody-mediated lung injury. Only the removal of endothelial MHC I reduced lung injury and mortality, related mechanistically to absent endothelial complement fixation and lung platelet retention. Restoration of endothelial MHC I rendered MHC I-deficient mice susceptible to lung injury. Neutrophil responses, including neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) release, were intact in endothelial MHC I-deficient mice, whereas complement depletion reduced both lung injury and NETs. Human pulmonary endothelial cells showed high HLA class I expression, and posttransfusion complement activation was increased in clinical TRALI. These results indicate that the critical source of antigen for anti-leukocyte antibodies is in fact the endothelium, which reframes our understanding of TRALI as a rapid-onset vasculitis. Inhibition of complement activation may have multiple beneficial effects of reducing endothelial injury, platelet retention, and NET release in conditions where antibodies trigger these pathogenic responses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI138136DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7598054PMC
November 2020

Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator dysfunction in platelets drives lung hyperinflammation.

J Clin Invest 2020 04;130(4):2041-2053

Department of Medicine, UCSF, San Francisco, California, USA.

Cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease is characterized by an inflammatory response that can lead to terminal respiratory failure. The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is mutated in CF, and we hypothesized that dysfunctional CFTR in platelets, which are key participants in immune responses, is a central determinant of CF inflammation. We found that deletion of CFTR in platelets produced exaggerated acute lung inflammation and platelet activation after intratracheal LPS or Pseudomonas aeruginosa challenge. CFTR loss of function in mouse or human platelets resulted in agonist-induced hyperactivation and increased calcium entry into platelets. Inhibition of the transient receptor potential cation channel 6 (TRPC6) reduced platelet activation and calcium flux, and reduced lung injury in CF mice after intratracheal LPS or Pseudomonas aeruginosa challenge. CF subjects receiving CFTR modulator therapy showed partial restoration of CFTR function in platelets, which may be a convenient approach to monitoring biological responses to CFTR modulators. We conclude that CFTR dysfunction in platelets produces aberrant TRPC6-dependent platelet activation, which is a major driver of CF lung inflammation and impaired bacterial clearance. Platelets and TRPC6 are what we believe to be novel therapeutic targets in the treatment of CF lung disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI129635DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7108932PMC
April 2020

Mitochondrial DNA Stimulates TLR9-Dependent Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Formation in Primary Graft Dysfunction.

Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2020 03;62(3):364-372

Department of Medicine.

The immune system is designed to robustly respond to pathogenic stimuli but to be tolerant to endogenous ligands to not trigger autoimmunity. Here, we studied an endogenous damage-associated molecular pattern, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), during primary graft dysfunction (PGD) after lung transplantation. We hypothesized that cell-free mtDNA released during lung ischemia-reperfusion triggers neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation via TLR9 signaling. We found that mtDNA increases in the BAL fluid of experimental PGD (prolonged cold ischemia followed by orthotopic lung transplantation) and not in control transplants with minimal warm ischemia. The adoptive transfer of mtDNA into the minimal warm ischemia graft immediately before lung anastomosis induces NET formation and lung injury. TLR9 deficiency in neutrophils prevents mtDNA-induced NETs, and TLR9 deficiency in either the lung donor or recipient decreases NET formation and lung injury in the PGD model. Compared with human lung transplant recipients without PGD, severe PGD was associated with high levels of BAL mtDNA and NETs, with evidence of relative deficiency in DNaseI. We conclude that mtDNA released during lung ischemia-reperfusion triggers TLR9-dependent NET formation and drives lung injury. In PGD, DNaseI therapy has a potential dual benefit of neutralizing a major NET trigger (mtDNA) in addition to dismantling pathogenic NETs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1165/rcmb.2019-0140OCDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7055700PMC
March 2020

LPS-induced Lung Platelet Recruitment Occurs Independently from Neutrophils, PSGL-1, and P-Selectin.

Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2019 08;61(2):232-243

1Sackler Institute of Pulmonary Pharmacology, Institute of Pharmaceutical Science and.

Platelets are recruited to inflammatory foci and contribute to host defense and inflammatory responses. Compared with platelet recruitment in hemostasis and thrombosis, the mechanisms of platelet recruitment in inflammation and host defense are poorly understood. Neutrophil recruitment to lung airspaces after inhalation of bacterial LPS requires platelets and PSGL-1 in mice. Given this association between platelets and neutrophils, we investigated whether recruitment of platelets to lungs of mice after LPS inhalation was dependent on PSGL-1, P-selectin, or interaction with neutrophils. BALB/c mice were administered intranasal LPS (O55:B5, 5 mg/kg) and, 48 hours later, lungs were collected and platelets and neutrophils quantified in tissue sections by immunohistochemistry. The effects of functional blocking antibody treatments targeting the platelet-neutrophil adhesion molecules, P-selectin or PSGL-1, or treatment with a neutrophil-depleting antibody targeting Ly6G, were tested on the extent of LPS-induced lung platelet recruitment. Separately in Pf4-Cre × mTmG mice, two-photon intravital microscopy was used to image platelet adhesion in live lungs. Inhalation of LPS caused both platelet and neutrophil recruitment to the lung vasculature. However, decreasing lung neutrophil recruitment by blocking PSGL-1, P-selectin, or depleting blood neutrophils had no effect on lung platelet recruitment. Lung intravital imaging revealed increased adhesion of platelets in the lung microvasculature which was not associated with thrombus formation. In conclusion, platelet recruitment to lungs in response to LPS occurs through mechanisms distinct from those mediating neutrophil recruitment, or the occurrence of pulmonary emboli.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1165/rcmb.2018-0182OCDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6670039PMC
August 2019

Maladaptive role of neutrophil extracellular traps in pathogen-induced lung injury.

JCI Insight 2018 02 8;3(3). Epub 2018 Feb 8.

Department of Medicine and.

Neutrophils dominate the early immune response in pathogen-induced acute lung injury, but efforts to harness their responses have not led to therapeutic advancements. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) have been proposed as an innate defense mechanism responsible for pathogen clearance, but there are concerns that NETs may induce collateral damage to host tissues. Here, we detected NETs in abundance in mouse models of severe bacterial pneumonia/acute lung injury and in human subjects with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) from pneumonia or sepsis. Decreasing NETs reduced lung injury and improved survival after DNase I treatment or with partial protein arginine deiminase 4 deficiency (PAD4+/-). Complete PAD4 deficiency (PAD4-/-) reduced NETs and lung injury but was counterbalanced by increased bacterial load and inflammation. Importantly, we discovered that the lipoxin pathway could be a potent modulator of NET formation, and that mice deficient in the lipoxin receptor (Fpr2-/-) produced excess NETs leading to increased lung injury and mortality. Lastly, we observed in humans that increased plasma NETs were associated with ARDS severity and mortality, and lower plasma DNase I levels were associated with the development of sepsis-induced ARDS. We conclude that a critical balance of NETs is necessary to prevent lung injury and to maintain microbial control, which has important therapeutic implications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.98178DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5821185PMC
February 2018

Mirasol pathogen reduction technology treatment of human whole blood does not induce acute lung injury in mice.

PLoS One 2017 1;12(6):e0178725. Epub 2017 Jun 1.

Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America.

In resource-limited settings and in the military theater, fresh human whole blood is commonly transfused, but infectious risks are a concern. Sophisticated molecular testing for potential infectious agents in the whole blood is often unavailable. To address this unmet need, pathogen reduction technology (PRT) has been developed, and it is an effective approach to inactivate a broad range of pathogens found in human blood. However, studies are needed to determine if it is harmful to blood cells and whether these cells could damage the transfused recipient, including the development of acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome. In this study, we used a commercial PRT system to treat human whole blood that was then transfused into immunodeficient mice, and the development of acute lung injury was determined. In a model of transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI), BALB/c SCID mice developed more robust lung injury when challenged with a MHC Class I monoclonal antibody compared to BALB/c wild-type and NOD/SCID mice. Transfusion of control versus Mirasol PRT-treated whole blood (25% blood volume exchange) into BALB/c SCID mice did not produce lung injury at storage day 1. However, mild lung injury at storage days 14 and 21 was observed without significant differences in lung injury measurements between Mirasol PRT-treated and control groups. The mild storage-dependent acute lung injury correlated with trends for increased levels of cell-free hemoglobin that accumulated in both the control and Mirasol PRT-treated groups. Neutrophil extracellular traps were elevated in the plasma of BALB/c SCID mice in the monoclonal antibody TRALI model, but were not different in mice that received exchange transfusions. In conclusion, exchange transfusion of human whole blood into immunodeficient mice produces mild lung injury that is storage-dependent and not related to pathogen reduction treatment.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0178725PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5453573PMC
September 2017

The lung is a site of platelet biogenesis and a reservoir for haematopoietic progenitors.

Nature 2017 04 22;544(7648):105-109. Epub 2017 Mar 22.

Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), San Francisco, California 94143, USA.

Platelets are critical for haemostasis, thrombosis, and inflammatory responses, but the events that lead to mature platelet production remain incompletely understood. The bone marrow has been proposed to be a major site of platelet production, although there is indirect evidence that the lungs might also contribute to platelet biogenesis. Here, by directly imaging the lung microcirculation in mice, we show that a large number of megakaryocytes circulate through the lungs, where they dynamically release platelets. Megakaryocytes that release platelets in the lungs originate from extrapulmonary sites such as the bone marrow; we observed large megakaryocytes migrating out of the bone marrow space. The contribution of the lungs to platelet biogenesis is substantial, accounting for approximately 50% of total platelet production or 10 million platelets per hour. Furthermore, we identified populations of mature and immature megakaryocytes along with haematopoietic progenitors in the extravascular spaces of the lungs. Under conditions of thrombocytopenia and relative stem cell deficiency in the bone marrow, these progenitors can migrate out of the lungs, repopulate the bone marrow, completely reconstitute blood platelet counts, and contribute to multiple haematopoietic lineages. These results identify the lungs as a primary site of terminal platelet production and an organ with considerable haematopoietic potential.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature21706DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5663284PMC
April 2017

Telomere dysfunction in alveolar epithelial cells causes lung remodeling and fibrosis.

JCI Insight 2016 09 8;1(14):e86704. Epub 2016 Sep 8.

Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, Allergy and Sleep Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA.

Telomeres are short in type II alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Whether dysfunctional telomeres contribute directly to development of lung fibrosis remains unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate whether telomere dysfunction in type II AECs, mediated by deletion of the telomere shelterin protein TRF1, leads to pulmonary fibrosis in mice ( mice). Deletion of TRF1 in type II AECs for 2 weeks increased γH2AX DNA damage foci, but not histopathologic changes in the lung. Deletion of TRF1 in type II AECs for up to 9 months resulted in short telomeres and lung remodeling characterized by increased numbers of type II AECs, α-smooth muscle actin mesenchymal cells, collagen deposition, and accumulation of senescence-associated β-galactosidase lung epithelial cells. Deletion of TRF1 in collagen-expressing cells caused pulmonary edema, but not fibrosis. These results demonstrate that prolonged telomere dysfunction in type II AECs, but not collagen-expressing cells, leads to age-dependent lung remodeling and fibrosis. We conclude that telomere dysfunction in type II AECs is sufficient to cause lung fibrosis, and may be a dominant molecular defect causing IPF. mice will be useful for assessing cellular and molecular mechanisms of lung fibrosis mediated by telomere dysfunction.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5033906PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.86704DOI Listing
September 2016

Transfusion of Human Platelets Treated with Mirasol Pathogen Reduction Technology Does Not Induce Acute Lung Injury in Mice.

PLoS One 2015 15;10(7):e0133022. Epub 2015 Jul 15.

Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America; Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America.

Pathogen reduction technology (PRT) has been developed in an effort to make the blood supply safer, but there is controversy as to whether it may induce structural or functional changes to platelets that could lead to acute lung injury after transfusion. In this study, we used a commercial PRT system to treat human platelets that were then transfused into immunodeficient mice, and the development of acute lung injury was determined. P-selectin expression was higher in the Mirasol PRT-treated platelets compared to control platelets on storage day 5, but not storage day 1. Transfusion of control vs. Mirasol PRT-treated platelets (day 5 of storage, 109 platelets per mouse) into NOD/SCID mice did not result in lung injury, however transfusion of storage day 5 platelets treated with thrombin receptor-activating peptide increased both extravascular lung water and lung vascular permeability. Transfusion of day 1 platelets did not produce lung injury in any group, and LPS priming 24 hours before transfusion had no effect on lung injury. In a model of transfusion-related acute lung injury, NOD/SCID mice were susceptible to acute lung injury when challenged with H-2Kd monoclonal antibody vs. isotype control antibody. Using lung intravital microscopy, we did not detect a difference in the dynamic retention of platelets in the lung circulation in control vs. Mirasol PRT-treated groups. In conclusion, Mirasol PRT produced an increase in P-selectin expression that is storage-dependent, but transfusion of human platelets treated with Mirasol PRT into immunodeficient mice did not result in greater platelet retention in the lungs or the development of acute lung injury.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0133022PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4503436PMC
April 2016

Targeting HSP90 Ameliorates Nephropathy and Atherosclerosis Through Suppression of NF-κB and STAT Signaling Pathways in Diabetic Mice.

Diabetes 2015 Oct 26;64(10):3600-13. Epub 2015 Jun 26.

Renal, Vascular and Diabetes Research Laboratory, IIS-Fundacion Jimenez Diaz, Autonoma University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain Spanish Biomedical Research Centre in Diabetes and Associated Metabolic Disorders, Madrid, Spain

Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are induced by cellular stress and function as molecular chaperones that regulate protein folding. Diabetes impairs the function/expression of many HSPs, including HSP70 and HSP90, key regulators of pathological mechanisms involved in diabetes complications. Therefore, we investigated whether pharmacological HSP90 inhibition ameliorates diabetes-associated renal damage and atheroprogression in a mouse model of combined hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia (streptozotocin-induced diabetic apolipoprotein E-deficient mouse). Treatment of diabetic mice with 17-dimethylaminoethylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (DMAG, 2 and 4 mg/kg, 10 weeks) improved renal function, as evidenced by dose-dependent decreases in albuminuria, renal lesions (mesangial expansion, leukocyte infiltration, and fibrosis), and expression of proinflammatory and profibrotic genes. Furthermore, DMAG significantly reduced atherosclerotic lesions and induced a more stable plaque phenotype, characterized by lower content of lipids, leukocytes, and inflammatory markers, and increased collagen and smooth muscle cell content. Mechanistically, the renoprotective and antiatherosclerotic effects of DMAG are mediated by the induction of protective HSP70 along with inactivation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) and target gene expression, both in diabetic mice and in cultured cells under hyperglycemic and proinflammatory conditions. In conclusion, HSP90 inhibition by DMAG restrains the progression of renal and vascular damage in experimental diabetes, with potential implications for the prevention of diabetes complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db14-1926DOI Listing
October 2015

Peptide-based inhibition of IκB kinase/nuclear factor-κB pathway protects against diabetes-associated nephropathy and atherosclerosis in a mouse model of type 1 diabetes.

Diabetologia 2015 Jul 28;58(7):1656-67. Epub 2015 Apr 28.

Renal and Vascular Inflammation Group, IIS-Fundacion Jimenez Diaz, Autonoma University of Madrid, Avda. Reyes Catolicos, 2, 28040, Madrid, Spain.

Aims/hypothesis: The canonical nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway mediated by the inhibitor of NF-κB kinase (IKK) regulates the transcription of inflammatory genes involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes, from the early phase to progression and final complications. The NF-κB essential modulator binding domain (NBD) contained in IKKα/β is essential for IKK complex assembly. We therefore investigated the functional consequences of targeting the IKK-dependent NF-κB pathway in the progression of diabetes-associated nephropathy and atherosclerosis.

Methods: Apolipoprotein E-deficient mice with diabetes induced by streptozotocin were treated with a cell-permeable peptide derived from the IKKα/β NBD region. Kidneys and aorta were analysed for morphology, leucocyte infiltrate, collagen, NF-κB activity and gene expression. In vitro studies were performed in renal and vascular cells.

Results: NBD peptide administration did not affect the metabolic severity of diabetes but resulted in renal protection, as evidenced by dose-dependent decreases in albuminuria, renal lesions (mesangial expansion, leucocyte infiltration and fibrosis), intranuclear NF-κB activity and proinflammatory and pro-fibrotic gene expression. Furthermore, peptide treatment limited atheroma plaque formation in diabetic mice by decreasing the content of lipids, leucocytes and cytokines and increasing plaque stability markers. This nephroprotective and anti-atherosclerotic effect was accompanied by a decline in systemic T helper 1 cytokines. In vitro, NBD peptide prevented IKK assembly/activation, p65 nuclear translocation, NF-κB-regulated gene expression and cell proliferation induced by either high glucose or inflammatory stimulation.

Conclusions/interpretation: Peptide-based inhibition of IKK complex formation attenuates NF-κB activation, suppresses inflammation and retards the progression of renal and vascular injury in diabetic mice, thus providing a feasible approach against diabetes inflammatory complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00125-015-3596-6DOI Listing
July 2015

Reply: neutrophil extracellular traps in primary graft dysfunction after lung transplantation.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2015 May;191(9):1089

1 University of California, Los Angeles Los Angeles, California.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1164/rccm.201501-0177LEDOI Listing
May 2015

Gene delivery of suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) inhibits inflammation and atherosclerosis development in mice.

Basic Res Cardiol 2015 Mar 21;110(2). Epub 2015 Jan 21.

Renal and Vascular Inflammation, IIS-Fundacion Jimenez Diaz, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Avda. Reyes Catolicos, 2, 28040, Madrid, Spain.

Chronic activation of Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway contributes to vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis by inducing expression of genes involved in cell proliferation, differentiation and migration. We aimed to investigate whether enforced expression of negative regulators, the suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS1 and SOCS3), inhibits harmful JAK/STAT-mediated responses and affects atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E knockout mice. Adenovirus-mediated SOCS1 transgene expression impaired the onset and progression of atherosclerosis without impact on lipid profile, whereas SOCS3 was only effective on early atherosclerosis. Mechanistically, SOCS gene delivery, primarily SOCS1, attenuated STAT1 and STAT3 activation and reduced the expression of STAT-dependent genes (chemokine/chemokine receptors, adhesion molecules, pro-inflammatory cytokines and scavenger receptors) in aortic tissue. Furthermore, atherosclerotic plaques exhibit a more stable phenotype characterized by lower lipids, T cells and M1 macrophages and higher M2 macrophages and collagen. Atheroprotection was accompanied by a systemic alteration of T helper- and T regulatory-related genes and a reduced activation state of circulating monocytes. In vascular smooth muscle cells and macrophages, SOCS gene delivery inhibited cytokine-induced STAT activation, pro-inflammatory gene expression, cell migration and proliferation. In conclusion, targeting SOCS proteins, predominantly SOCS1, to suppress pathological mechanisms involved in atheroma plaque progression and destabilization could be an interesting anti-atherosclerotic strategy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00395-014-0458-1DOI Listing
March 2015

Neutrophil extracellular traps are pathogenic in primary graft dysfunction after lung transplantation.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2015 Feb;191(4):455-63

1 Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, and.

Rationale: Primary graft dysfunction (PGD) causes early mortality after lung transplantation and may contribute to late graft failure. No effective treatments exist. The pathogenesis of PGD is unclear, although both neutrophils and activated platelets have been implicated. We hypothesized that neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) contribute to lung injury in PGD in a platelet-dependent manner.

Objectives: To study NETs in experimental models of PGD and in lung transplant patients.

Methods: Two experimental murine PGD models were studied: hilar clamp and orthotopic lung transplantation after prolonged cold ischemia (OLT-PCI). NETs were assessed by immunofluorescence microscopy and ELISA. Platelet activation was inhibited with aspirin, and NETs were disrupted with DNaseI. NETs were also measured in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and plasma from lung transplant patients with and without PGD.

Measurements And Main Results: NETs were increased after either hilar clamp or OLT-PCI compared with surgical control subjects. Activation and intrapulmonary accumulation of platelets were increased in OLT-PCI, and platelet inhibition reduced NETs and lung injury, and improved oxygenation. Disruption of NETs by intrabronchial administration of DNaseI also reduced lung injury and improved oxygenation. In bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from human lung transplant recipients, NETs were more abundant in patients with PGD.

Conclusions: NETs accumulate in the lung in both experimental and clinical PGD. In experimental PGD, NET formation is platelet-dependent, and disruption of NETs with DNaseI reduces lung injury. These data are the first description of a pathogenic role for NETs in solid organ transplantation and suggest that NETs are a promising therapeutic target in PGD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1164/rccm.201406-1086OCDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4351593PMC
February 2015

Aspirin-triggered 15-epi-lipoxin A4 regulates neutrophil-platelet aggregation and attenuates acute lung injury in mice.

Blood 2014 Oct 20;124(17):2625-34. Epub 2014 Aug 20.

Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA; Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA.

Evidence is emerging that platelets are major contributors to innate immune responses in conditions such as acute lung injury (ALI). Platelets form heterotypic aggregates with neutrophils, and we hypothesized that lipoxin mediators regulate formation of neutrophil-platelet aggregates (NPA) and that NPA significantly contribute to ALI. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced lung injury was accompanied by platelet sequestration, activation, intra-alveolar accumulation, and NPA formation within both blood and alveolar compartments. Using lung intravital microscopy, we observed the dynamic formation of NPA during physiologic conditions, which sharply increased with ALI. Aspirin (ASA) treatment significantly reduced lung platelet sequestration and activation, NPA formation, and lung injury. ASA treatment increased levels of ASA-triggered lipoxin (ATL; 15-epi-lipoxin A4), and blocking the lipoxin A4 receptor (ALX) with a peptide antagonist (Boc2) or using ALX knockouts (Fpr2/3(-/-)) reversed this protection. LPS increased NPA formation in vitro, which was reduced by ATL, and engagement of ALX by ATL on both neutrophils and platelets was necessary to prevent aggregation. In a model of transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI), Boc2 also reversed ASA protection, and treatment with ATL in both LPS and TRALI models protected from ALI. We conclude that ATL regulates neutrophil-platelet aggregation and that platelet-neutrophil interactions are a therapeutic target in lung injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2014-03-562876DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4208278PMC
October 2014

Suppressor of cytokine signaling 1-derived peptide inhibits Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription pathway and improves inflammation and atherosclerosis in diabetic mice.

Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2014 Sep 10;34(9):1953-60. Epub 2014 Jul 10.

From the Renal and Vascular Research Lab, IIS-Fundacion Jimenez Diaz, Autonoma University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain (C.R., A.O., I.L., B.M., J.E., C.G.-G.); and Spanish Biomedical Research Centre in Diabetes and Associated Metabolic Disorders (CIBERDEM), Madrid, Spain (C.R., A.O., J.E., C.G.-G.).

Objective: Activation of Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) pathway by hyperglycemia and dislypidemia contributes to the progression of diabetic complications, including atherosclerosis. Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins negatively regulate Janus kinase/STAT and have emerged as promising target for anti-inflammatory therapies. We investigated whether a cell-permeable lipopeptide corresponding to the kinase inhibitory region of SOCS1 could reduce atherosclerosis in diabetic mice and identified the mechanisms involved.

Approach And Results: Streptozotocin-induced diabetic apolipoprotein E-deficient mice (aged 8 and 22 weeks) were given intraperitoneal injections of vehicle, SOCS1-derived peptide, or control mutant peptide for 6 to 10 weeks. SOCS1 therapy suppressed STAT1/STAT3 activation in atherosclerotic plaques of diabetic mice and significantly reduced lesion size at both early and advanced stages of lesion development compared with vehicle group. Plaque characterization demonstrated that SOCS1 peptide decreased the accumulation of lipids, macrophages, and T lymphocytes, whereas increasing collagen and smooth muscle cell content. This atheroprotective effect was accompanied by systemic (reduced proinflammatory Ly6C(high) monocytes and splenic cytokine expression) and local (reduced aortic expression of chemokines and cytokines) mechanisms, without impact on metabolic parameters. In vitro, SOCS1 peptide dose dependently inhibited STAT1/STAT3 activation and target gene expression in vascular smooth muscle cells and macrophages and also suppressed cytokine-induced cell migration and adhesion processes.

Conclusions: SOCS1-based targeting Janus kinase/STAT restrains key mechanisms of atherogenesis in diabetic mice, thereby preventing plaque formation and increasing plaque stability. Approaches to mimic native SOCS1 functions may have a therapeutic potential to retard the progression of diabetic complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/ATVBAHA.114.304144DOI Listing
September 2014

Gene Deficiency in Activating Fcγ Receptors Influences the Macrophage Phenotypic Balance and Reduces Atherosclerosis in Mice.

PLoS One 2013 21;8(6):e66754. Epub 2013 Jun 21.

Renal and Vascular Inflammation Lab, IIS-Fundacion Jimenez Diaz, Autonoma University, Madrid, Spain ; Nephrology Department, IIS-Fundacion Jimenez Diaz, Autonoma University, Madrid, Spain.

Immunity contributes to arterial inflammation during atherosclerosis. Oxidized low-density lipoproteins induce an autoimmune response characterized by specific antibodies and immune complexes in atherosclerotic patients. We hypothesize that specific Fcγ receptors for IgG constant region participate in atherogenesis by regulating the inflammatory state of lesional macrophages. In vivo we examined the role of activating Fcγ receptors in atherosclerosis progression using bone marrow transplantation from mice deficient in γ-chain (the common signaling subunit of activating Fcγ receptors) to hyperlipidemic mice. Hematopoietic deficiency of Fcγ receptors significantly reduced atherosclerotic lesion size, which was associated with decreased number of macrophages and T lymphocytes, and increased T regulatory cell function. Lesions of Fcγ receptor deficient mice exhibited increased plaque stability, as evidenced by higher collagen and smooth muscle cell content and decreased apoptosis. These effects were independent of changes in serum lipids and antibody response to oxidized low-density lipoproteins. Activating Fcγ receptor deficiency reduced pro-inflammatory gene expression, nuclear factor-κB activity, and M1 macrophages at the lesion site, while increasing anti-inflammatory genes and M2 macrophages. The decreased inflammation in the lesions was mirrored by a reduced number of classical inflammatory monocytes in blood. In vitro, lack of activating Fcγ receptors attenuated foam cell formation, oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory gene expression, and increased M2-associated genes in murine macrophages. Our study demonstrates that activating Fcγ receptors influence the macrophage phenotypic balance in the artery wall of atherosclerotic mice and suggests that modulation of Fcγ receptor-mediated inflammatory responses could effectively suppress atherosclerosis.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0066754PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3689671PMC
October 2017

Peptide inhibitor of NF-κB translocation ameliorates experimental atherosclerosis.

Am J Pathol 2013 May 16;182(5):1910-21. Epub 2013 Apr 16.

Renal and Vascular Inflammation Laboratory, Department of Nephrology, IIS-Fundación Jiménez Díaz, Autonoma University, Madrid, Spain.

Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the arterial wall. NF-κB is a major regulator of inflammation that controls the expression of many genes involved in atherogenesis. Activated NF-κB was detected in human atherosclerotic plaques, and modulation of NF-κB inflammatory activity limits disease progression in mice. Herein, we investigate the anti-inflammatory and atheroprotective effects of a cell-permeable peptide containing the NF-κB nuclear localization sequence (NLS). In vascular smooth muscle cells and macrophages, NLS peptide specifically blocked the importin α-mediated nuclear import of NF-κB and prevented lipopolysaccharide-induced pro-inflammatory gene expression, cell migration, and oxidative stress. In experimental atherosclerosis (apolipoprotein E-knockout mice fed a high-fat diet), i.p., 0.13 μmol/day NLS peptide administration for 5 weeks attenuated NF-κB activation in atherosclerotic plaques. NLS peptide significantly inhibited lesion development at both early (age 10 weeks) and advanced (age 28 weeks) stages of atherosclerosis in mice, without affecting serum lipid levels. Plaques from NLS-treated mice contained fewer macrophages of pro-inflammatory M1 subtype than those from respective untreated controls. By contrast, the relative smooth muscle cell and collagen content was increased, indicating a more stable plaque phenotype. NLS peptide also attenuated pro-inflammatory gene expression and oxidative stress in aortic lesions. Our study demonstrates that targeting NF-κB nuclear translocation hampers inflammation and atherosclerosis development and identifies cell-permeable NLS peptide as a potential anti-atherosclerotic agent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajpath.2013.01.022DOI Listing
May 2013

Immunoglobulin G Fc receptor deficiency prevents Alzheimer-like pathology and cognitive impairment in mice.

Brain 2012 Sep;135(Pt 9):2826-37

Renal and Vascular Inflammation, Nephrology Department, IIS-Fundacion Jimenez Diaz, Autonoma University, Avda. Reyes Catolicos 2, 28040 Madrid, Spain.

Alzheimer's disease is a severely debilitating disease of high and growing proportions. Hypercholesterolaemia is a key risk factor in sporadic Alzheimer's disease that links metabolic disorders (diabetes, obesity and atherosclerosis) with this pathology. Hypercholesterolaemia is associated with increased levels of immunoglobulin G against oxidized lipoproteins. Patients with Alzheimer's disease produce autoantibodies against non-brain antigens and specific receptors for the constant Fc region of immunoglobulin G have been found in vulnerable neuronal subpopulations. Here, we focused on the potential role of Fc receptors as pathological players driving hypercholesterolaemia to Alzheimer's disease. In a well-established model of hypercholesterolaemia, the apolipoprotein E knockout mouse, we report increased brain levels of immunoglobulin G and upregulation of activating Fc receptors, predominantly of type IV, in neurons susceptible to amyloid β accumulation. In these mice, gene deletion of γ-chain, the common subunit of activating Fc receptors, prevents learning and memory impairments without influencing cholesterolaemia and brain and serum immunoglobulin G levels. These cognition-protective effects were associated with a reduction in synapse loss, tau hyperphosphorylation and intracellular amyloid β accumulation both in cortical and hippocampal pyramidal neurons. In vitro, activating Fc receptor engagement caused synapse loss, tau hyperphosphorylation and amyloid β deposition in primary neurons by a mechanism involving mitogen-activated protein kinases and β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1. Our results represent the first demonstration that immunoglobulin G Fc receptors contribute to the development of hypercholesterolaemia-associated features of Alzheimer's disease and suggest a new potential target for slowing or preventing Alzheimer's disease in hypercholesterolaemic patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/aws195DOI Listing
September 2012

Fcγ receptor deficiency attenuates diabetic nephropathy.

J Am Soc Nephrol 2012 Sep 2;23(9):1518-27. Epub 2012 Aug 2.

Renal and Vascular Inflammation Laboratory, IIS-Fundacion Jimenez Diaz, Autonoma University, Avda Reyes Catolicos, 2 28040 Madrid, Spain.

Among patients with diabetes, increased production of immunoglobulins against proteins modified by diabetes is associated with proteinuria and cardiovascular risk, suggesting that immune mechanisms may contribute to the development of diabetes complications, such as nephropathy. We investigated the contribution of IgG Fcγ receptors to diabetic renal injury in hyperglycemic, hypercholesterolemic mice. We used streptozotocin to induce diabetes in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice and in mice deficient in both apolipoprotein E and γ-chain, the common subunit of activating Fcγ receptors. After 15 weeks, the mice lacking Fcγ receptors had significantly less albuminuria and renal hypertrophy, despite similar degrees of hyperglycemia and hypercholesterolemia, immunoglobulin production, and glomerular immune deposits. Moreover, diabetic Fcγ receptor-deficient mice had less mesangial matrix expansion, inflammatory cell infiltration, and collagen and α-smooth muscle actin content in their kidneys. Accordingly, expression of genes involved in leukocyte infiltration, fibrosis, and oxidative stress was significantly reduced in diabetic kidneys and in mesangial cells cultured from Fcγ receptor-deficient mice. In summary, preventing the activation of Fcγ receptors alleviates renal hypertrophy, inflammation, and fibrosis in hypercholesterolemic mice with diabetes, suggesting that modulating Fcγ receptor signaling may be renoprotective in diabetic nephropathy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2011080822DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3431408PMC
September 2012

Renal delivery of adenovirus and antisense oligonucleotides in rats by retrograde renal vein injection.

Methods Mol Biol 2012 ;886:321-9

Renal and Vascular Research Lab, IIS-Fundacion Jimenez Diaz. Autonoma University, Madrid, Spain.

Renal gene therapy may offer new strategies to treat diseases of native and transplanted kidneys. Several experimental techniques have been developed using viral, nonviral, and cellular vectors, although the effectiveness of such techniques varies widely depending upon the vector used, type of injection, species, and experimental model of renal disease. Here, we describe an optimized technique for renal delivery of DNA in rodents by retrograde renal vein injection as it is currently applied in our laboratory for adenovirus and nonviral vectors. This is an effective gene transfer method with lasting effect on gene expression in the kidney that modulates renal disease in rodents without any apparent harmful effect, thus having a potential therapeutic value for future clinical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-61779-851-1_29DOI Listing
September 2012

Targeting inflammation in cardiovascular diseases. still a neglected field?

Cardiovasc Ther 2012 Aug 1;30(4):e189-97. Epub 2011 Apr 1.

Renal and Vascular Inflammation, IIS-Fundacion Jimenez Diaz, Autonoma University, Madrid, Spain.

Prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis is still a clinical challenge in the cardiovascular medicine. The classical belief that atherosclerotic lesion development solely depends on lipid deposition has been replaced by the current concept that activation of immune and inflammatory responses plays a central role in plaque initiation and progression. In this review we summarize studies on human and genetically modified animals describing a finite number of cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie immunoinflammation in atherosclerotic plaques. We focus on the pro- and antiinflammatory mediators activated during atherogenesis and the intracellular signaling pathways regulating these events. Besides the advances on established pharmacological agents, we propose potential strategies for reduction/stabilization of atherosclerotic plaques based on the clinical data in inflammatory-associated pathologies and on the encouraging studies in experimental models of atherosclerosis. We emphasize the potential of such novel inhibitors comprising receptor antagonists, neutralizing antibodies, kinase inhibitors, peptide-based technologies, and chemicals as emerging antiinflammatory strategies for the treatment of atherosclerotic disease complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-5922.2011.00274.xDOI Listing
August 2012

Animal models of cardiovascular diseases.

J Biomed Biotechnol 2011 16;2011:497841. Epub 2011 Feb 16.

Department of Epidemiology, Atherothrombosis and Cardiovascular Imaging, Fundacion Centro Nacional Investigaciones Cardiovasculares Carlos III (CNIC), Sinesio Delgado 3, 28029 Madrid, Spain.

Cardiovascular diseases are the first leading cause of death and morbidity in developed countries. The use of animal models have contributed to increase our knowledge, providing new approaches focused to improve the diagnostic and the treatment of these pathologies. Several models have been developed to address cardiovascular complications, including atherothrombotic and cardiac diseases, and the same pathology have been successfully recreated in different species, including small and big animal models of disease. However, genetic and environmental factors play a significant role in cardiovascular pathophysiology, making difficult to match a particular disease, with a single experimental model. Therefore, no exclusive method perfectly recreates the human complication, and depending on the model, additional considerations of cost, infrastructure, and the requirement for specialized personnel, should also have in mind. Considering all these facts, and depending on the budgets available, models should be selected that best reproduce the disease being investigated. Here we will describe models of atherothrombotic diseases, including expanding and occlusive animal models, as well as models of heart failure. Given the wide range of models available, today it is possible to devise the best strategy, which may help us to find more efficient and reliable solutions against human cardiovascular diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/497841DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3042667PMC
July 2011

Suppressors of cytokine signaling abrogate diabetic nephropathy.

J Am Soc Nephrol 2010 May 25;21(5):763-72. Epub 2010 Feb 25.

Renal and Vascular Research Laboratory, Fundacion Jimenez Diaz, Autonoma University, Madrid, Spain.

Activation of Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT) is an important mechanism by which hyperglycemia contributes to renal damage, suggesting that modulation of this pathway may prevent renal and vascular complications of diabetes. Here, we investigated the involvement of suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) as intracellular negative regulators of JAK/STAT activation in diabetic nephropathy. In a rat model, inducing diabetes resulted in JAK/STAT activation and increased expression of SOCS1 and SOCS3. In humans, we observed increased expression of glomerular and tubulointerstitial SOCS proteins in biopsies of patients with diabetic nephropathy. In vitro, high concentrations of glucose activated JAK/STAT/SOCS in human mesangial and tubular cells. Overexpression of SOCS reversed the glucose-induced activation of the JAK/STAT pathway, expression of STAT-dependent genes (chemokines, growth factors, and extracellular matrix proteins), and cell proliferation. In vivo, intrarenal delivery of adenovirus expressing SOCS1 and SOCS3 to diabetic rats significantly improved renal function and reduced renal lesions associated with diabetes, such as mesangial expansion, fibrosis, and influx of macrophages. SOCS gene delivery also decreased the activation of STAT1 and STAT3 and the expression of proinflammatory and profibrotic proteins in the diabetic kidney. In summary, these results provide direct evidence for a link between the JAK/STAT/SOCS axis and hyperglycemia-induced cell responses in the kidney. Suppression of the JAK/STAT pathway by increasing intracellular SOCS proteins may have therapeutic potential in diabetic nephropathy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2009060625DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2865742PMC
May 2010

Suppressors of cytokine signaling modulate JAK/STAT-mediated cell responses during atherosclerosis.

Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2009 Apr 22;29(4):525-31. Epub 2009 Jan 22.

Renal and Vascular Inflammation Lab, Fundacion Jimenez Diaz, Autonoma University, Madrid, Spain.

Objective: Suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins are intracellular regulators of receptor signal transduction, mainly Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT). We investigated the effects of SOCS modulation on the JAK/STAT-dependent responses in vascular cells, and their implication in atherosclerotic plaque development.

Methods And Results: Immunohistochemistry in human plaques revealed a high expression of SOCS1 and SOCS3 by vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and macrophages in the inflammatory region of the shoulders, when compared to the fibrous area. SOCS were also increased in aortic lesions from apoE(-/-) mice. In cultured VSMCs, endothelial cells, and monocytes, SOCS1 and SOCS3 were transiently induced by proinflammatory cytokines, proatherogenic lipoproteins, and immune molecules. Furthermore, overexpression of SOCS suppressed STAT activation and reduced inflammatory gene expression and cell growth, whereas SOCS knockdown increased these cell responses. In vivo, antisense oligodeoxynucleotides targeting SOCS3 exacerbated the atherosclerotic process in apoE(-/-) mice by increasing the size, leukocyte content, and chemokine expression in the lesions.

Conclusions: SOCS expressed in atherosclerotic lesions are key regulators of vascular cell responses. Activation of this endogenous antiinflammatory pathway might be of interest in the treatment of atherosclerosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/ATVBAHA.108.173781DOI Listing
April 2009