Publications by authors named "Baskaralingam Vaseeharan"

122 Publications

Bio-Fabrication of Human Amniotic Membrane Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles and the Wet/Dry HAM Dressing Membrane for Wound Healing.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2021 28;9:695710. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Marine College, Shandong University, Weihai, China.

The preparation of unique wet and dry wound dressing products derived from unprocessed human amniotic membrane (UP-HAM) is described. The UP-HAM was decellularized, and the constituent proteins were cross-linked and stabilized before being trimmed and packed in sterile Nucril-coated laminated aluminium foil pouches with isopropyl alcohol to manufacture processed wet human amniotic membrane (PW-HAM). The dry type of PD-HAM was prepared by decellularizing the membrane, UV irradiating it, lyophilizing/freeze-drying it, sterilizing it, and storing it at room temperature. The UP-HAM consists of a translucent yellowish mass of flexible membranes with an average thickness of 42 μm. PW-HAM wound dressings that had been processed, decellularized, and dehydrated had a thinner average thickness of 30 μm and lacked nuclear-cellular structures. Following successful decellularization, discrete bundle of fibrous components in the stromal spongy layers, microvilli and reticular ridges were still evident on the surface of the processed HAM, possibly representing the location of the cells that had been removed by the decellularization process. Both wet and dry HAM wound dressings are durable, portable, have a shelf life of 3-5 years, and are available all year. A slice of HAM dressing costs 1.0 US$/cm. Automation and large-scale HAM membrane preparation, as well as storage and transportation of the dressings, can all help to establish advanced technologies, improve the efficiency of membrane production, and reduce costs. Successful treatment of wounds to the cornea of the eye was achieved with the application of the HAM wound dressings. The HAM protein analysis revealed 360 μg proteins per gram of tissue, divided into three main fractions with MWs of 100 kDa, 70 kDa, and 14 kDa, as well as seven minor proteins, with the 14 kDa protein displaying antibacterial properties against human pathogenic bacteria. A wide range of antibacterial activity was observed after treatment with 75 μg/ml zinc oxide nanoparticles derived from human amniotic membrane proteins (HAMP-ZnO NP), including dose-dependent biofilm inhibition and inhibition of Gram-positive (, and ) and Gram-negative bacteria (
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fbioe.2021.695710DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8355710PMC
July 2021

Comprehensive analysis of SARS-COV-2 drug targets and pharmacological aspects in treating the COVID-19.

Curr Mol Pharmacol 2021 Aug 11. Epub 2021 Aug 11.

Biomaterials and Biotechnology in Animal Health Lab, Department of Animal Health and Management, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630004, Tamil Nadu. India.

Corona viruses are enveloped, single-stranded RNA (Ribonucleic acid) viruses and they cause pandemic diseases having a devastating effect on both human healthcare and the global economy. To date, six corona viruses have been identified as pathogenic organisms which are significantly responsible for the infection and also cause severe respiratory diseases. Among them, the novel SARS-CoV-2 (Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) caused a major outbreak of corona virus diseases 2019 (COVID-19). Coronaviridae family members can affects both humans and animals. In human, corona viruses cause severe acute respiratory syndrome with mild to severe outcomes. Several structural and genomics have been investigated, and the genome encodes about 28 proteins most of them with unknown function though it shares remarkable sequence identity with other proteins. There is no potent and licensed vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 and several trials are underway to investigate the possible therapeutic agents against viral infection. However, some of the antiviral drugs that have been investigated against SARS-CoV-2 are under clinical trials. In the current review we comparatively emphasize the emergence and pathogenicity of the SARS-CoV-2 and their infection and discuss the various putative drug targets of both viral and host receptors for developing effective vaccines and therapeutic combinations to overcome the viral outbreak.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1874467214666210811120635DOI Listing
August 2021

Interactive effects of freshwater acidification and selenium pollution on biochemical changes and neurotoxicity in Oreochromis mossambicus.

Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 2021 Aug 8;250:109161. Epub 2021 Aug 8.

Biomaterials and Biotechnology in Animal Health Lab, Department of Animal Health and Management, Science Campus 6(th) Floor, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630004, Tamil Nadu, India. Electronic address:

Effect of selenium and acidification in freshwater environment was assessed solitary but no reports are available on the impacts of both factors act together. In the present study, effects of combined simultaneous exposure to selenium (Se) and low pH were assessed in Mozambique tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus. Responses were measured based on antioxidant defenses (enzymatic SOD, CAT, GPx and non-enzymatic GSH), biotransformation enzyme (GST), metallothionein levels (MT), oxidative damage (LPO, CP), Na/K-ATPase (NKA) activity in gills and liver tissues and neurotoxicity (acetylcholinesterase, AChE) response in brain tissue. Fish were exposed to combined treatment at different pH levels (7.5, control (optimum pH for tilapia growth); 5.5, low pH) and Se concentrations (0, 10, and 100 μg L). Toxicity levels of Se were not significantly different under control and low pH indicating that pH did not affect Se toxicity. Levels of GSH and MT were enhanced in Se-exposed fish at both pH. Combined effects of high Se concentration and low pH decreased SOD and CAT activities and increased those of GPx and GST. However, organisms were not able to prevent cellular damage (LPO and CP), indicating a condition of oxidative stress. Furthermore, inhibition of Na/K-ATPase activity was showed. Additionally, neurotoxicity effect was observed by inhibition of cholinesterase activity in organisms exposed to Se at both pH conditions. As a result, the combined stress of selenium and freshwater acidification has a slight impact on antioxidant defense mechanisms while significantly inhibiting cholinesterase and Na+/K + -ATPase activity in fish. The mechanisms of freshwater acidification mediating the toxic effects of trace non-metal element on freshwater fish need to investigate further.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpc.2021.109161DOI Listing
August 2021

Identification of a Chitooligosaccharide Mechanism against Bacterial Leaf Blight on Rice by In Vitro and In Silico Studies.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 27;22(15). Epub 2021 Jul 27.

School of Crop Production Technology, Institute of Agricultural Technology, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000, Thailand.

This study focuses on a commercial plant elicitor based on chitooligosaccharides (BIG), which aids in rice plant growth and disease resistance to bacterial leaf blight (BLB). When the pathogen () vigorously attacks rice that has suffered yield losses, it can cause damage in up to 20% of the plant. Furthermore, is a seed-borne pathogen that can survive in rice seeds for an extended period. In this study, when rice seeds were soaked and sprayed with BIG, there was a significant increase in shoot and root length, as well as plant biomass. Furthermore, BIG-treated rice plants showed a significant reduction in BLB severity of more than 33%. Synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared (SR-FTIR) analysis was used to characterize BIG's mechanism in the chemical structure of rice leaves. The SR-FTIR results at 1650, 1735, and 1114 cm indicated changes in biochemical components such as pectins, lignins, proteins, and celluloses. These findings demonstrated that commercial BIG not only increased rice growth but also induced resistance to BLB. The drug's target enzyme, 1075 from (PDB ID: 5CY8), was analyzed for its interactions with polymer ingredients, specifically chitooligosaccharides, to gain molecular insights down to the atomic level. The results are intriguing, with a strong binding of the chitooligosaccharide polymer with the drug target, revealing 10 hydrogen bonds between the protein and polymer. Overall, the computational analysis supported the experimentally demonstrated strong binding of chitooligosaccharides to the drug target.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22157990DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8347687PMC
July 2021

Purification and partial characterization of carbohydrate-recognition protein C-type lectin from Hemifusus pugilinus.

Carbohydr Res 2021 Jan 30;499:108224. Epub 2020 Dec 30.

Department of Animal Health and Management, Alagappa University, Karaikudi, 630 003, Tamil Nadu, India. Electronic address:

A mannose binding lectin (C-type lectin) was detected in a molluscan snail Hemifusus pugilinus, this lectin molecule was isolated and purified from the plasma using mannose-fixed sepharose CL-4B column affinity chromatography. The purified protein corresponds to the molecular weight of 118 kDa on an SDS-PAGE gel. The divalent cation-dependent nature of the H. pugilinus lectin (Hp-Lec) evidenced through pH and thermal stability analysis using Circular Dichroism (CD) and Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) respectively. Functional investigations of the Hp-Lec reveal a broad spectrum of bacterial agglutination activity against wide range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains. Furthermore, Hp-Lec displayed the haemo agglutination activity against vertebrate red blood cells (RBCs) and its titers were recorded. Excitingly, microbial virulent pathogens such as fungal strains tested against the purified Hp-Lec (25 and 50 μg/ml), which exhibits the effective antifungal activity against tested fungal pathogens such as Aspergillus niger and A. flavus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carres.2020.108224DOI Listing
January 2021

Photocatalytic, antiproliferative and antimicrobial properties of copper nanoparticles synthesized using Manilkara zapota leaf extract: A photodynamic approach.

Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther 2020 Dec 13;32:102058. Epub 2020 Oct 13.

Department of Animal Health and Management, Alagappa University, Science Block, 6th Floor, Burma Colony, Karaikudi, 630 004, Tamil Nadu, India. Electronic address:

Copper nanoparticles were synthesized using Manilkara zapota leaf extract. The synthesis of the nanoparticle was primarily visualized when the colour of the reaction mixture turned into reddish-brown. Biosynthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis, FT-IR, XRD, SEM and EDX. The UV spectra showed maximum absorption at 584 nm. FT-IR studies showed stretching frequency at 592.76 cm which is the fingerprint region for Cu-O bond. The crystallinity of the synthesized copper nanoparticles (Mz-Cu NPs) was revealed through XRD analysis. The synthesized Mz-Cu NPs were spherical with an average size of 18.9-42.5 nm and it was shown by SEM analysis. EDX analysis displayed that the nano sample contains 58 % of copper. The antimicrobial property of the synthesized nanoparticles was evaluated against fungal plant pathogens Rhizoctonia solani (MTCC 12232), Sclerotium oryzae (MTCC 12230) and bacterial species, namely Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 23857), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Vibrio harveyi (ATCC 35084), Vibrio parahaemolyticus (ATCC 33845). In in-vitro haemolytic assay, the particle showed 5.73, 3.34, 0.5 % hemolysis at 100, 50, 25 μg/mL concentration respectively. In the antiproliferative assay, the IC values of MCF7 and Vero cells were found to be 53.89 and 883.69 μg/μl. The particle degraded Methyl violet, Malachite green and Coomassie brilliant blue by 92.2, 94.9 and 78.8 %, within 50, 40 and 60 min, respectively, through its photocatalytic activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pdpdt.2020.102058DOI Listing
December 2020

Antibiofilm and immunological properties of lectin purified from shrimp Penaeus semisulcatus.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2020 Nov 31;106:776-782. Epub 2020 Jul 31.

Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Biology, 7491, Trondheim, Norway.

Penaeid prawns are considered as most demanding fishery resources. The current study aims to purify and characterize lectin from the haemolymph of Penaeus semisulcatus. The semisulcatus-lectin was purified by affinity chromatography using mannose coupled Sepharose CL-4B column and purified lectin exhibited a single band of 66 kDa in SDS-PAGE. The purity and crystalline structure of purified lectin was confirmed by HPLC and X-ray diffraction analysis. Semisulcatus-lectin exhibited yeast agglutination activity against Saccharomyces cerevisiae and agglutinated human erythrocytes. Semisulcatus-lectin was evaluated for phenol oxidase activation and phagocytic activities. It was observed that semisulcatus-lectin had antibacterial activity against Gram-negative Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Aeromonas hydrophila, suggesting a potential therapeutic strategy in aquaculture industry for disease management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2020.07.053DOI Listing
November 2020

Immunological and antibiofilm property of haemocyanin purified from grooved tiger shrimp (Penaeus semisulcatus): An in vitro and in silico approach.

Microb Pathog 2020 Oct 25;147:104253. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Crustacean Molecular Biology and Genomics Division, Biomaterials and Biotechnology in Animal Health Lab, Department of Animal Health and Management, Alagappa University, Karaikudi, 630 004, Tamil Nadu, India. Electronic address:

Haemocyanin (Hc) is a non-specific innate immune protein present in the haemolymph of arthropods and molluscs. In the current study, we characterized the structural and immunological properties of Hc from grooved tiger shrimp, Penaeus semisulcatus. Hc was isolated from the haemolymph of P. semisulcatus by gel filtration column chromatography using Sephadex G-100. High-performance liquid chromatography of the purified Hc emerged as a single peak through a retention time of 3.3 min demonstrating the homogeneity nature of the protein. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed a distinct peak at 31.7° indicating the crystalline character of the purified Hc. Circular dichroism spectra of the purified Hc displayed negative ellipticity bands close to 225 nm and 208 nm representing β-sheet secondary structure. The purified Hc agglutinated sheep RBCs, yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and fungal Candida albicans. In addition, the purified Hc displayed antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus pumilis) and Gram-negative bacteria (Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio alginolyticus) with a minimal inhibitory concentration of 50 μg/ml. Antibiofilm activity revealed the potential of purified Hc to inhibit biofilm formation of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. Furthermore, live/dead staining of biofilms demonstrated the reduced viability of bacterial cells after exposure to the purified Hc. In silico molecular modeling was carried out using the sequence of Hc from SwissProt and molecular docking was performed with the cell surface components found in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Overall our study demonstrates the involvement of Hc in the native immune reaction of P. semisulcatus by eliciting pathogen recognition. Thus, Hc could enhance disease resistance against pathogenic infection in shrimp aquaculture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2020.104253DOI Listing
October 2020

South Indian medicinal plants can combat deadly viruses along with COVID-19? - A review.

Microb Pathog 2020 Nov 28;148:104277. Epub 2020 May 28.

Bio & NanoMaterials Lab| Drug Delivery and Controlled Release, Universidad de Talca, Talca, 3460000, Maule, Chile; Departamento de Microbiología, Facultad de Ciencias de La Salud, Universidad de Talca, Talca, 3460000, Maule, Chile. Electronic address:

SARS-CoV-2 is a causative agent of Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), which is considered as a fatal disease for public health apprehension worldwide. This pathogenic virus can present everywhere. As it is a virus it can extend easily and cause severe illness to humans. Hence, an efficient international attentiveness of plan is necessary to cure and prevent. In this review, epidemic outbreak, clinical findings, prevention recommendations of COVID-19 and suggestive medicinal value of south Indian plant sources have been discussed. Though the varieties of improved approaches have been taken in scientific and medicinal concern, we have to pay attention to the medicinal value of the plant-based sources to prevent these types of pandemic diseases. This is one of the suggestive and effective ways to control the spreading of viruses. In the future, it is required to provide medicinal plant-based clinical products (Masks, sanitizers, soap, etc.,) with better techniques by clinicians to contend the scarcity and expose towards the nature-based medicine rather than chemical drugs. This may be a benchmark for the economical clinical trials of specific plant material to treat the viral diseases in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2020.104277DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7253980PMC
November 2020

High synergistic antibacterial, antibiofilm, antidiabetic and antimetabolic activity of Withania somnifera leaf extract-assisted zinc oxide nanoparticle.

Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 2020 Sep 16;43(9):1533-1547. Epub 2020 Apr 16.

Department of Zoology, Government Arts College, Melur, Madurai District, Tamil Nadu, 625 106, India.

Nanotechnology is currently gaining immense attention to combat food borne bacteria, and biofilm. Diabetes is a common metabolic disease affecting majority of people. A better therapy relies on phytomediated nanoparticle synthesis. In this study, W. somnifera leaf extract-assisted ZnO NPs (Ws-ZnO NPs) was synthesized and characterized. From HR-TEM analysis, it has been found that the hexagonal wurtzite particle is 15.6 nm in size and - 12.14 mV of zeta potential. A greater antibacterial effect of Ws-ZnO NPs was noticed against E. faecalis and S. aureus at 100 µg mL. Also, the biofilm of E. faecalis and S. aureus was greatly inhibited at 100 µg mL compared to E. coli and P. aeruginosa. The activity of α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzyme was inhibited at 100 µg mL demonstrating its antidiabetic potential. The larval and pupal development was delayed at 25 µg mL of Ws-ZnO NPs. A complete mortality (100%) was recorded at 25 µg mL. Ws-ZnO NPs showed least LC value (9.65 µg mL) compared to the uncoated ZnO NPs (38.8 µg mL) and leaf extract (13.06 µg mL). Therefore, it is concluded that Ws-ZnO NPs are promising to be used as effective antimicrobials, antidiabetic and insecticides to combat storage pests.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00449-020-02346-0DOI Listing
September 2020

Morphological and functional characterization of circulating hemocytes using microscopy techniques.

Microsc Res Tech 2020 Jul 28;83(7):736-743. Epub 2020 Feb 28.

Department of Animal Health and Management, Alagappa University, Karaikudi, Tamil Nadu, India.

In the present study, Microscopy studies were performed to characterize the blood cells of the mangrove crab Episesarma tetragonum. Three types of hemocytes were observed: granulocytes, semi-granulocytes, and hyalinocytes or agranulocytes. Hyalinocytes have a distinguished nucleus surrounded by the cytoplasm, and a peculiar cell type was present throughout the cytosol, lysosomes with hemocyte types (granules) stained red (pink). Giemsa staining was used to differentiate between the large and small hemocytes. Ehrlich's staining was used to differentiate granule-containing cells in acidophils (55%), basophils (44%), and neutrophils (<1%). Periodic acid-Schiff staining was used to identify the sugar molecules in the cytoplasm. Cell-mediated immune reactions including phagocytosis, encapsulation, agglutination, and peroxidase-mediated cell adhesion are the functions of hemocytes. Agglutination reaction involves both kind of cells involved in yeast and heme-agglutination responses in invertebrates. The beta glucan outer layer of yeast cells was recognized by hemocyte receptors. Human RBC cells were agglutinated via granulocytes. E. tetragonum hemocytes are an important animal model for studying both ultrastructural and functional activity of circulating cells. In addition, E. tetragonum hemocytes exhibited excellent antibacterial and antibiofilm activities were studied through plating and microplate assays. Biofilm inhibition was also visualized through changes in biochemical assays and morphological variations were visualized through levels in in situ microscopy analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jemt.23463DOI Listing
July 2020

Antibiofilm and anticancer potential of β-glucan-binding protein-encrusted zinc oxide nanoparticles.

Microb Pathog 2020 Apr 24;141:103992. Epub 2020 Jan 24.

Biomaterials and Biotechnology in Animal Health Lab, Nanobiosciences and Nanopharmacology Division, Department of Animal Health and Management, Alagappa University, Karaikudi, 630004, Tamil Nadu, India. Electronic address:

β-Glucan-binding protein (βGBP) is important for the rational expansion of molecular biology. Here, zinc oxide nanoparticle (ZnONP) was synthesized using βGBP from the crab Scylla serrata (Ss-βGBP-ZnONP). Ss-βGBP-ZnONP was observed as a 100 kDa band on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel and characterized with UV-vis spectroscopy at 350 nm. X-ray diffraction analysis displayed values consistent with those for zincite. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed the presence of functional groups, including amide, alcohol, alkane, alkyl halide, and alkene groups. The zeta potential (-5.36 mV) of these particles indicated their stability, and transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of 50 nm nanocones. Ss-βGBP-ZnONPs were tested at 100 μg/mL against the gram-positive Enterococcus faecalis and gram-negative Pseudomanas aeruginosa using confocal laser scanning microscopy and the bacterial viability assay was also performed. The growth of MCF7 breast cancer cells was inhibited following treatment with 75 μg/mL Ss-βGBP-ZnONPs. Thus, Ss-βGBP-ZnONPs have the ability to control the growth of pathogenic bacteria and inhibit the viability of MCF7 breast cancer cell lines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2020.103992DOI Listing
April 2020

Isolation of β-glucan from Eleusine coracana and its antibiofilm, antidiabetic, antioxidant, and biocompatible activities.

Microb Pathog 2020 Mar 30;140:103955. Epub 2019 Dec 30.

Biomaterials and Biotechnology in Animal Health Lab, Nanobiosciences and Nanopharmacology Division, Department of Animal Health and Management, Alagappa University, Karaikudi, 630004, Tamil Nadu, India. Electronic address:

Eleusine coracana (Finger millet) has high nutritional value with numerous health benefits and is of low cost. Isolation of beta-glucan (βG) from E. coracana (Ec-βG) has gained increasing research attention. UV-vis spectroscopy used to measure the surface plasmon resonance at 361 nm to confirm the presence of polysaccharides (glucan molecules) in Ec-βG. X-ray diffraction analysis of Ec-βG displayed a crystalline nature and confirmed the presence of the βG molecule. Further, the bioactive compounds of Ec-βG were screened using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The antibacterial activity of Ec-βG against both Gram-positive (Lysinibacillus fusiformis, Enterococcus faecalis) and Gram-negative (Proteus vulgaris, Shigella sonnei) bacteria were assessed through minimum inhibitory concentrations <70 μg/ml of Ec-βG. In addition, the antibiofilm activity and bacterial viability of Ec-βG at 100 μg/ml was confirmed by light and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Furthermore, Ec-βG inhibits α-amylase and α-glucosidase at an IC -value of 1.23 and 1.42 μg/ml, respectively. Superoxide anion scavenging activity at IC-1.4 μg/ml and DPPH radical scavenging activity at IC1.2 μg/ml showed that Ec-βG had potential antioxidant property. The in vitro hemolysis assay for biocompatibility of Ec-βG at 200 μg/ml showed 0.06 ± 0.09%. Therefore, Ec-βG has the potential to act as a suggestive agent for antibacterial, antidiabetic, and antioxidant activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2019.103955DOI Listing
March 2020

Purification of WAP domain-containing antimicrobial peptides from green tiger shrimp Peaneaus semisulcatus.

Microb Pathog 2020 Mar 13;140:103920. Epub 2019 Dec 13.

Department of Animal Health and Management, Alagappa University, Karaikudi, 630 004, Tamil Nadu, India. Electronic address:

Antimicrobial peptide crustin was isolated and purified from Penaeus semisulcatus using Sephadox G-100 column gel filtration chromatography. P. semisulcatus crustins was observed as a single band with 14 kDa of molecular weight on SDS-PAGE and the retention time of 46 min in RP-HPLC. Circular dichroism spectra of P. semisulcatus crustin showed alpha helices in its secondary structure followed by random coils. Crystalline nature and functional groups arrangement were investigated by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy (FTIR). P. semisulcatus crustin showed the effective antibacterial activity against Gram positive strains B. thuringienisis (4 μg/ml) and B. pumilis (6 μg/ml) when compare to Gram negative strains. Biofilm Inhibitory Concentration (BIC) were determined for these strains and percentage of biofilm inhibition was confirmed and visualized through in sit microscopic analysis. Hence, we reported the effect of crustin on biofilm inhibition and eradication at low concentrations by using crystal violet staining and confocal microscopic observations. In addition, haemolytic activity of this purified crustin also analysed using human RBCs. The results of this study, suggests that this bio peptide crustin is a potential and promising therapeutic agent to treat drug resistant bacteria and biofilm-related infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2019.103920DOI Listing
March 2020

β-glucan extracted from eukaryotic single-celled microorganism Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Dietary supplementation and enhanced ammonia stress tolerance on Oreochromis mossambicus.

Microb Pathog 2020 Feb 10;139:103917. Epub 2019 Dec 10.

Biomaterials and Biotechnology in Animal Health Lab, Nanobiosciences and Nanopharmacology Division, Department of Animal Health and Management, Alagappa University, Karaikudi, 630004, Tamil Nadu, India. Electronic address:

Ammonia is a widespread pollutant that is toxic to living organisms in aquaculture. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a diet supplemented with beta-glucan from yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Sc-βG), on the stress response of Oreochromis mossambicus (Tilapia) to ammonia. Fish were divided into four groups, including a control fed a basal diet and three experimental groups fed diets supplemented with Sc-βG at 2, 5 and 10 mg/g respectively. After 8 weeks, experimental groups were exposed to ammonia at 100 mg L for 1 week. Growth was measured after the 8-week feeding trial and serum, mucus, and liver tissue were sampled before and after the ammonia challenge. Compared with the control diet, feed supplemented with Sc-βG at 10 mg/g significantly (p < 0.05) improved growth performance (7.8-9.9 g increase in weight). The cellular immune responses (myeloperoxidase, reactive oxygen species, and reactive nitrogen species), humoral immune responses (alkaline phosphatase, lysozyme, and peroxidase inhibition), and antioxidant response (catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione) were tested in serum, mucus and liver tissue. Compared with the control, these responses were significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced at 10 mg/g supplementation with Sc-βG. This study demonstrates that Sc-βG may be applied to induce stress tolerance and improve growth performance in aquaculture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2019.103917DOI Listing
February 2020

Biopolymer K-carrageenan wrapped ZnO nanoparticles as drug delivery vehicles for anti MRSA therapy.

Int J Biol Macromol 2020 Feb 7;144:9-18. Epub 2019 Dec 7.

Natural Product Biomedical Technology Laboratory, Department of Medical Biotechnology, College of Biomedical Sciences, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Gangwon-do 24341, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Kappa-Carrageenan wrapped ZnO nanoparticles (KC-ZnO NPs) was synthesized, physico-chemically characterized and evaluated their biocompatibility and antimicrobial therapy against MRSA. XRD showed the highly crystalline and hexagonal phase structure of ZnO NPs. FETEM confirmed the spherical and hexagonal shaped particle with the mean size of 97.03 ± 9.05 nm. The synthesized KC-ZnO NPs exhibited significant antibacterial activity against MRSA. The biofilm growth of MRSA was greatly inhibited at 100 μg/ml as observed through live and dead cell assay. KC-ZnO NPs have shown invitro anti-inflammatory activity (82%) at 500 μg/ml. KC-ZnO NPs was non-toxic to NIH3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts cell lines. Further, no apoptotic and necrotic mediated death in NIH3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts cells were noticed by flow cytometric analysis. KC-ZnO NPs have good biocompatibility as recorded by the least hemolysis percentage (<3%) up to 100 μg/ml, which is much lesser than the acceptable limit. In addition, ecosafety analysis has shown that KC-ZnO NPs and kappa karrageenan (0-500 μg/ml) caused no mortality of A. salina after 48 h. However, bare zinc acetate has shown 35% mortality of A. salina after 48 h. The results conclude that KC-ZnO NPs could be a novel antibacterial therapy for the treatment of MRSA associated infectious.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.12.030DOI Listing
February 2020

Anti-biofilm properties and immunological response of an immune molecule lectin isolated from shrimp Metapenaeus monoceros.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2019 Nov 15;94:896-906. Epub 2019 Sep 15.

Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Biology, 7491, Trondheim, Norway.

The study is carried out to understand the antimicrobial and immunological response of a potential immune molecule lectin, MmLec isolated from haemolymph of Speckled shrimp, Metapenaeus monoceros. MmLec was purified using mannose coupled Sepharose CL-4B affinity chromatography, which was further subjected on SDS-PAGE to ascertain the distribution of their molecular weight. Sugar binding specificity assay was conducted at various pH and temperatures to investigate the binding affinity of MmLec towards the specific carbohydrate molecule. Functional analysis of immune molecule MmLec included haemagglutination assays performed using human erythrocytes and yeast agglutination activity against Saccharomyces cerevisiae which, were analyzed using light microscopy. In order to study the antimicrobial activity, two Gram-negative (Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Aeromonas hydrophila) and two Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis) bacteria were treated with purified MmLec. Moreover, these bacterial species were also treated at different concentration of the MmLec to speculate the antibiofilm properties of MmLec which was analyzed under Light Microscopy and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy. In addition, other functional characterization of MmLec showed the uniqueness of MmLec in agglutination of human erythrocyte as well as the cells of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Also, the phenoloxidase activity and encapsulation assay was evaluated. MTT assay displayed that MmLec are potent in anticancer activity. The study will help to understand the immunological interference and antimicrobial nature of MmLec which would be supportive in establishing a potential therapeutic tool and to develop better and novel disease control strategies in shrimp and farmed aquaculture industries as well as in health management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2019.09.032DOI Listing
November 2019

Synthesis and characterization of crustin capped titanium dioxide nanoparticles: Photocatalytic, antibacterial, antifungal and insecticidal activities.

J Photochem Photobiol B 2019 Oct 3;199:111620. Epub 2019 Sep 3.

Biomaterials and Biotechnology in Animal Health Lab, Nanobiosciences and Nanopharmacology Division, Department of Animal Health and Management, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630004, Tamil Nadu, India. Electronic address:

Current scenario of bio-nanotechnology, successfully fabrication of ultrafine titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiONPs) using various biological protein sources for the multipurpose targets. The present research report involves synthesis of TiONPs using antimicrobial peptide (AMP) crustin (Cr). Crustin previously purified from the blue crab, Portunus pelagicus haemolymph, by blue Sepharose CL-6B matrix assisted affinity column chromatography. Synthesized Cr-TiONPs was physico-chemically characterized by UV-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Visible), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and zeta potential examination. X-ray diffraction analysis for crystalline nature and phase identification of titanium dioxide nanoparticles was absorbed. Functional groups were found through FTIR ranges between 1620 and 1700 cm. HR-TEM analysis showed that the synthesized Cr-TiONPs tetragonal shape and sizes ranging from 10 to 50 nm. Finally, the surface charge of the Cr-TiONPs was confirmed through zeta potential analysis. Furthermore, the characterized Cr-TiONPs exhibited good biofilm inhibition against GPB - S. mutans (Gram Positive Bacteria- Streptococcus mutans), GNB - P. vulgaris (Gram Negative Bacteria- Proteus vulgaris) and fungal Candida albicans. Moreover, photocatalysis demonstrated that the Cr-TiONPs was effectively explored the degradation of dyes. The results suggest that Cr-TiONPs is an excellent bactericidal, fungicidal and photocatalytic agent that can be supportively used for biomedical and industrial applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2019.111620DOI Listing
October 2019

Facile synthesis of haemocyanin-capped zinc oxide nanoparticles: Effect on growth performance, digestive-enzyme activity, and immune responses of Penaeus semisulcatus.

Int J Biol Macromol 2019 Oct 31;139:688-696. Epub 2019 Jul 31.

Crustacean Molecular Biology and Genomics Division, Biomaterials and Biotechnology in Animal Health Lab, Department of Animal Health and Management, Alagappa University, Science Block, 6(th) floor, Burma Colony, Karaikudi 630 004, Tamil Nadu, India. Electronic address:

ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) synthesized using haemocyanin (Hc-ZnONPs) purified from haemolymph of Penaeus semisulcatus were characterized using various techniques. HR-TEM and SEM microscopy indicated Hc-ZnONPs had a typical size of 20-50 nm and were spherical. The objective of current investigation was to assess the effects of dietary supplementation of Hc-ZnONPs on the development and activity of digestive and metabolic enzymes, as well as the antioxidant levels in P. semisulcatus. Trial basal diets were supplemented with Hc-ZnONPs at rates of 0, 10, 20, 40, 60, and 80 mg kg (dry feed weight) and were fed to P. semisulcatus for 30 d. For 60 mg kg Hc-ZnONPs-supplemented feed, significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced endurance, development, and activity of the digestive enzyme were observed. The enzymatic antioxidants and metabolic enzymes activities in the muscle exhibited no significant changes when 10-60 mg kg Hc-ZnONPs-supplemented feed was fed to P. semisulcatus. Conversely, feeding the P. semisulcatus with 80 mg kg Hc-ZnONPs produced a harmful outcome, with significant increase in the enzymatic antioxidants and metabolic enzymes. Consequently, 80 mg kg Hc-ZnONPs was identified as lethal to P. semisulcatus. Hence, it is proposed that the diet of P. semisulcatus can be supplemented with up to 60 mg kg Hc-ZnONPs for improving the endurance, development and immunity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.07.216DOI Listing
October 2019

Anti-cancer, anti-biofilm, and anti-inflammatory properties of hen's albumen: A photodynamic approach.

Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther 2019 Dec 30;28:1-7. Epub 2019 Jul 30.

Biomaterials and Biotechnology in Animal Health Lab., Department of Animal Health and Management, Alagappa University, Science Campus 6(th)Floor, Karaikudi 630004, Tamil Nadu, India. Electronic address:

The albumen plays a major role in the protection of eggs against microorganisms. It contains an arsenal of natural antimicrobial molecules and antibacterial proteins, including the well-known ovotransferrin and lysozyme, which exert their activities against a range of bacteria. In the present study, the hen's albumen extract treated with the dried insect body of blister beetle M. pustulata was assessed for antibacterial, antibiofilm, anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activity. The zone of inhibition against Gram positive E. faecalis and S. aureus was 10.8 mm and 12.1 mm respectively at 100 μg mL. However, it was 13.6 mm and 15.3 mm for Gram negative P. aeruginosa and P. vulgaris respectively. The biofilm of tested bacteria was significantly inhibited at 100 μg mL. The hydrophobicity of bacterial biofilms was considerably condensed after treatment with the hen's albumen extracts at 100 μg mL. The anti-inflammatory activity of hen's albumen extracts was confirmed by the inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzyme to 84.91% at 100 μg mL with the relative IC of 8.26 μg mL. The albumen extract effectively inhibited the viability (23.61%) of HepG2 hepatic cancer cells at 100 μg mL. The anti-proliferative activity of the albumen extracts was further revealed by the induction of HepG2 apoptotic cell morphology. This study concludes that the hen's albumen extract treated with M. pustulata is a natural therapeutic agent to treat biofilm associated clinical bacteria, inflammations and human hepatic cancer cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pdpdt.2019.07.026DOI Listing
December 2019

Garlic clove extract assisted silver nanoparticle - Antibacterial, antibiofilm, antihelminthic, anti-inflammatory, anticancer and ecotoxicity assessment.

J Photochem Photobiol B 2019 Sep 17;198:111558. Epub 2019 Jul 17.

Nanobiosciences and Nanopharmacology Division, Biomaterials and Biotechnology in Animal Health Lab, Department of Animal Health and Management, Science campus 6th floor, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630004, Tamil Nadu, India. Electronic address:

Facile and low cost garlic clove extract based silver nanoparticles was synthesized and its broad spectrum of therapeutic activity including antibiofilm, antiparasitic and anti-breast cancer activity was evaluated. The synthesized garlic‑silver nanoparticles (G-AgNPs) were characterized by various physico-chemical techniques. G-AgNPs showed good optical property, highly crystalline nature, spherical shape and uniformly dispersed with size measuring between 10 and 50 nm. G-AgNPs have shown greater anti-bacterial and antibiofilm activity on clinically important pathogens methicillin-resistant S. aureus and P. aerigunosa at 100 μg ml. The efficacy of G-AgNPs against earthworm evidenced its effectiveness as anti-helminthic agent in treating intestinal parasites. The significant inhibition of BSA protein denaturation proves its anti-inflammatory property. In addition, G-AgNPs have shown remarkable anticancer effect and significantly inhibited the human breast cancer cell (MCF-7) viability at 100 μg ml after 24 h. A noticeable change in the morphology of MCF-7 cells was also noticed. G-AgNPs were non-toxic to human HEK293 embryonic cells. Also, the non-toxic nature of G-AgNPs to C. cornuta and no morphological, physiological changes proved its safety to the environment. It is concluded that G-AgNPs have a broad range of biological applications and it can be used as an eco-friendly material without having negative effects in the environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2019.111558DOI Listing
September 2019

In vitro and in vivo toxicity assessment of selenium nanoparticles with significant larvicidal and bacteriostatic properties.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2019 Oct 17;103:109763. Epub 2019 May 17.

Biomaterials and Biotechnology in Animal Health Lab, Department of Animal Health and Management, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630004, Tamil Nadu, India. Electronic address:

In the present study, we investigated the larvicidal and bacteriostatic activity of biosynthesized selenium nanoparticles using aqueous berry extract of Murraya koenigii (Mk-Se NPs). The synthesized Mk-Se NPs were characterized using UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. XRD analysis revealed the crystalline nature of Mk-Se NPs as hexagonal. The FTIR spectra of Mk-Se NPs exhibited a strong peak at 3441 cm corresponding to the OH group. SEM and TEM analysis showed that the Mk-Se NPs were spherical in shape with a size between 50 and 150 nm. EDX peaks confirm the presence of 73.38% of selenium and 26.62% of oxide in Mk-Se NPs. Mk-Se NPs showed significant larvicidal property against the 4th instar larvae of a dengue fever-causing vector Aedes aegypti with LC - 3.54 μg mL and LC - 8.128 μg mL values. Mk-Se NPs displayed anti-bacterial activity against Gram-positive (Enterococcus faecalis &Streptococcus mutans) and Gram-negative (Shigella sonnei &Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria at 40 and 50 μg mL. In addition, Mk-Se NPs reduced bacterial biofilm thickness extensively at 25 μg mL. The high antioxidant property at 50 μg mL and low hemolysis activity till 100 μg mL proved the biocompatible nature of Mk-Se NPs. In vitro and in vivo toxicity assessment of Mk-Se NPs showed low cytotoxicity against RAW 264.7 macrophages and Artemia nauplii. Together, our results suggest the potential application of Mk-Se NPs as a nano-biomedicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2019.109763DOI Listing
October 2019

Chronic exposure of Oreochromis niloticus to sub-lethal copper concentrations: Effects on growth, antioxidant, non-enzymatic antioxidant, oxidative stress and non-specific immune responses.

J Trace Elem Med Biol 2019 Sep 27;55:170-179. Epub 2019 Jun 27.

Biomaterials and Biotechnology in Animal Health Lab, Department of Animal Health and Management, Alagappa University, Karaikudi, 630004, Tamil Nadu, India. Electronic address:

Background: Trace elements of copper (Cu) are one of the main forms of ecological noxious waste in freshwater systems that affect the survival and development of organisms. The objective of the current study was to investigate the effects of chronic exposure to Cu on the growth, oxidative stress, immune and biochemical response in the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus.

Methods: Three groups of O. niloticus were tested as follows; the first group was used as the control (not treated with Cu in water), while the 2nd and 3rd groups were exposed to (low) 40 μg L and (high) 400 μg L concentrations of Cu added to water, respectively. The duration of the experiment, which was conducted in triplicate, was 60 d. End points were evaluated on days 30 and 60. Following 30 d and 60 d of exposure to Cu, the fish were removed from experimental tanks to determine growth. Consequently, blood samples were collected from caudal veins at the end of the trial period (30 d and 60 d) and serum was separated to evaluate different immunological parameters, such as lysozymes (LYZ), respiratory burst activity (RBA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO). Gill and liver tissues were collected for evaluation of Cu and certain biochemical parameters as follows: antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST); non-enzymatic antioxidants such as glutathione (GSH) and metallothionein (MT), and oxidative stress indicators such as malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl (PCO). The results pertaining to treatments and the control were compared using two-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD test. The level of significance was set at P ≤ 0.05. Data were expressed as mean ± SD.

Results: Chronic exposure to Cu did not induce any mortality in fish during the test period. However, following exposure to Cu, growth of fish in the exposed groups was affected more than that in the control group (unexposed to Cu). In addition, accumulation of Cu in the liver tissue was higher than that in the gill tissues of fish exposed to Cu, compared to that in the control. Gill and liver tissues of Cu-exposed fish showed a significant (P ≤ 0.05) reduction in the activities of the antioxidant enzymes, SOD, CAT, GPx, and GST, compared to those of unexposed fish. Non-enzymatic antioxidants, GSH and MT, in gill and liver tissues were significantly increased (P ≤ 0.05) in fish exposed to both concentrations of Cu, compared to those in unexposed fish. Oxidative stress indicators, MDA and PCO in gills and liver of Cu-exposed fish was significantly (P ≤ 0.05) at both tested concentrations, when compared to control group. Non-specific immune response of LYZ, RBA, and MPO activity in serum decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) in Cu-exposed fish, compared with that of unexposed fish.

Conclusion: Overall, the present results highlighted that chronic exposure to Cu ions may exert a strong effect on the antioxidant and immune responses of O. niloticus. Changes in antioxidant enzymes, oxidative stress effects and immune parameters during post-chronic metal exposure may indicate the potential of these parameters as biomarkers of metal toxicity in aquatic ecosystems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtemb.2019.06.011DOI Listing
September 2019

Protective activity of beta-1, 3-glucan binding protein against AAPH induced oxidative stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Int J Biol Macromol 2019 Oct 22;138:890-902. Epub 2019 Jul 22.

Crustacean Molecular Biology and Genomics Division, Biomaterials and Biotechnology in Animal Health Lab, Department of Animal Health and Management, Alagappa University, Science Block, 6(th) Floor, Burma Colony, Karaikudi 630004,Tamil Nadu, India. Electronic address:

The present work aimed to evaluate the antioxidant efficacy of beta-1,3-glucan binding/recognition protein against oxidative stress-induced Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Beta-1,3-glucan binding/recognition protein was attained from the Paratelphusa hydrodromus (Phβ-GBP) using laminarin coupled Sepharose CL-6B column. The structural characteristics of Phβ-GBP were analyzed through circular dichroism (CD), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H NMR) analysis. CD spectrum showed the occurrence of α-helix (4.5%), β-sheets (23.6%), β-turn (17.2%) and random coils (54.8%). FTIR confirms the occurrence of amide and aromatic compounds whereas H NMR predicts the secondary structures and presence of amino acids in the Phβ-GBP. In vitro radical scavenging analysis disclose that Phβ-GBP has the potential to scavenge DPPH (73%), peroxyl radicals (81%) and hydrogen peroxide (56%) at 100μg/ml concentration. Reactive oxygen species production, lipid peroxidation, cell death, and DNA damage were decreased in the Phβ-GBP pretreated S. cerevisiae. In silico protein-protein interaction was performed between the β-GBP-glutathione reductase and β-GBP-catalase A. The interaction study reveals that glutathione reductase and catalase A interacts with β-GBP to reduce the oxidized glutathione and remove free radicals. This finding demonstrates that Phβ-GBP may act as a good antioxidant which protects from human pathologies linked with oxidative stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.07.130DOI Listing
October 2019

Synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles using insulin-rich leaf extract: Anti-diabetic, antibiofilm and anti-oxidant properties.

J Photochem Photobiol B 2019 Aug 25;197:111541. Epub 2019 Jun 25.

Biomaterials and Biotechnology in Animal Health Lab, Department of Animal Health and Management, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630004, Tamil Nadu, India. Electronic address:

Here, we report the novel fabrication of ZnO nanoparticles using the Costus igneus leaf extract. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (H NMR) spectroscopy to determine the bioactive components present in the plant extract. The synthesis of Ci-ZnO NPs (C. igneus- coated zinc oxide nanoparticles) was accomplished using a cost-effective and simple technique. Ci-ZnO NPs were specified using UV-visible spectroscopy, FTIR, XRD, and TEM. Ci-ZnO NPs was authenticated by UV-Vis and exhibited a peak at 365 nm. The XRD spectra proved the crystalline character of the Ci-ZnO NPs synthesized as hexagonal wurtzite. The FTIR spectrum illustrated the presence of possible functional groups present in Ci-ZnO NPs. The TEM micrograph showed evidence of the presence of a hexagonal organization with a size of 26.55 nm typical of Ci-ZnO NPs. The α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition assays demonstrated antidiabetic activity of Ci-ZnO NPs (74 % and 82 %, respectively), and the DPPH [2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate] assay demonstrated the antioxidant activity of the nanoparticles (75%) at a concentration of 100 μg/ml. The Ci-ZnO NPs exhibited promising antibacterial and biofilm inhibition activity against the pathogenic bacteria Streptococcus mutans, Lysinibacillus fusiformis, Proteus vulgaris, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Additionally, the Ci-ZnO NPs showed biocompatibility with mammalian RBCs with minimum hemolytic activity (0.633 % ± 0.005 %) at a concentration of 200 μg/ml.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2019.111541DOI Listing
August 2019

In-vitro dissolution and microbial inhibition studies on anticancer drug etoposide with β-cyclodextrin.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2019 Sep 13;102:96-105. Epub 2019 Apr 13.

Department of Industrial Chemistry, School of chemical Sciences, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630003, Tami Nadu, India. Electronic address:

In this article, we have reported the inclusion complex behaviors and their pharmaceutical application of anticancer drug property of Etoposide with β-cyclodextrin. The inclusion complex is used to improve the poor aqueous solubility of the anticancer drug Etoposide. The aqueous solubility and in-vitro dissolution studies support to the anticancer drug Etoposide with β-cyclodextrin complex is significantly improves the aqueous solubility. Etoposide:β-cyclodextrin solid-state complexes were prepared by Physical mixture, kneading and solvent evaporation methods, and were characterized by FT-IR, HNMR, XRD, DSC and SEM techniques. In addition, the in-vitro antimicrobial and antibiofilm study of Etoposide drug is a sensible microorganism was significantly increased by an inclusion complexation process. The antibiofilm of anticancer drug Etoposide with β-cyclodextrin studies have been analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2019.04.033DOI Listing
September 2019

Enhanced antibacterial activity of hemocyanin purified from Portunus pelagicus hemolymph combined with silver nanoparticles - Intracellular uptake and mode of action.

J Trace Elem Med Biol 2019 Jul 11;54:8-20. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, 11451, Saudi Arabia.

Recently, biogenic nanoparticles have been considered promising candidates for manufacturing antibacterial nanodrugs. Here, we synthesized AgNPs using the crab-borne antibacterial agent hemocyanin and assessed the antibacterial action against several pathogenic bacteria. In this study, the crustacean immune protein hemocyanin (Pp-Hc, 78 kDa) purified from Portunus pelagicus hemolymph was used to fabricate silver nanoparticles. Characterization of hemocyanin-fabricated AgNPs (Pp-Hc AgNPs) were achieved using ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), high-resolution-transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The antibacterial efficacy of AgNOPp-Hc and Pp-Hc AgNPs was compared by growth inhibition, antibiofilm and live and dead analyses. Based on the results, Pp-Hc AgNPs was more efficient than Pp-Hc and AgNO against pathogenic bacteria. Mechanistic analysis revealed membrane damage and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, suggesting that Pp-Hc and Pp-Hc AgNPs rely to similar modes of action. Intracellular protein molecules and nucleic acid leakage confirmed that Pp-Hc AgNPs increase membrane permeability, leading to cell death. Based on our results, capping of the exterior surface of nanoparticles with antimicrobial crab-borne peptides, such as Pp-Hc, improves their functions as potential agents against bacterial diseases, which may be useful in clinical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtemb.2019.03.005DOI Listing
July 2019

In vitro and In vivo toxicity assessment of phytofabricated ZnO nanoparticles showing bacteriostatic effect and larvicidal efficacy against Culex quinquefasciatus.

J Photochem Photobiol B 2019 Mar 30;192:158-169. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

School of Biotechnology, KIIT Deemed to be University, Bhubaneshwar 751024, Orissa, India.

Murraya koenigii berry extract based zinc oxide nanoparticles (Mk-ZnO NPs) were synthesized by simple co-precipitation method and examined for bacteriostatic and larvicidal efficiency. Synthesized Mk-ZnO NPs were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy at 336 nm. X-Ray diffraction (XRD) showed crystalline nature as hexagonal. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectrum exhibited strong peak at 3442.80 cm. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) showed hexagonal shape of the particle. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measured 10-15 nm sized Mk-ZnO NPs. EDX peaks confirm 71.99% of zinc and 11.42% of oxide in Mk-ZnO NPs. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) analysis reveals Mk-ZnO NPs inhibit growth of Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Lysinibacillus fusiformis) and Gram negative (Proteus vulgaris, Providencia vermicola) bacteria at 40 and 50 μg mL respectively. Live & dead assay confirms that Mk-ZnO NPs inhibits bacterial growth at 50 μg mL. Bacterial biofilm thickness significantly reduced by Mk-ZnO NPs at 50 μg mL. In vitro toxicity of Mk-ZnO NPs on RAW 264.7 macrophages determines 90-50% cell viability at concentrations of 10-100 μg mL. In vivo toxicity assay results indicate the lethal concentration of Artemia nauplii were LC78.73 μg mL and LC130.03 μg mL. Larvicidal activity of Mk-ZnO NPs towards mosquito larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus were observed at LC2.1 μg mL and LC12.1 μg mL. Finally the study discloses, potential bacteriostatic effect and mosquito larvae controlling capacity of Mk-ZnO NPs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2019.01.014DOI Listing
March 2019

Microbial exopolymer-capped selenium nanowires - Towards new antibacterial, antibiofilm and arbovirus vector larvicides?

J Photochem Photobiol B 2019 Mar 18;192:55-67. Epub 2019 Jan 18.

Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Arboviral diseases and microbial pathogens resistant to commercially available drugs are on the rise. Herein, a facile microbial-based approach was developed to synthesize selenium nanowires (Se NWs) using microbial exopolymer (MEP) extracted from the Bacillus licheniformis (probiotic bacteria). MEP-Se NWs were characterized using UV-Visible, XRD, FTIR, HR-TEM, FE-SEM and EDX. An UV-Visible peak was detected at 330 nm while XRD spectrum data pointed out the crystalline nature of MEP-Se NWs. FTIR spectrum revealed functional groups with strong absorption peaks in the range 3898.52-477.97 cm. FE-SEM and HR-TEM revealed that the obtained structures were nanowires of 10-30 nm diameter. Se presence was confirmed by EDX analysis. MEP-Se NWs at 100 μg/ml highly suppressed the growth of both Gram and Gram bacteria. Further, microscopic analysis evidenced that 75 μg/ml MEP-Se NWs suppressed biofilm formation. Hemolytic assays showed that MEP-Se NWs were moderately cytotoxic. In addition, LC values lower than 10 μg/ml were estimated testing MEP-Se NWs on both Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus 3rd instar larvae. Morphological and histological techniques were used to elucidate on the damages triggered in mosquito tissues, with special reference to midgut, post-exposure to MEP-Se NWs. Therefore, based on our findings, MEP-Se NWs can be considered for entomological and biomedical applications, with special reference to the management of biofilm forming microbial pathogens and arbovirus mosquito vectors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2019.01.009DOI Listing
March 2019

Antimicrobial and biochemical characterization of a C-type lectin isolated from pearl spot (Etroplus suratensis).

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2019 Apr 10;87:202-211. Epub 2019 Jan 10.

Department of Processing Technology (Biochemistry), Kerala University of Fisheries and Ocean Studies, Panangad, Kerala, India. Electronic address:

The present study reveals purification and characterization of a C-type lectin from the serum of pearl spot, Etroplus suratensis (Es-Lec). The Es-Lec was purified by affinity chromatography with mannose coupled sepharose CL-4B column and it exhibits single band with a molecular weight of 75 kDa in SDS-PAGE. The surface morphology of purified Es-Lec displays the homogeneous nature of protein. A distinct peak with a retention time of 2.958 min was appeared in high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis expresses a single peak at 31.8372̊ and MALDI-TOF peaks which shows the purity and crystalline nature of the protein respectively. Functional analysis of purified Es-Lec exhibits yeast agglutination activity against Saccharomyces cerevisiae and has the ability to agglutinate the human erythrocytes, which was observed by light microscopy and haemagglutination inhibition was also done. In addition, purified Es-Lec showed the broad spectrum of antibacterial activity against Gram negative Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Aeromonas hydrophila. Antibiofilm potential of purified Es-Lec against selected Gram-negative bacteria exhibited the disruption of biofilm architecture at the concentration of 50 μg ml and also it exhibited antiviral and anticancer activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2018.12.070DOI Listing
April 2019
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