Publications by authors named "Bayu Brahma"

7 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Lymphaticovenular Anastomosis in Breast Cancer Treatment-Related Lymphedema: A Short-Term Clinicopathological Analysis from Indonesia.

J Reconstr Microsurg 2021 Mar 1. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Background:  Locally advanced breast cancer is commonly found in Indonesia. In this group of patients, aggressive treatment such as axillary lymph nodes dissection (ALND) with or without regional nodal irradiation (RNI) will increase the risk of breast cancer treatment-related lymphedema (BCRL) in our patients. Lymphaticovenular anastomosis (LVA) has been established as a minimally invasive approach in lymphedema surgery. In this study, we report our first experience of LVAs in BCRL patients.

Methods:  This was a cross-sectional study taken from breast cancer patients receiving ALND with or without RNI. From December 2018 until June 2020, we collected and described general patient information, tumor characteristics, diagnostic methods, and the outcome of LVA. Postoperative subjective symptoms scores (lymphedema quality-of-life score [LeQOLiS]) and lymphedematous volume (upper extremity lymphedema [UEL] index) were compared with preoperative ones.

Results:  Seventy patients experienced BCRL with the mean age of 54.8 (9.4) years and mean body mass index of 28.1 (4.5). ALND was performed in 66 (97.1%) cases and RNI was given in 58 (82.9%) patients. Thirty-one (44.3%) patients were in the International Society of Lymphology stage 1, 24 (34.3%) in stage 2A, and 15 (21.4%) in stage 2B. The mean lymphatic vessel diameter was 0.5 (0.26) mm and 0.80 (0.54) mm for the vein. Lymphosclerosis severity was 7 (4%) in S0 type, 129 (74.1%) in S1 type, 37 (21.3%) in S2 type, and 1 (0.6%) in S3 type. In histopathology examination, S1 types were in lower grade injury, while S2 and S3 types were in the higher grade. Seven (53.8%) cases of S2 type showed severe fibrosis from trichrome staining. Postoperative LeQOLiSs were significantly lower than preoperative ones (5.6 ± 2.4 vs. 3.7 ± 2.6;  = 0.000). With the mean follow-up of 7.4 (3.7) months, the overall UEL index reduction was 9.2%; mean -11 (16.8). Postoperative UEL index was significantly lower than preoperative ones (117.7 ± 26.5 vs. 106.9 ± 18.5;  = 0.000). No complications were observed during this period.

Conclusion:  LVA reduced the subjective symptoms and UEL index in BCRL cases. Future studies using updated imaging technologies of the lymphatic system and longer follow-up time are needed to confirm our results.
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March 2021

Acetic Acid and Iodine Staining for Determining Malignancy in Solid Tumors.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2021 Feb 1;22(2):463-469. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Department of Surgical Oncology, Dharmais Cancer Hospital, National Cancer Center, Jakarta, Indonesia.

Objective: Surgical margin is an important prognostic factor in solid cancer surgery. Frozen section (FS), the gold standard for intraoperative surgical margin evaluation, requires extensive waiting time and expensive FS devices. The purpose of this diagnostic study was to verify whether multi-staining (MS) method with acetic acid and iodine could be used to differentiate malignant and non-malignant lesions of solid tumor.

Methods: The study was conducted on patients with solid tumor who underwent surgery in the Surgical Oncology Division of Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital from December 2017 to April 2018. Samples measuring less than 5 mm, necrotic tissue sample, and patients who did not agree to participate in the study were excluded. Every specimen was divided into two, one side as unstained control and the other side as MS samples. MS samples were sprayed with 10% acetic acid combined with iodine. MS samples and unstained controls were sent for histopathologic results and the pathologist was blinded to group assignment. Acetowhitening reaction in the sample was an indication of a positive MS result, and the presence of malignant foci in the histopathology examination was classified as positive pathological results.

Results: Five-hundred-and-twenty samples were obtained from 150 patients. MS method was found to have sensitivity and specificity of 82%, and 63.5%, respectively. In subgroup analysis, we found that MS method has a sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 79.3%, respectively for epithelial breast tumor; 65.7% and 83.3%, respectively for thyroid nodules; and 94.1% and 33.3%, respectively for oral cavity tumors. MS method reacts positively to solid malignant tumor and negatively to benign tumor and normal tissue (from margin samples). Highest sensitivity was found for breast and oral cavity malignancy, and high specificity was found for thyroid cancers.

Conclusion: This study provided an alternative staining method for intraoperative macroscopic surgical margin evaluation, especially for rural areas without frozen section facilities.
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February 2021

Clinical Utility of BRAF, NRAS, and TERT Promoter Mutation in Preoperative Thyroid Fine-Needle Aspiration Biopsy: A Diagnostic Study From Dharmais Cancer Hospital.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2020 Nov 1;21(11):3267-3277. Epub 2020 Nov 1.

Department of Surgical Oncology, Dharmais Cancer Hospital - National Cancer Center, Jakarta, Indonesia.

Objective: Molecular testing of thyroid nodules becomes important for improving the accuracy of fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). This study aimed to investigate the diagnostic utility of BRAF, NRAS, and TERT promoter mutation in thyroid nodules at Dharmais Cancer Hospital.
Methods: We performed a prospective diagnostic study involving 50 patients with thyroid nodules who needed surgery between September 2013 and August 2014. Mutational hotspots in BRAF exon 15, NRAS exon 3, and TERT promoter region were analyzed by Sanger sequencing from FNAB specimens. Cytology and molecular data were compared to histopathology results.
Result: Of the 50 cases included in the analysis, 39 cases (78%) were thyroid malignancies. Mutations of BRAF, NRAS, and TERT promoter were detected in 31% (12/39), 18% (7/39), and 13% (5/39) cases, respectively. BRAF and NRAS mutations were found mutually exclusive, while all of TERT promoter mutation was found coexistent either with BRAF (40%) or NRAS (60%). The combination of FNAB cytology and molecular testing resulted in 69% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% positive predictive value, 48% negative predictive value, and 76% accuracy.
Conclusion: Molecular testing of BRAF, NRAS, and TERT mutations improve the sensitivity of thyroid FNAB and is beneficial for more definitive treatment in selective cases. However, the NPV is relatively low to avoid the need for diagnostic surgery. Therefore, further studies to identify more sensitive methods and more comprehensive molecular markers in the diagnosis of thyroid nodules are needed.
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November 2020

The Application of 1% Methylene Blue Dye As a Single Technique in Breast Cancer Sentinel Node Biopsy.

J Vis Exp 2019 06 1(148). Epub 2019 Jun 1.

Department of Surgical Oncology, Dharmais Cancer Hospital.

In this study, we injected 1% methylene blue dye (MBD) into the subareolar or peritumoral space of the breast. In the case of breast conserving surgery (BCS), a separate incision in the lower axilla hairline was made to find the sentinel nodes (SNs). In mastectomy, the SNs were identified through the same mastectomy incision. The SNs were described as blue nodes or nodes with lymphatic blue channels. An anatomical landmark in the axilla was used to facilitate SNs identification. The SNs metastases were evaluated by intraoperative frozen section analysis and histopathology examination as it is a gold standard. Here, we described the MBD as the lone technique in breast cancer sentinel node biopsy (SNB) which could be useful when radioisotope tracer or patent or isosulfan blue dye (PBD) cannot be provided.
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June 2019

Breast cancer treatment-related lymphedema (BCRL): An overview of the literature and updates in microsurgery reconstructions.

Eur J Surg Oncol 2019 Jul 4;45(7):1138-1145. Epub 2019 Jan 4.

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, National Center for Global Health and Medicine Hospital, Japan. Electronic address:

Breast cancer is the most common cancer in Dharmais hospital. The treatment can give rise to breast cancer treatment-related lymphedema (BCRL) that will cause significant morbidities. Based on author's (BB) patient series in Dharmais hospital, BCRL occurred in 27.7% after axillary lymph nodes dissection (ALND). The development of diagnostic modalities as well as lymphatic microsurgery have become promising instruments for lymphedema treatment. To date, modern approach of lymphedema care and surgical intervention have not been recognized and established in Indonesia. A literature review in this field is needed to overcome our limitation in BRCL or lymphedema management.
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July 2019

The predictive value of methylene blue dye as a single technique in breast cancer sentinel node biopsy: a study from Dharmais Cancer Hospital.

World J Surg Oncol 2017 Feb 7;15(1):41. Epub 2017 Feb 7.

Department of Surgical Oncology, Dharmais Cancer Hospital, Jalan. Let. Jend. S. Parman Kav. 84-86, Jakarta, 11420, Indonesia.

Background: Axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) has been the standard treatment of breast cancer axillary staging in Indonesia. The limited facilities of radioisotope tracer and isosulfan or patent blue dye (PBD) have been the major obstacles to perform sentinel node biopsy (SNB) in our country. We studied the application of 1% methylene blue dye (MBD) alone for SNB to overcome the problem.

Methods: This prospective study enrolled 108 patients with suspicious malignant lesions or breast cancer stages I-III. SNB was performed using 2-5 cc of 1% MBD and proceeded with ALND. The histopathology results of sentinel nodes (SNs) were compared with axillary lymph nodes (ALNs) for diagnostic value assessments.

Results: There were 96 patients with invasive carcinoma from July 2012 to September 2014 who were included in the final analysis. The median age was 50 (25-69) years, and the median pathological tumor size was 3 cm (1-10). Identification rate of SNs was 91.7%, and the median number of the identified SNs was 2 (1-8). Sentinel node metastasis was found in 53.4% cases and 89.4% of them were macrometastases. The negative predictive value (NPV) of SNs to predict axillary metastasis was 90% (95% CI, 81-99%). There were no anaphylactic reactions, but we found 2 cases with skin necrosis.

Conclusions: The application of 1% MBD as a single technique in breast cancer SNB has favorable identification rates and predictive values. It can be used for axillary staging, but nevertheless the technique should be applied with attention to the tumor size and grade to avoid false negative results.
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February 2017

Surgical perspective of T1799A BRAF mutation diagnostic value in papillary thyroid carcinoma.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2013 ;14(1):31-7

Department of Surgical Oncology, Dharmais National Cancer Center, Indonesia.

Background: Throughout Indonesia, thyroid cancer is one of the ten commonest malignancies, with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) in our hospital accounting for about 60% of all thyroid nodules. Although fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is the most reliable diagnostic tool, some nodules are diagnosed as indeterminate and second surgery is common for PTC. The aim of this study was to establish the diagnostic value and feasibility of testing the BRAF T1799A mutation on FNA specimens for improving PTC diagnosis.

Materials And Methods: This prospective study enrolled 95 patients with thyroid nodules and future surgery planned. Results of mutational status were compared with surgical pathology diagnosis.

Results: Of the 70 cases included in the final analysis, 62.8% were PTC and the prevalence of BRAF mutation was 38.6%. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) for BRAF mutation analysis were 36%, 100%, 100% and 48%, respectively. With other data findings, nodules with "onset less than 5 year" and "hard consistency" were proven as diagnostic determinants for BRAF mutation with a probability of 62.5%. This mutation was also a significant risk factor for extra-capsular extension.

Conclusions: Molecular analysis of the BRAF T1799A mutation in FNAB specimens has high specificity and positive predictive value for PTC. It could be used in the selective patients with clinical characteristics to facilitate PTC diagnosis and for guidance regarding extent of thyroidectomy.
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December 2013