Publications by authors named "Bayarsaikhan Chuluun"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Suprachiasmatic lesions restore object recognition in down syndrome model mice.

Neurobiol Sleep Circadian Rhythms 2020 May 16;8:100049. Epub 2020 Feb 16.

Biology Department, 371 Serra Mall, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, 94305-5020, USA.

The Ts65Dn mouse is a well-studied model of trisomy 21, Down syndrome. This mouse strain has severe learning disability as measured by several rodent learning tests that depend on hippocampal spatial memory function. Hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) is deficient in these mice. Short-term daily treatment with low-dose GABA receptor antagonists rescue spatial learning and LTP in Ts65Dn mice leading to the hypothesis that the learning disability is due to GABAergic over-inhibition of hippocampal circuits. The fact that the GABA receptor antagonists were only effective if delivered during the daily light phase suggested that the source of the excess GABA was controlled directly or indirectly by the circadian system. The central circadian pacemaker of mammals is the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), which is largely a GABAergic nucleus. In this study we investigated whether elimination of the SCN in Ts65Dn mice would restore their ability to form recognition memories as tested by the novel object recognition (NOR) task. Full, but not partial lesions of the SCN of Ts65Dn mice normalized their ability to perform on the NOR test. These results suggest that the circadian system modulates neuroplasticity over the time frame involved in the process of consolidation of recognition memories.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nbscr.2020.100049DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7075983PMC
May 2020

Short-term treatment with flumazenil restores long-term object memory in a mouse model of Down syndrome.

Neurobiol Learn Mem 2017 Apr 12;140:11-16. Epub 2017 Feb 12.

Biology Department, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-5020, USA. Electronic address:

Down syndrome (DS) is a common genetic cause of intellectual disability yet no pro-cognitive drug therapies are approved for human use. Mechanistic studies in a mouse model of DS (Ts65Dn mice) demonstrate that impaired cognitive function is due to excessive neuronal inhibitory tone. These deficits are normalized by chronic, short-term low doses of GABA receptor (GABAR) antagonists in adult animals, but none of the compounds investigated are approved for human use. We explored the therapeutic potential of flumazenil (FLUM), a GABAR antagonist working at the benzodiazepine binding site that has FDA approval. Long-term memory was assessed by the Novel Object Recognition (NOR) testing in Ts65Dn mice after acute or short-term chronic treatment with FLUM. Short-term, low, chronic dose regimens of FLUM elicit long-lasting (>1week) normalization of cognitive function in both young and aged mice. FLUM at low dosages produces long lasting cognitive improvements and has the potential of fulfilling an unmet therapeutic need in DS.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nlm.2017.02.006DOI Listing
April 2017

Cyclooxygenase inhibition targets neurons to prevent early behavioural decline in Alzheimer's disease model mice.

Brain 2016 07 13;139(Pt 7):2063-81. Epub 2016 May 13.

1 Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA

Identifying preventive targets for Alzheimer's disease is a central challenge of modern medicine. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, which inhibit the cyclooxygenase enzymes COX-1 and COX-2, reduce the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease in normal ageing populations. This preventive effect coincides with an extended preclinical phase that spans years to decades before onset of cognitive decline. In the brain, COX-2 is induced in neurons in response to excitatory synaptic activity and in glial cells in response to inflammation. To identify mechanisms underlying prevention of cognitive decline by anti-inflammatory drugs, we first identified an early object memory deficit in APPSwe-PS1ΔE9 mice that preceded previously identified spatial memory deficits in this model. We modelled prevention of this memory deficit with ibuprofen, and found that ibuprofen prevented memory impairment without producing any measurable changes in amyloid-β accumulation or glial inflammation. Instead, ibuprofen modulated hippocampal gene expression in pathways involved in neuronal plasticity and increased levels of norepinephrine and dopamine. The gene most highly downregulated by ibuprofen was neuronal tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (Tdo2), which encodes an enzyme that metabolizes tryptophan to kynurenine. TDO2 expression was increased by neuronal COX-2 activity, and overexpression of hippocampal TDO2 produced behavioural deficits. Moreover, pharmacological TDO2 inhibition prevented behavioural deficits in APPSwe-PS1ΔE9 mice. Taken together, these data demonstrate broad effects of cyclooxygenase inhibition on multiple neuronal pathways that counteract the neurotoxic effects of early accumulating amyloid-β oligomers.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/aww117DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4939702PMC
July 2016

Nest building is impaired in the Ts65Dn mouse model of Down syndrome and rescued by blocking 5HT2a receptors.

Neurobiol Learn Mem 2014 Dec 29;116:162-71. Epub 2014 Oct 29.

Department of Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. Electronic address:

Down syndrome (DS) has an incidence of about 1/700 births, and is therefore the most common cause of cognitive and behavioral impairments in children. Recent studies on mouse models of DS indicate that a number of pharmacotherapies could be beneficial for restoring cognitive abilities in individuals with DS. Attention deficits that are present in DS account in part for learning and memory deficiencies yet have been scarcely studied in corresponding models. Investigations of this relevant group of behaviors is more difficult in mouse models because of the difficulty in homologizing mouse and human behaviors and because standard laboratory environments do not always elicit behaviors of interest. Here we characterize nest building as a goal-directed behavior that is seriously impaired in young Ts65Dn mice, a genetic model of DS. We believe this impairment may reflect in part attention deficits, and we investigate the physiological, genetic, and pharmacological factors influencing its expression. Nesting behavior in young Ts65Dn mice was severely impaired when the animals were placed in a novel environment. But this context-dependent impairment was transient and reversible. The genetic determinants of this deficiency are restricted to a ∼100 gene segment on the murine chromosome 16. Nest building behavior is a highly integrated phenotypic trait that relies in part on limbic circuitry and on the frontal cortex in relation to cognitive and attention processes. We show that both serotonin content and 5HT2a receptors are increased in the frontal cortex of Ts65Dn mice and that pharmacological blockage of 5HT2a receptors in Ts65Dn mice rescues their context dependent nest building impairment. We propose that the nest-building trait could represent a marker of attention related deficits in DS models and could be of value in designing pharmacotherapies for this specific aspect of DS. 5HT2a modulation may improve goal-directed behavior in DS.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nlm.2014.10.002DOI Listing
December 2014