Publications by authors named "Basil C Tarlatzis"

128 Publications

Serum Levels of Irisin and Omentin-1 in Breast Neoplasms and Their Association with Tumor Histology.

Int J Endocrinol 2021 22;2021:6656671. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

First Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece.

Breast cancer is associated with obesity, possibly due to direct effects of adipokines and myokines, such as omentin-1 and irisin. In this study, we aimed to evaluate omentin-1 and irisin levels in women with benign and/or malignant breast neoplasms vs. healthy controls. Disease-free individuals ( = 56) and patients with histologically proven benign ( = 61) or malignant tumor ( = 96; subdivided into recently diagnosed/treatment-naïve ( = 72) and chemotherapy-treated ( = 24) subgroups) were enrolled in this study. Demographic, biochemical, and tumor histological characteristics were recorded. Body composition parameters were assessed using bioelectrical impedance. Serum irisin and omentin-1 levels were quantified with ELISA kits. In adjusted models, irisin levels were higher in both benign and malignant cases compared to controls but were comparable between neoplasms. Further adjustment for omentin-1 levels showed that age (odds ratio (OR) = 1.05, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = (1.02, 1.08), < 0.01) and irisin levels (OR = 5.30, 95% CI = (1.24, 22.38), =0.03) were independent predictors of the presence of malignancy. These molecules were associated with each other and with other anthropometric and demographic parameters. Irisin was associated with tumor histological characteristics including Ki67% levels, Elston-Ellis grading system, and estrogen receptors status. Omentin-1 was also associated with the Elston-Ellis grading system. In conclusion, serum irisin is increased in patients with both benign and malignant diseases of the breast. When combined with omentin-1, irisin concentration was associated with the presence of breast malignancy. This molecule's role as a potential diagnostic and/or prognostic agent in breast malignancies warrants further investigation in larger prospective studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6656671DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7920698PMC
February 2021

Expression of genes that regulate follicle development and maturation during ovarian stimulation in poor responders.

Reprod Biomed Online 2021 Jan 25;42(1):248-259. Epub 2020 May 25.

Unit for Human Reproduction, Laboratory of Genetics, 1st Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, School of Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Papageorgiou General Hospital, Ring Road, Nea Efkarpia Thessaloniki 56403, Greece.

Research Question: Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), androgen receptor (AR), LH beta polypeptide (LHB), progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1) and progesterone receptor membrane component 2 (PGRMC2) regulate follicle development and maturation. Their mRNA expression was assessed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of normal and poor responders, during ovarian stimulation.

Design: Fifty-two normal responders and 15 poor responders according to the Bologna criteria were enrolled for IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection and stimulated with 200 IU of follitrophin alpha and gonadotrophin-releasing hormone antagonist. HCG was administered for final oocyte maturation. On days 1, 6 and 10 of stimulation, blood samples were obtained, serum hormone levels were measured, RNA was extracted from PBMC and real-time polymerase chain reaction was carried out to identify the mRNA levels. Relative mRNA expression of each gene was calculated by the comparative 2 method.

Results: Differences between mRNA levels of each gene on the same time point between the two groups were not significant. PGRMC1 and PGRMC2 mRNA levels were downregulated, adjusted for ovarian response and age. Positive correlations between PGRMC1 and AR (standardized beta = 0.890, P < 0.001) from day 1 to 6 and PGRMC1 and LHB (standardized beta = 0.806, P < 0.001) from day 1 to 10 were found in poor responders. PGRMC1 and PGRMC2 were positively correlated on days 6 and 10 in normal responders.

Conclusions: PGRMC1 and PGRMC2 mRNA are significantly decreased during ovarian stimulation, with some potential differences between normal and poor responders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rbmo.2020.05.012DOI Listing
January 2021

Follicle inhibition at the primordial stage without increasing apoptosis, with a combination of everolimus, verapamil.

Mol Biol Rep 2020 Nov 20;47(11):8711-8726. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

Department of Biomedical Research, Institute of Molecular Biology & Biotechnology, Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas, Ioannina, Greece.

The aim of the present study was to test whether inhibition of ovarian primordial follicles and subsequent activation can be achieved by transient mTOR inhibition. In this preclinical investigation, forty-five female immature Wistar rats were randomized in 5 groups. The control group received subcutaneous saline injections. The other groups received Everolimus, Everolimus plus Verapamil, Everolimus plus Fisetin, and Fisetin alone. Primary and secondary outcomes were measured in the left ovary after a treatment period of 8 weeks. Ten days later, animals received 35 IU FSH for 4 days and 35 IU of hCG on the 5th day. The same parameters were examined in the right ovary. AMH, estradiol, and progesterone levels were assessed at the end of both interventions. Significantly, more primordial and less atretic follicles were observed in the Everolimus plus Verapamil group. AMH and progesterone levels were substantially lower in the Everolimus group. Interestingly, after ovarian stimulation higher levels of AMH and progesterone were observed in the Everolimus plus Verapamil group. Immunoblot analysis of ovarian extracts revealed that the administration of Everolimus led to a significant reduction in the mTORC1-mediated phosphorylation of the 70-kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1. This decrease was reversed in the presence of FSH after stopping drug administration. The expression of the anti-apoptotic molecule Bcl2 as well as of LC3-II and ATG12 was increased after removal of the Everolimus plus Verapamil combination, indicating reduced apoptosis and increased autophagy, whereas the levels of the proliferation marker PCNA in the granulosa cells were elevated, consistent with initiation of follicular growth.Thus, the combination of Everolimus plus Verapamil is capable of increasing the number of competent primordial follicles while reducing atresia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-020-05917-2DOI Listing
November 2020

Risk of gestational diabetes mellitus in women achieving singleton pregnancy spontaneously or after ART: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Hum Reprod Update 2020 06;26(4):514-544

Unit for Human Reproduction, 1st Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece.

Background: Women who achieve pregnancy by ART show an increased risk of obstetric and perinatal complications compared with those with spontaneous conception (SC).

Objective And Rationale: The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to synthesize the best available evidence regarding the association between ART and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in women with singleton pregnancies. The research question asked was whether the risk of GDM is higher in women achieving singleton pregnancy by ART compared with those achieving singleton pregnancy spontaneously.

Search Methods: A literature search, in MEDLINE, Scopus and Cochrane databases, covering the period 1978-2019, was performed aiming to identify studies comparing the risk of GDM in singleton pregnancies after ART versus after SC. Both matched and unmatched studies were considered eligible. Meta-analysis of weighted data was performed using the random effects model. Results were reported as risk ratio (RR) with 95% CI. Heterogeneity was quantified with the I2 index.

Outcomes: The study reports on 63 760 women who achieved a singleton pregnancy after ART (GDM was present in 4776) and 1 870 734 women who achieved a singleton pregnancy spontaneously (GDM in 158 526). Women with singleton pregnancy achieved by ART showed a higher risk of GDM compared with those with singleton pregnancy achieved spontaneously (RR 1.53, 95% CI 1.39-1.69; I2 78.6%, n = 37, 1 893 599 women). The direction or the magnitude of the effect observed did not change in subgroup analysis based on whether the study was matched (n = 17) or unmatched (n = 20) (matched: RR 1.42, 95% CI 1.17-1.72; I2 61.5%-unmatched: RR 1.58, 95% CI 1.40-1.78; I2 84.1%) or whether it was prospective (n = 12) or retrospective (n = 25) (prospective studies: RR 1.52, 95% CI 1.27-1.83, I2 62.2%-retrospective studies: RR 1.53, 95% CI 1.36-1.72, I2 82.5%). Regarding the method of fertilization, a higher risk of GDM after ART versus SC was observed after IVF (n = 7), but not after ICSI (n = 6), (IVF: RR 1.95, 95% CI 1.56-2.44, I2 43.1%-ICSI: RR 1.42, 95% CI 0.94-2.15, I2 73.5%). Moreover, regarding the type of embryo transfer (ET), a higher risk of GDM after ART versus SC was observed after fresh (n = 14) but not after frozen (n = 3) ET (fresh ET: RR 1.38, 95% CI 1.03-1.85, I2 75.4%-frozen ET: RR 0.46, 95% CI 0.10-2.19; I2 73.1%). A higher risk of GDM was observed after ART regardless of whether the eligible studies included patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (RR 1.49, 95% CI 1.33-1.66, I2 75.0%) or not (RR 4.12, 95% CI 2.63-6.45, I2 0%), or whether this information was unclear (RR 1.46, 95% CI 1.22-1.75, I2 77.7%).

Wider Implications: The present systematic review and meta-analysis, by analysing 1 893 599 women, showed a higher risk of GDM in women achieving singleton pregnancy by ART compared with those achieving singleton pregnancy spontaneously. This finding highlights the importance of early detection of GDM in women treated by ART that could lead to timely and effective interventions, prior to ART as well as during early pregnancy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/humupd/dmaa011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7317285PMC
June 2020

Association between body mass index and oocyte maturation in patients triggered with GnRH agonist who are at high risk for severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome: an observational cohort study.

Reprod Biomed Online 2020 Jan 15;40(1):168-175. Epub 2019 Oct 15.

Unit of Human Reproduction, 1st Department of OB/Gyn, Medical school, Aristotle University, Thessaloniki, 7 Ventiri Street, Athens 11528, Greece.

Research Question: Is body-mass index (BMI) associated with oocyte maturation in women at high risk for developing severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) who are triggered with gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist?

Design: Prospective observational cohort study. A total of 113 patients at high risk for severe OHSS (presence of at least 19 follicles ≥11 mm) pre-treated with gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonists and recombinant FSH were administered 0.2 mg triptorelin to trigger final oocyte maturation. Patients were classified in two groups depending on their BMI: ΒΜΙ less than 25 kg/m (n = 72) and ΒΜΙ 25 kg/m or over (n = 41). Baseline, ovarian stimulation and embryological characteristics, as well as luteal-phase hormone profiles, were compared in patients classified into the two BMI groups. The main outcome measure was the number of mature oocytes.

Results: A significantly higher number of mature (metaphase II) oocytes (19 [18-21] versus 16 [13-20], P = 0.029) was present in women with BMI less than 25 kg/m compared with those with BMI 25 kg/m or greater. The number of retrieved oocytes, the number of fertilized oocytes, oocyte retrieval, maturation and fertilization rates were similar in the two groups. A significantly higher dose of recombinant FSH was required for patients with BMI 25 kg/m or greater compared with patients with BMI less than 25 kg/m (1875 [1650-2150] IU versus 1650 [1600-1750] IU, P = 0.003) and the two groups displayed different luteal phase hormonal profiles.

Conclusions: Among women at high risk for developing severe OHSS who are triggered with a standard dose (0.2 mg) of the GnRH agonist triptorelin, women with BMI 25 kg/m or greater had significantly fewer mature oocytes, required a higher total dose of recombinant FSH compared with women with BMI less than 25 kg/m.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rbmo.2019.10.006DOI Listing
January 2020

In-utero stress and mode of conception: impact on regulation of imprinted genes, fetal development and future health.

Hum Reprod Update 2019 11;25(6):777-801

First Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Laboratory of Genetics, School of Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Papageorgiou General Hospital, Ring Road, Nea Efkarpia, 56403 Thessaloniki, Greece.

Background: Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic gene regulatory mechanism; disruption of this process during early embryonic development can have major consequences on both fetal and placental development. The periconceptional period and intrauterine life are crucial for determining long-term susceptibility to diseases. Treatments and procedures in assisted reproductive technologies (ART) and adverse in-utero environments may modify the methylation levels of genomic imprinting regions, including insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2)/H19, mesoderm-specific transcript (MEST), and paternally expressed gene 10 (PEG10), affecting the development of the fetus. ART, maternal psychological stress, and gestational exposures to chemicals are common stressors suspected to alter global epigenetic patterns including imprinted genes.

Objective And Rationale: Our objective is to highlight the effect of conception mode and maternal psychological stress on fetal development. Specifically, we monitor fetal programming, regulation of imprinted genes, fetal growth, and long-term disease risk, using the imprinted genes IGF2/H19, MEST, and PEG10 as examples. The possible role of environmental chemicals in genomic imprinting is also discussed.

Search Methods: A PubMed search of articles published mostly from 2005 to 2019 was conducted using search terms IGF2/H19, MEST, PEG10, imprinted genes, DNA methylation, gene expression, and imprinting disorders (IDs). Studies focusing on maternal prenatal stress, psychological well-being, environmental chemicals, ART, and placental/fetal development were evaluated and included in this review.

Outcomes: IGF2/H19, MEST, and PEG10 imprinted genes have a broad developmental effect on fetal growth and birth weight variation. Their disruption is linked to pregnancy complications, metabolic disorders, cognitive impairment, and cancer. Adverse early environment has a major impact on the developing fetus, affecting mostly growth, the structure, and subsequent function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and neurodevelopment. Extensive evidence suggests that the gestational environment has an impact on epigenetic patterns including imprinting, which can lead to adverse long-term outcomes in the offspring. Environmental stressors such as maternal prenatal psychological stress have been found to associate with altered DNA methylation patterns in placenta and to affect fetal development. Studies conducted during the past decades have suggested that ART pregnancies are at a higher risk for a number of complications such as birth defects and IDs. ART procedures involve multiple steps that are conducted during critical windows for imprinting establishment and maintenance, necessitating long-term evaluation of children conceived through ART. Exposure to environmental chemicals can affect placental imprinting and fetal growth both in humans and in experimental animals. Therefore, their role in imprinting should be better elucidated, considering the ubiquitous exposure to these chemicals.

Wider Implications: Dysregulation of imprinted genes is a plausible mechanism linking stressors such as maternal psychological stress, conception using ART, and chemical exposures with fetal growth. It is expected that a greater understanding of the role of imprinted genes and their regulation in fetal development will provide insights for clinical prevention and management of growth and IDs. In a broader context, evidence connecting impaired imprinted gene function to common diseases such as cancer is increasing. This implies early regulation of imprinting may enable control of long-term human health, reducing the burden of disease in the population in years to come.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/humupd/dmz025DOI Listing
November 2019

Addition of procyanidine to semen preserves progressive sperm motility up to three hours of incubation.

Reprod Biol 2019 Sep 26;19(3):255-260. Epub 2019 Jul 26.

Unit for Human Reproduction, 1st Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece.

Several studies on semen physiology and sperm fertilizing capacity have shown a beneficial effect of antioxidants. Procyanidine is a natural antioxidant, more efficient compared with vitamin C and E, with many applications in the food, agriculture, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industry. Thus, we tested whether the addition of procyanidine to the semen of infertile men has a beneficial effect on spermatozoa during their in vitro incubation and during the cryopreservation process. Semen samples of 25 infertile men were divided in to two aliquots, in which procyanidine was added or not. Semen analysis, measurement of sperm DNA fragmentation index (DFI) and measurement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were performed 3 h after incubation at 37 °C and after sperm cryopreservation and thawing. In-vitro addition of procyanidine to semen of infertile men resulted in a lesser decrease in progressive motility [-4 (-31:+6) vs. -6 (-31:+5), p < 0.001] and total motility [-5 (-29:+3) vs. -9 (-32:+2), p < 0.001] after 3 h of incubation compared with no addition of procyanidine. Sperm morphology was decreased only in the control group after 3 h of incubation [2 (0:+6) vs. 1 (0:+4), p = 0.009]. Furthermore, a larger increase in sperm DFI was observed in the control compared with the procyanidine group [9 (-7:+27) vs. 3 (-3:+18), p = 0.005] after thawing of cryopreserved semen samples. In conclusion, in-vitro addition of procyanidine to the semen of infertile men exerts a protective effect on progressive motility during handling and after 3 h of incubation as well as on sperm DFI during the process of cryopreservation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.repbio.2019.07.001DOI Listing
September 2019

Protein expression pattern of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-3 (TIMP3) in endometriosis and normal endometrium.

Gynecol Endocrinol 2019 Dec 11;35(12):1103-1106. Epub 2019 Jun 11.

First Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece.

Given the involvement of different extracellular matrix (ECM) metalloproteinases (MMPs) in endometriosis, the protein expression pattern of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-3 (TIMP3) was analyzed in this study in endometriosis and normal endometrium. Tissue samples were collected prospectively from 64 premenopausal patients undergoing operative laparoscopy. Protein expression of TIMP3 was analyzed immunohistochemically in endometriotic lesions ( = 30) and normal eutopic endometrium from patients with ( = 35) and without ( = 29) endometriosis. Comparison between the three different groups of tissue samples showed that TIMP3 was differentially expressed between the three groups ( = .04). Pair-wise comparisons showed that TIMP3 expression was lower in endometriotic lesions as compared with normal eutopic endometrium from controls ( = .006); the same non-significant trend was found, in the comparison between endometriosis lesions and matched eutopic endometrium. There were no differences in TIMP3 expression in the normal eutopic endometrium between patients with and without endometriosis. In conclusion, TIMP3 seems to be involved in the pathogenesis, pathophysiology, and maintenance of endometriosis and it might be useful as a diagnostic and prognostic marker of endometriosis. Future studies should further investigate this issue, as well as the interplay between TIMPs and different extracellular MMPs in endometriosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09513590.2019.1625880DOI Listing
December 2019

Spindle and chromosome configuration analysis of human biopsied versus non-biopsied embryos by confocal laser scanning microscopy following vitrification.

Zygote 2019 Jun 7;27(3):153-159. Epub 2019 May 7.

1Unit for Human Reproduction,1st Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology,Aristotle University Medical School,Papageorgiou General Hospital,Thessaloniki,Greece.

SummaryThe aim of this study was to investigate the effects of zona drilling and biopsy on day 3 followed by vitrification on day 5 on the cytoskeleton and development of human embryos, by analysing survival rates and spindle and chromosome configurations by fluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy in human biopsied and non-biopsied embryos. In total, 98 human blastocysts (50 non-biopsied and 48 following biopsy on day 3) were vitrified on day 5 using either a commercial dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO)-free vitrification kit or increasing concentrations of DMSO/EG (5%/5-10%/10-20%/20%). Following warming, the blastocysts were allowed to recover in culture for 24 h and were immunostained with α-tubulin, acetylated tubulin, and/or γ-tubulin antibodies in combination with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI). Labelled embryos were examined by both fluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The survival rates following warming (92% non-biopsied vs 83.3% biopsied) and the incidence of normal spindle chromosome configurations was not statistically different between the two groups (65.2% non-biopsied vs 59.2% biopsied, P>0.05). The incidence of spindle abnormalities including multipolarity, chromosome lagging, congression failure and chromosome bridging were also similar between the two groups (P>0.05). This study is the first to compare the incidence of cytoskeletal abnormalities in biopsied and non-biopsied human embryos following vitrification. We conclude that there was no significant difference in the survival rates and the incidence of spindle abnormalities between the two groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0967199419000182DOI Listing
June 2019

Biomarkers of Endothelial Dysfunction in Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

Angiology 2019 Oct 10;70(9):797-801. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

1 First Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece.

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women of childbearing age. The criteria required for the diagnosis identify various phenotypes, with different reproductive, metabolic, and cardiovascular (CV) risk characteristics. Emerging evidence links adipocyte-secreted hormones as candidates in the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction in PCOS, independently of additional risk factors. The aim of this review was to collect, analyze, and qualitatively resynthesize evidence on biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction (visfatin, vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF], matrix metalloproteinase 9 [MMP-9]) in women with PCOS. Women with PCOS exhibit (a) increased plasma visfatin concentrations compared with controls with a similar body mass index; (b) increased VEGF production along with chronic, mild inflammation; and (c) increased MMP-9 concentrations, which might be related to either excessive CV risk or abnormalities of ovarian extracellular matrix remodeling, multiple cyst formation, follicular atresia, and chronic anovulation. As PCOS has been associated with CV risk, early identification of endothelial dysfunction is clinically relevant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0003319719840091DOI Listing
October 2019

Beliefs, attitudes and funding of assisted reproductive technology: Public perception of over 6,000 respondents from 6 European countries.

PLoS One 2019 25;14(1):e0211150. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

Theramex HQ UK Limited, London, United Kingdom.

Background: Fertility rates in Europe are among the lowest in the world, which may be attributed to both biological and lifestyle factors. Cost and reimbursement of fertility treatments vary across Europe, although its citizens enjoy wide access to fertility care. Since few regional studies evaluating public support for fertility treatment exist, we conducted the Listening IVF and Fertility in Europe (LIFE) survey to ascertain public perception of in vitro fertilization (IVF) and gamete donation as a treatment for infertility among European men and women.

Methods And Findings: This survey was distributed via an online questionnaire to 8,682 individuals who were voluntary participants in an online research panel residing in France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Sweden, or the UK. The survey covered items to determine respondents' beliefs regarding IVF and its success, the need for public funding, the use of IVF among modern families with different lifestyles, and the support for gamete donation. Results were analyzed by age, country of origin, sex, and sexual orientation. A total of 6,110 (70% of total) men and women responded. Among all respondents, 10% had undergone IVF treatment and 48% had considered or would consider IVF in case of infertility. Respondents estimated IVF mean success rate to be 47% and over half of respondents believed that availability of IVF would encourage people to delay conception. Although 93% of respondents believed that IVF treatment should be publicly funded to some extent, a majority believed that secondary infertility or use of fertility treatments allowing to delay parenthood should be financed privately. Survey respondents believed that the mean number of stimulated IVF cycles funded publicly should be limited 2 to 3 (average 2.4). 79% of respondents were willing to pay for IVF if needed with a mean amount of 5,400 € for a child brought to life through IVF. According to respondents, mean minimum and maximum ages for IVF should be 29 and 42 years old, respectively. The current survey showed support for egg and sperm donation (78%), for IVF in single women (61%) and for same-sex female couples (64%). When analyzing the results per group (i.e., sex, age, sexual orientation, and countries), youngest age groups, homosexuals, bisexuals, German respondents, and men had similar overall positive attitudes and beliefs toward IVF and opinions on public funding. Perceived limits to availability were stronger in women.

Conclusion: Overall, the survey results demonstrate a positive attitude among respondents in an online panel toward IVF, gamete donation, and support for public funding for fertility treatment. These findings could potentially drive discussions between patients and prescribers to explore IVF treatment and among legislators and payers to support public funding for these procedures.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0211150PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6347360PMC
October 2019

Three-dimensional ultrasound in the diagnosis and the classification of congenital uterine anomalies using the ESHRE/ESGE classification: a diagnostic accuracy study.

Arch Gynecol Obstet 2019 03 19;299(3):779-789. Epub 2019 Jan 19.

1st Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Papageorgiou General Hospital, Ring Road, Municipality Pavlos Melas, N. Efkarpia, 56403, Thessaloniki, Greece.

Study Objective: To estimate the diagnostic accuracy of three-dimensional ultrasonography (3D US) compared to hysteroscopy/laparoscopy, in the investigation of uterine congenital anomalies using the ESHRE/ESGE classification of female genital tract congenital anomalies.

Design: Prospective blind, comparative, cohort study.

Setting: University Tertiary Hospital and affiliated private Hospital.

Patients And Methods: Sixty-two women consecutively referred with a suspected diagnosis of uterine congenital anomalies. The ESHRE/ESGE classification of congenital anomalies of the female genital tract was used for the description of abnormal findings.

Interventions: All patients underwent (1) 3D US and (2) hysteroscopy with laparoscopy to establish the final diagnosis.

Results: Concordance between 3D US and hysteroscopy with laparoscopy about the type and the classification of uterine anomaly was verified in 61 cases, including all those with septate uterus, dysmorphic uterus, bicorporeal, hemi-uterus or unicorporeal, and aplastic uterus and one out of two with normal uterus. For the diagnosis of septate uteri, which was the most common anomaly, the sensitivity of 3D US was 100%, the specificity was 92.3%, the PPV was 98% and the NPV was 100%, with kappa index 0.950. For bicorporeal, dysmorphic uterus, hemi-uteri or unicorporeal and aplastic uterus the sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were all 100% with K = 1.00. Overall, 3D US showed perfect diagnostic accuracy (Kappa index = 0.945) in the detection of congenital uterine anomalies.

Conclusion: 3D US appears to be a very accurate method for the diagnosis of congenital uterine anomalies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00404-019-05050-xDOI Listing
March 2019

Testicular versus ejaculated spermatozoa for ICSI in patients without azoospermia: A systematic review.

Reprod Biomed Online 2018 Nov 6;37(5):573-580. Epub 2018 Oct 6.

Unit for Human Reproduction, 1st Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Thessaloniki, Greece. Electronic address:

The use of testicular spermatozoa in men without azoospermia has been proposed as a means to increase the chances of pregnancy following assisted reproductive treatment. The purpose of this systematic review is to assess whether clinical outcomes are better when testicular rather than ejaculated spermatozoa are used for intracytoplasmic sperm injection in patients with abnormal semen parameters without azoospermia. A literature search identified four eligible studies out of 757 initially found. In a prospective study in men with high DNA fragmentation index (DFI) and oligozoospermia, the probability of live birth was significantly higher with testicular compared to ejaculated spermatozoa (risk ratio [RR]: 1.75, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.14-2.70). This was not the case in a retrospective study in men with high DFI only (RR: 2.36, 95% CI: 0.98-5.68). Clinical pregnancy rates were similar in a randomized controlled trial in men with asthenozoospermia with or without teratozoospermia (RR: 2.85, 95% CI: 0.76-10.69) and in a retrospective study in men with isolated asthenozoospermia (RR: 1.09, 95% CI: 0.56-2.14). Currently, there is limited, low-quality evidence suggesting that a higher probability of pregnancy might be expected using testicular rather than ejaculated spermatozoa, only in men with high DFI and oligozoospermia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rbmo.2018.08.017DOI Listing
November 2018

Implementation of Fetal Cardiac Guidelines for the Routine Second-Trimester Heart Examination: A Feasibility Study.

Ultraschall Med 2019 Jun 19;40(3):359-365. Epub 2018 Oct 19.

3rd Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki School of Medicine, Thessaloniki, Greece.

Purpose:  This study aimed to explore the feasibility of implementation of the ISUOG 2013 guidelines on routine second-trimester examination of the fetal heart.

Materials And Methods:  This was a prospective study in 357 women with singleton pregnancy undergoing their routine second-trimester scan. The fetal heart was examined using B-mode in different planes according to the guidelines. Potential maternal and fetal factors that can affect the rates of diagnostic-quality imaging for each of the recommended views were tested, using regression analysis. The intra- and interobserver agreement was analyzed in stored video loops.

Results:  Most cardiac structures could be successfully examined with rates at or close to 100 %. Structures with a successful examination rate of ≤ 85 % included the ventricular wall fine details (55.2 %), tricuspid valve insertion (82.6 %), aortic root with clear walls (77.9 %), pulmonary artery walls (65.8 %) and clear view of the great artery walls (66.7 %). Common factors affecting the likelihood of successful examination of these structures included maternal BMI, skin-to-crux distance and the orientation of the cardiac axis. A post-hoc analysis indicated that a lack of pre-defined criteria for diagnostic quality was a constant reason for the interobserver variation.

Conclusion:  Most of the cardiac views can be consistently and reliably obtained, with maternal habitus being the primary factor limiting the quality of visualization. As offline interpretation may be subjective, using pre-defined quality criteria for the assessment of the images might improve interrater agreement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-0620-8100DOI Listing
June 2019

Trying to define the optimal progesterone elevation cut-off in fresh in vitro fertilization cycles: time to evolve our way of thinking.

Fertil Steril 2018 09;110(4):634-635

School of Medicine, Aristole University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2018.06.006DOI Listing
September 2018

Forty years of IVF.

Fertil Steril 2018 07;110(2):185-324.e5

Gene Expression Laboratory, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA.

This monograph, written by the pioneers of IVF and reproductive medicine, celebrates the history, achievements, and medical advancements made over the last 40 years in this rapidly growing field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2018.06.005DOI Listing
July 2018

Fertility potential in a man with ankylosing spondylitis as revealed by semen analysis by light, electron and fluorescence microscopy.

SAGE Open Med Case Rep 2018 23;6:2050313X18759898. Epub 2018 Feb 23.

Unit for Human Reproduction, 1 Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Papageorgiou General Hospital, Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece.

Ankylosing spondylitis affects 0.1%-0.5% of the adult population. The aim was to investigate the possible effects of both the disease and its treatment on semen quality by performing a highly detailed analysis in a man with ankylosing spondylitis, presenting for infertility. Sperm characteristics were evaluated by light microscopy, morphology by electron microscopy (transmission electron microscopy), DNA fragmentation by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling using fluorescence microscopy and chromosomal abnormalities by fluorescence in situ hybridisation using probes for chromosomes 13,15,16,18,21,22,X and Y. There was no evidence for an effect of either ankylosing spondylitis or its treatment with celecoxib and sulphasalazine on sperm quality as all parameters including concentration, motility, DNA fragmentation and aneuploidy incidence were within normal limits. Transmission electron microscopy, however, revealed a high incidence of head, neck and tail abnormalities, as well as the presence of immature sperm and phagocytes. Hysteroscopic removal of an endometrial polyp enabled the achievement of a spontaneous pregnancy and the delivery of a healthy boy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2050313X18759898DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5825999PMC
February 2018

Responsible innovation in human germline gene editing: Background document to the recommendations of ESHG and ESHRE.

Eur J Hum Genet 2018 04 12;26(4):450-470. Epub 2018 Jan 12.

Department of Clinical Genetics, Section Community Genetics and Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Technological developments in gene editing raise high expectations for clinical applications, including editing of the germline. The European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE) and the European Society of Human Genetics (ESHG) together developed a Background document and Recommendations to inform and stimulate ongoing societal debates. This document provides the background to the Recommendations. Germline gene editing is currently not allowed in many countries. This makes clinical applications in these countries impossible now, even if germline gene editing would become safe and effective. What were the arguments behind this legislation, and are they still convincing? If a technique could help to avoid serious genetic disorders, in a safe and effective way, would this be a reason to reconsider earlier standpoints? This Background document summarizes the scientific developments and expectations regarding germline gene editing, legal regulations at the European level, and ethics for three different settings (basic research, preclinical research and clinical applications). In ethical terms, we argue that the deontological objections (e.g., gene editing goes against nature) do not seem convincing while consequentialist objections (e.g., safety for the children thus conceived and following generations) require research, not all of which is allowed in the current legal situation in European countries. Development of this Background document and Recommendations reflects the responsibility to help society understand and debate the full range of possible implications of the new technologies, and to contribute to regulations that are adapted to the dynamics of the field while taking account of ethical considerations and societal concerns.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41431-017-0077-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5891502PMC
April 2018

Human germline gene editing: Recommendations of ESHG and ESHRE.

Eur J Hum Genet 2018 04 12;26(4):445-449. Epub 2018 Jan 12.

Department of Clinical Genetics, Section Community Genetics, and Amsterdam Public Health research institute, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Technological developments in gene editing raise high expectations for clinical applications, first of all for somatic gene editing but in theory also for germline gene editing (GLGE). GLGE is currently not allowed in many countries. This makes clinical applications in these countries impossible now, even if GLGE would become safe and effective. What were the arguments behind this legislation, and are they still convincing? If a technique can help to avoid serious genetic disorders, in a safe and effective way, would this be a reason to reconsider earlier standpoints? The European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE) and the European Society of Human Genetics (ESHG) together developed a Background document and Recommendations to inform and stimulate ongoing societal debates. After consulting its membership and experts, this final version of the Recommendations was endorsed by the Executive Committee and the Board of the respective Societies in May 2017. Taking account of ethical arguments, we argue that both basic and pre-clinical research regarding GLGE can be justified, with conditions. Furthermore, while clinical GLGE would be totally premature, it might become a responsible intervention in the future, but only after adequate pre-clinical research. Safety of the child and future generations is a major concern. Future discussions must also address priorities among reproductive and potential non-reproductive alternatives, such as PGD and somatic editing, if that would be safe and successful. The prohibition of human germline modification, however, needs renewed discussion among relevant stakeholders, including the general public and legislators.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41431-017-0076-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5891496PMC
April 2018

Human germline gene editing. Recommendations of ESHG and ESHRE.

Hum Reprod Open 2018 12;2018(1):hox025. Epub 2018 Jan 12.

Department of Clinical Genetics, Section Community Genetics, and Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, VU University Medical Center, Van der Boechorststraat 7, 1081 BT Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Technological developments in gene editing raise high expectations for clinical applications, first of all for somatic gene editing but in theory also for germline gene editing (GLGE). GLGE is currently not allowed in many countries. This makes clinical applications in these countries impossible now, even if GLGE would become safe and effective. What were the arguments behind this legislation, and are they still convincing? If a technique can help to avoid serious genetic disorders, in a safe and effective way, would this be a reason to reconsider earlier standpoints? The European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE) and the European Society of Human Genetics (ESHG) together developed a Background document and Recommendations to inform and stimulate ongoing societal debates. After consulting its membership and experts, this final version of the Recommendations was endorsed by the Executive Committee and the Board of the respective Societies in May 2017. Taking account of ethical arguments, we argue that both basic and pre-clinical research regarding human GLGE can be justified, with conditions. Furthermore, while clinical GLGE would be totally premature, it might become a responsible intervention in the future, but only after adequate pre-clinical research. Safety of the child and future generations is a major concern. Future discussions must also address priorities among reproductive and potential non-reproductive alternatives, such as PGD and somatic editing, if that would be safe and successful. The prohibition of human germline modification, however, needs renewed discussion among relevant stakeholders, including the general public and legislators.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hropen/hox025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6276661PMC
January 2018

Responsible innovation in human germline gene editing. Background document to the recommendations of ESHG and ESHRE.

Hum Reprod Open 2018 12;2018(1):hox024. Epub 2018 Jan 12.

Department of Clinical Genetics, Section Community Genetics, and Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, VU University Medical Center, Van der Boechorststraat 7, 1081 BT, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Technological developments in gene editing raise high expectations for clinical applications, including editing of the germline. The European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE) and the European Society of Human Genetics (ESHG) together developed a Background document and Recommendations to inform and stimulate ongoing societal debates. This document provides the background to the Recommendations. Germline gene editing is currently not allowed in many countries. This makes clinical applications in these countries impossible now, even if germline gene editing would become safe and effective. What were the arguments behind this legislation, and are they still convincing? If a technique could help to avoid serious genetic disorders, in a safe and effective way, would this be a reason to reconsider earlier standpoints? This Background document summarizes the scientific developments and expectations regarding germline gene editing, legal regulations at the European level, and ethics for three different settings (basic research, pre-clinical research and clinical applications). In ethical terms, we argue that the deontological objections (e.g. gene editing goes against nature) do not seem convincing while consequentialist objections (e.g. safety for the children thus conceived and following generations) require research, not all of which is allowed in the current legal situation in European countries. Development of this Background document and Recommendations reflects the responsibility to help society understand and debate the full range of possible implications of the new technologies, and to contribute to regulations that are adapted to the dynamics of the field while taking account of ethical considerations and societal concerns.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hropen/hox024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6276657PMC
January 2018

Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS): Long-term metabolic consequences.

Metabolism 2018 09 10;86:33-43. Epub 2017 Oct 10.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center School of Medicine, Amarillo, TX, USA.

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women during their reproductive ages, associated with a plethora of cardiometabolic consequences, with obesity, insulin resistance and hyperandrogenemia playing a major role in the degree of such manifestations. These consequences include increased risk of glucose intolerance and diabetes mellitus (both type 2 and gestational), atherogenic dyslipidemia, systemic inflammation, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, hypertension and coagulation disorders. Whether this cluster of metabolic abnormalities is also translated in increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality in later life, remains to be established. Data so far based on markers of subclinical atherosclerosis as well as retrospective and prospective cohort studies indicate a possible increased CVD risk, mainly for coronary heart disease. Future studies are needed to further elucidate this issue.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.metabol.2017.09.016DOI Listing
September 2018

Blastocyst utilization rates after continuous culture in two commercial single-step media: a prospective randomized study with sibling oocytes.

J Assist Reprod Genet 2017 Oct 17;34(10):1377-1383. Epub 2017 Jul 17.

Eugonia Assisted Reproduction Unit, 7 Ventiri Street, 11528, Athens, Greece.

Purpose: The aim of this study is to determine whether blastocyst utilization rates are different after continuous culture in two different commercial single-step media.

Methods: This is a paired randomized controlled trial with sibling oocytes conducted in infertility patients, aged ≤40 years with ≥10 oocytes retrieved assigned to blastocyst culture and transfer. Retrieved oocytes were randomly allocated to continuous culture in either Sage one-step medium (Origio) or Continuous Single Culture (CSC) medium (Irvine Scientific) without medium renewal up to day 5 post oocyte retrieval. Main outcome measure was the proportion of embryos suitable for clinical use (utilization rate).

Results: A total of 502 oocytes from 33 women were randomly allocated to continuous culture in either Sage one-step medium (n = 250) or CSC medium (n = 252). Fertilization was performed by either in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection, and embryo transfers were performed on day 5. Two patients had all blastocysts frozen due to the occurrence of severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Fertilization and cleavage rates, as well as embryo quality on day 3, were similar in the two media. Blastocyst utilization rates (%, 95% CI) [55.4% (46.4-64.1) vs 54.7% (44.9-64.6), p = 0.717], blastocyst formation rates [53.6% (44.6-62.5) vs 51.9 (42.2-61.6), p = 0.755], and proportion of good quality blastocysts [36.8% (28.1-45.4) vs 36.1% (27.2-45.0), p = 0.850] were similar in Sage one-step and CSC media, respectively.

Conclusions: Continuous culture of embryos in Sage one-step and CSC media is associated with similar blastocyst development and utilization rates. Both single-step media appear to provide adequate support during in vitro preimplantation embryo development. Whether these observations are also valid for other continuous single medium protocols remains to be determined.

Clinical Trial Registration Number: NCT02302638.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10815-017-0997-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5633582PMC
October 2017

Management of atypical polypoid adenomyomas. A case series.

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2017 Aug 22;215:1-5. Epub 2017 May 22.

1(st) Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece.

Objective: Atypical polypoid adenomyomas (APAs) are endometrial, non-malignant, focal, and non-invasive lesions that are intriguing for their histological resemblence to invasive endometrioid adenocarcinoma or malignant mixed Müllerian tumor. The aim of this study was to present our clinical experience, regarding the reproductive outcome, the recurrence rate, and the association with hyperplasia and cancer, in a small series of patients with APA.

Study Design: Retrospective case series of patients treated for APA in a single private hospital setting from 1998 to 2016. All patients underwent diagnostic hysteroscopy and hysteroscopic removal of the lesion. Follow-up was performed annually with endovaginal ultrasonography and hysteroscopy when necessary.

Results: Nine patients (mean age: 37.9 years-old ±8.3years) were treated because of menorrhagia, infertility, and incidental asymptomatic endometrial lesions with operative hysteroscopy. Mean follow-up was 10.0 years (±5.8years). Three patients intended for pregnancy and 2 of them had achieved a full term delivery. There were 2 recurrences (22.2%), two cases of atypical endometrial hyperplasia (22.2%), and 2 patients with endometrioid adenocarcinoma (22.2%), all within the first 5 years.

Conclusions: It appears that APAs exhibit a significant recurrence rate and they may be related both to atypical endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial adenocarcinoma; therefore, clinicians should be aware of these lesions in order to individualize treatment according to the patent's age and fertility history.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejogrb.2017.05.017DOI Listing
August 2017

Serum visfatin, vascular endothelial growth factor and matrix metalloproteinase-9 in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

Gynecol Endocrinol 2017 Jul 16;33(7):529-533. Epub 2017 Mar 16.

a First Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki , Thessaloniki , Greece.

Aim: To evaluate serum concentrations of visfatin, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and to investigate their possible role as early endothelial markers in PCOS.

Methods: Forty-two women with PCOS and 42 controls, matched for age and weight, were included in the study. Serum concentrations of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin, total testosterone (tT), Δ-androstenedione (ΔA), dehydroepinadrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S), 17-OH-progesterone, sex hormone-binding protein (SHBG), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (fT), visfatin, VEGF and MMP-9 were measured in all women; free androgen index (FAI) was calculated as well. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to examine if visfatin, tT or FAI can predict the clinical status (PCOS or control).

Results: LH, ΔA, tT and FAI concentrations were higher in PCOS than in controls (p = 0.002, 0.029, 0.0005 and 0.014, respectively). Visfatin, VEGF and MMP-9 concentrations were higher in women with PCOS than controls (p = 0.019, 0.001 and 0.002, respectively). In ROC analysis, area under the curve (AUC) in the prediction of clinical status was 0.641 for visfatin (p = 0.026), 0.731 for tT (p = 0.001) and 0.666 for FAI (p = 0.010), with no difference among them (p = 0.117).

Conclusions: Visfatin may induce the expression of pro-angiogenic factors, such as VEGF and MMP-9, in women with PCOS, inplying gradually development of endothelial dysfunction. Further studies are required to clarify these findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09513590.2017.1296425DOI Listing
July 2017

Blastocyst Development in a Single Medium Compared to Sequential Media: A Prospective Study With Sibling Oocytes.

Reprod Sci 2017 09 17;24(9):1312-1318. Epub 2017 Jan 17.

1 Eugonia Assisted Reproduction Unit, Athens, Greece.

The aim of the present study was to compare blastocyst formation rates after embryo culture in a single medium (Global) as compared to sequential media (ISM1/BlastAssist). In this prospective trial with sibling oocytes, 542 metaphase II (ΜΙΙ) oocytes from 31 women were randomly and equally divided to be fertilized and cultured to the blastocyst stage in either sequential media (ISM1/BlastAssist; n = 271 MII oocytes) or a single medium (Global; n = 271 MII oocytes). In both groups, embryos were cultured in an interrupted fashion with media changes on day 3. Embryo transfer was performed on day 5. Blastocyst formation rates on day 5 (61.7% ± 19.9% vs 37.0% ± 25.5%, P < .001) were significantly higher following culture in Global as compared to ISM1/BlastAssist, respectively. Fertilization rates, cleavage rates, and percentage of good quality embryos on day 3 were similar between Global and ISM1/BlastAssist, respectively. The percentages of good quality blastocysts (63.0% ± 24.8% vs 32.1% ± 37.2%, P < .001), blastocysts selected for transfer (27.8% ± 19.2% vs 11.1% ± 14.4%, P = .005), and utilization rates (62.5% ± 24.8% vs 39.0% ± 25.2%, P < .001) were significantly higher in Global as compared to ISM1/BlastAssist, respectively. In conclusion, culture in Global was associated with higher blastocyst formation rates compared to ISM1/BlastAssist, suggesting that the single medium may provide better support to the developing embryo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1933719116687653DOI Listing
September 2017

Second trimester amniotic fluid uric acid, potassium, and cysteine to methionine ratio levels as possible signs of early preeclampsia: A case report.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2016 Dec;55(6):874-876

1(st) Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece. Electronic address:

Objective: The precise etiopathogenesis of preeclampsia (PE) still remains enigmatic. In recent published work, there is a scientific trend aiming to unveil early biomarkers of PE based on amniotic fluid compositional changes before the development of clinical symptoms.

Case Report: We describe a case of an apparently clinically healthy woman, whose amniotic fluid, retrieved after amniocentesis at 22 gestational week, had elevated uric acid and potassium concentration, as well as cysteine to methionine ratio. At the time of amniocentesis, conventional clinical signs of PE were absent. The woman developed severe PE and intrauterine growth restriction, at the 28 week of gestation.

Conclusion: Although the limitation of such studies lies in the fact that amniocentesis is an invasive procedure, and thus employed only under specific indications, our scientific observations might be useful for future research towards unraveling the causes of PE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2016.09.001DOI Listing
December 2016

Enlightening the mechanisms of POP recurrence after LeFort colpocleisis. Case report and review.

Int Urogynecol J 2017 Jul 26;28(7):971-978. Epub 2016 Dec 26.

Unit of Urogynecology, 1st Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Papagheorgiou General Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece.

Introduction And Hypothesis: Obliterative procedures for the treatment of pelvic organ prolapse have been reported to have a recurrence rate up to 10%. We present (1) a case report of a patient with prolapse after LeFort colpocleisis and how it was managed in our department, and (2) a review of the literature regarding the types of recurrence after LeFort colpocleisis, their rate and their treatment.

Methods: A 77-year-old woman was treated in our department for recurrence of prolapse through the right lateral channel 6 months after LeFort colpocleisis. A systematic review of the literature up to 2016 was performed through MEDLINE, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library.

Results: The patient underwent a modified repeat colpocleisis and 6 months later was doing well with no signs of recurrence. We found 28 eligible studies including 1,810 patients, and the rate of recurrence after LeFort colpocleisis was 4.2% (76/1,810) leaving the majority of patients very satisfied. Information about the management of recurrence of prolapse after LeFort colpocleisis was provided in 17 studies including 33 patients with a 60-month follow-up. It appears that there are three major categories of recurrent prolapse after LeFort partial colpocleisis: (1) patients with a total breakdown of colpocleisis (57.6%), (2) patients with "channel prolapse" (15.2%), and (3) patients with prolapse at sites not involved in the primary partial colpocleisis (27.3%). The most frequent treatments were total colpocleisis/colpectomy (27.3%), perineorrhaphy and posterior repair (9.1%) and hysterectomy (9.1%). Almost 50% of these patients opted not to have surgical treatment.

Conclusions: The rate of prolapse recurrence after LeFort colpocleisis is estimated to be 4.2%. The management of recurrences after LeFort colpocleisis depends on the time and type of recurrence. The repeat modified LeFort colpocleisis is a viable option in patients with channel prolapse; if no uterus exists, colpectomy appears to be the best option.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00192-016-3236-9DOI Listing
July 2017