Publications by authors named "Bas van den Bogaard"

27 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Targeted Temperature Management in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest With Shockable Rhythm: A Post Hoc Analysis of the Coronary Angiography After Cardiac Arrest Trial.

Crit Care Med 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Department of Cardiology, Amsterdam University Medical Center, location VUmc, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Amphia Hospital, Breda, The Netherlands. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Amphia Hospital, Breda, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Rijnstate Hospital, Arnhem, The Netherlands. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Rijnstate Hospital, Arnhem, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, HAGA Hospital, Den Haag, The Netherlands. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, HAGA Hospital, Den Haag, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Maasstad Hospital, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Maasstad Hospital, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Amsterdam University Medical Center, location VUmc, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Maastricht University Medical Center, University Maastricht, Maastricht, The Netherlands. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Amsterdam University Medical Center, location AMC, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Amsterdam University Medical Center, location AMC, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, OLVG, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, OLVG, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Noord West Ziekenhuisgroep, Alkmaar, The Netherlands. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Noord West Ziekenhuisgroep, Alkmaar, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Scheper Hospital, Emmen, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Haaglanden Medical Center, Den Haag, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Isala Hospital, Zwolle, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Tergooi Hospital, Blaricum, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Elisabeth-Tweesteden Hospital, Tilburg, The Netherlands. Department of Epidemiology and Data Science, Amsterdam University Medical Center, location VUmc, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Objectives: The optimal targeted temperature in patients with shockable rhythm is unclear, and current guidelines recommend targeted temperature management with a correspondingly wide range between 32°C and 36°C. Our aim was to study survival and neurologic outcome associated with targeted temperature management strategy in postarrest patients with initial shockable rhythm.

Design: Observational substudy of the Coronary Angiography after Cardiac Arrest without ST-segment Elevation trial.

Setting: Nineteen hospitals in The Netherlands.

Patients: The Coronary Angiography after Cardiac Arrest trial randomized successfully resuscitated patients with shockable rhythm and absence of ST-segment elevation to a strategy of immediate or delayed coronary angiography. In this substudy, 459 patients treated with mild therapeutic hypothermia (32.0-34.0°C) or targeted normothermia (36.0-37.0°C) were included. Allocation to targeted temperature management strategy was at the discretion of the physician.

Interventions: None.

Measurements And Main Results: After 90 days, 171 patients (63.6%) in the mild therapeutic hypothermia group and 129 (67.9%) in the targeted normothermia group were alive (hazard ratio, 0.86 [95% CI, 0.62-1.18]; log-rank p = 0.35; adjusted odds ratio, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.45-1.72). Patients in the mild therapeutic hypothermia group had longer ICU stay (4 d [3-7 d] vs 3 d [2-5 d]; ratio of geometric means, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.15-1.51), lower blood pressures, higher lactate levels, and increased need for inotropic support. Cerebral Performance Category scores at ICU discharge and 90-day follow-up and patient-reported Mental and Physical Health Scores at 1 year were similar in the two groups.

Conclusions: In the context of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with shockable rhythm and no ST-elevation, treatment with mild therapeutic hypothermia was not associated with improved 90-day survival compared with targeted normothermia. Neurologic outcomes at 90 days as well as patient-reported Mental and Physical Health Scores at 1 year did not differ between the groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CCM.0000000000005271DOI Listing
September 2021

Early high-dose vitamin C in post-cardiac arrest syndrome (VITaCCA): study protocol for a randomized, double-blind, multi-center, placebo-controlled trial.

Trials 2021 Aug 18;22(1):546. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Research VUmc Intensive Care (REVIVE), Amsterdam Cardiovascular Science (ACS), Amsterdam Infection and Immunity Institute (AI&II), Amsterdam Medical Data Science (AMDS), Amsterdam UMC, Location VUmc, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1117, 1081 HV, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: High-dose intravenous vitamin C directly scavenges and decreases the production of harmful reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated during ischemia/reperfusion after a cardiac arrest. The aim of this study is to investigate whether short-term treatment with a supplementary or very high-dose intravenous vitamin C reduces organ failure in post-cardiac arrest patients.

Methods: This is a double-blind, multi-center, randomized placebo-controlled trial conducted in 7 intensive care units (ICUs) in The Netherlands. A total of 270 patients with cardiac arrest and return of spontaneous circulation will be randomly assigned to three groups of 90 patients (1:1:1 ratio, stratified by site and age). Patients will intravenously receive a placebo, a supplementation dose of 3 g of vitamin C or a pharmacological dose of 10 g of vitamin C per day for 96 h. The primary endpoint is organ failure at 96 h as measured by the Resuscitation-Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (R-SOFA) score at 96 h minus the baseline score (delta R-SOFA). Secondary endpoints are a neurological outcome, mortality, length of ICU and hospital stay, myocardial injury, vasopressor support, lung injury score, ventilator-free days, renal function, ICU-acquired weakness, delirium, oxidative stress parameters, and plasma vitamin C concentrations.

Discussion: Vitamin C supplementation is safe and preclinical studies have shown beneficial effects of high-dose IV vitamin C in cardiac arrest models. This is the first RCT to assess the clinical effect of intravenous vitamin C on organ dysfunction in critically ill patients after cardiac arrest.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03509662. Registered on April 26, 2018. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03509662 European Clinical Trials Database (EudraCT): 2017-004318-25. Registered on June 8, 2018. https://www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu/ctr-search/trial/2017-004318-25/NL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-021-05483-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8371424PMC
August 2021

Long-term survival and health-related quality of life after in-hospital cardiac arrest.

Resuscitation 2021 Oct 14;167:297-306. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

Introduction: In-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) is an adverse event associated with high mortality. Because of the impact of IHCA more data is needed on incidence, outcomes and associated factors that are present prior to cardiac arrest. The aim was to assess one-year survival, patient-centred outcomes after IHCA and their associated pre-arrest factors.

Methods: A multicentre prospective cohort study in 25 hospitals between January 1st 2017 and May 31st 2018. Patients ≥ 18 years receiving cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) for IHCA were included. Data were collected using Utstein and COSCA-criteria, supplemented by pre-arrest Modified Rankin Scale (MRS, functional status) and morbidity through the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI). Main outcomes were survival, health-related quality of life (HRQoL, EuroQoL) and functional status (MRS) after one-year.

Results: A total of 713 patients were included, 64.5% was male, median age was 63 years (IQR 52-72) and 72.8% had a non-shockable rhythm, 394 (55.3%) achieved ROSC, 231 (32.4%) survived to hospital discharge and 198 (27.8%) survived one year after cardiac arrest. Higher pre-arrest MRS, age and CCI were associated with mortality. At one year, patients rated HRQoL 72/100 points on the EQ-VAS and 69.7% was functionally independent.

Conclusion: One-year survival after IHCA in this study is 27.8%, which is relatively high compared to previous studies. Survival is associated with a patient's pre-arrest functional status and morbidity. HRQoL appears acceptable, however functional rehabilitation warrants attention. These findings provide a comprehensive insight in in-hospital cardiac arrest prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resuscitation.2021.07.006DOI Listing
October 2021

The effect of immediate coronary angiography after cardiac arrest without ST-segment elevation on left ventricular function. A sub-study of the COACT randomised trial.

Resuscitation 2021 07 28;164:93-100. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Intensive care medicine, Noord West Ziekenhuisgroep, Alkmaar, The Netherlands.

Background: The effect of immediate coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients who are successfully resuscitated after cardiac arrest in the absence of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) on left ventricular function is currently unknown.

Methods: This prespecified sub-study of a multicentre trial evaluated 552 patients, successfully resuscitated from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest without signs of STEMI. Patients were randomized to either undergo immediate coronary angiography or delayed coronary angiography, after neurologic recovery. All patients underwent PCI if indicated. The main outcomes of this analysis were left ventricular ejection fraction and end-diastolic and systolic volumes assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging or echocardiography.

Results: Data on left ventricular function was available for 397 patients. The mean (± standard deviation) left ventricular ejection fraction was 45.2% (±12.8) in the immediate angiography group and 48.4% (±13.2) in the delayed angiography group (mean difference: -3.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], -6.75 to 0.37). Median left ventricular end-diastolic volume was 177 ml in the immediate angiography group compared to 169 ml in the delayed angiography group (ratio of geometric means: 1.06; 95% CI, 0.95-1.19). In addition, mean left ventricular end-systolic volume was 90 ml in the immediate angiography group compared to 78 ml in the delayed angiography group (ratio of geometric means: 1.13; 95% CI 0.97-1.32).

Conclusion: In patients successfully resuscitated after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and without signs of STEMI, immediate coronary angiography was not found to improve left ventricular dimensions or function compared with a delayed angiography strategy.

Clinical Trial Registration: Netherlands Trial Register number, NTR4973.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resuscitation.2021.04.020DOI Listing
July 2021

[Thromboembolisms due to recreational use of nitrous oxide].

Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 2021 04 26;165. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

OLVG, Amsterdam: Afd. Hartcentrum.

Nitrous oxide (N2O) is increasingly used as a recreational drug, and is presumed relatively safe and innocent. The risks for neurological complications are often known, however the risks of serious thromboembolic events are not. We describe three cases of acute thromboembolic events resulting in serious cardiovascular complications after N2O abuse: one case of myocardial infarction that resulted in a reduced ejection fraction, one case of peripheral arterial occlusion that led to limb amputation and one case of pulmonary embolism that resulted in hemodynamic instability requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and surgical removal. All patients were young adults with a low cardiovascular risk profile. N2O inactivates vitamin B12, leading to vitamin B12 deficiency and subsequent to hyperhomocysteinemia, which is associated with the formation of fibrinolysis-resistant blood thrombi. In conclusion, we contest the safety and innocence of recreational N2O (ab)use. Our three cases illustrate that, next to previously described neurological complications, the use of nitrous oxide is associated with thromboembolic cardiovascular complications, presumably mediated by hyperhomocysteinemia.
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April 2021

Data on sex differences in one-year outcomes of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients without ST-segment elevation.

Data Brief 2020 Dec 12;33:106521. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Department of Intensive care medicine, Maastricht University Medical Center, University Maastricht, Maastricht, the Netherlands.

Sex differences in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients are increasingly recognized. Although it has been found that post-resuscitated women are less likely to have significant coronary artery disease (CAD) than men, data on follow-up in these patients are limited. Data for this data in brief article was obtained as a part of the randomized controlled Coronary Angiography after Cardiac Arrest without ST-segment elevation (COACT) trial. The data supplements the manuscript "Sex differences in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients without ST-segment elevation: A COACT trial substudy" were it was found that women were less likely to have significant CAD including chronic total occlusions, and had worse survival when CAD was present. The dataset presented in this paper describes sex differences on interventions, implantable-cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) shocks and hospitalizations due to heart failure during one-year follow-up in patients successfully resuscitated after OHCA. Data was derived through a telephone interview at one year with the patient or general practitioner. Patients in this randomized dataset reflects a homogenous study population, which can be valuable to further build on research regarding long-term sex differences and to further improve cardiac care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2020.106521DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7691722PMC
December 2020

Sex differences in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest without ST-segment elevation: A COACT trial substudy.

Resuscitation 2021 01 12;158:14-22. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Department of Intensive care medicine, Maastricht University Medical Centre, University Maastricht, Maastricht, the Netherlands.

Background: Whether sex is associated with outcomes of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is unclear.

Objectives: This study examined sex differences in survival in patients with OHCA without ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).

Methods: Using data from the randomized controlled Coronary Angiography after Cardiac Arrest (COACT) trial, the primary point of interest was sex differences in OHCA-related one-year survival. Secondary points of interest included the benefit of immediate coronary angiography compared to delayed angiography until after neurologic recovery, angiographic and clinical outcomes.

Results: In total, 522 patients (79.1% men) were included. Overall one-year survival was 59.6% in women and 63.4% in men (HR 1.18; 95% CI: 0.76-1.81;p = 0.47). No cardiovascular risk factors were found that modified survival. Women less often had significant coronary artery disease (CAD) (37.0% vs. 71.3%;p < 0.001), but when present, they had a worse prognosis than women without CAD (HR 3.06; 95% CI 1.31-7.19;p = 0.01). This was not the case for men (HR 1.05; 95% CI 0.67-1.65;p = 0.83). In both sexes, immediate coronary angiography did not improve one-year survival compared to delayed angiography (women, odds ratio (OR) 0.87; 95% CI 0.58-1.30;p = 0.49; vs. men, OR 0.97; 95% CI 0.45-2.09;p = 0.93).

Conclusion: In OHCA patients without STEMI, we found no sex differences in overall one-year survival. Women less often had significant CAD, but when CAD was present they had worse survival than women without CAD. This was not the case for men. Both sexes did not benefit from a strategy of immediate coronary angiography as compared to delayed strategy with respect to one-year survival.

Clinical Trial Registration Number: Netherlands trial register (NTR) 4973.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resuscitation.2020.10.026DOI Listing
January 2021

Coronary Angiography After Cardiac Arrest Without ST Segment Elevation: One-Year Outcomes of the COACT Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Cardiol 2020 Dec;5(12):1358-1365

Department of Cardiology, Scheper Hospital, Emmen, the Netherlands.

Importance: Ischemic heart disease is a common cause of cardiac arrest. However, randomized data on long-term clinical outcomes of immediate coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients successfully resuscitated from cardiac arrest in the absence of ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) are lacking.

Objective: To determine whether immediate coronary angiography improves clinical outcomes at 1 year in patients after cardiac arrest without signs of STEMI, compared with a delayed coronary angiography strategy.

Design, Setting, And Participants: A prespecified analysis of a multicenter, open-label, randomized clinical trial evaluated 552 patients who were enrolled in 19 Dutch centers between January 8, 2015, and July 17, 2018. The study included patients who experienced out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with a shockable rhythm who were successfully resuscitated without signs of STEMI. Follow-up was performed at 1 year. Data were analyzed, using the intention-to-treat principle, between August 29 and October 10, 2019.

Interventions: Immediate coronary angiography and PCI if indicated or coronary angiography and PCI if indicated, delayed until after neurologic recovery.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Survival, myocardial infarction, revascularization, implantable cardiac defibrillator shock, quality of life, hospitalization for heart failure, and the composite of death or myocardial infarction or revascularization after 1 year.

Results: At 1 year, data on 522 of 552 patients (94.6%) were available for analysis. Of these patients, 413 were men (79.1%); mean (SD) age was 65.4 (12.3) years. A total of 162 of 264 patients (61.4%) in the immediate angiography group and 165 of 258 patients (64.0%) in the delayed angiography group were alive (odds ratio, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.63-1.28). The composite end point of death, myocardial infarction, or repeated revascularization since the index hospitalization was met in 112 patients (42.9%) in the immediate group and 104 patients (40.6%) in the delayed group (odds ratio, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.77-1.56). No significant differences between the groups were observed for the other outcomes at 1-year follow-up. For example, the rate of ICD shocks was 20.4% in the immediate group and 16.2% in the delayed group (odds ratio, 1.32; 95% CI, 0.66-2.64).

Conclusions And Relevance: In this trial of patients successfully resuscitated after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and without signs of STEMI, a strategy of immediate angiography was not found to be superior to a strategy of delayed angiography with respect to clinical outcomes at 1 year. Coronary angiography in this patient group can therefore be delayed until after neurologic recovery without affecting outcomes.

Trial Registration: trialregister.nl Identifier: NTR4973.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamacardio.2020.3670DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7489423PMC
December 2020

Coronary Angiography after Cardiac Arrest without ST-Segment Elevation.

N Engl J Med 2019 Apr 18;380(15):1397-1407. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

From the Departments of Cardiology (J.S.L., G.N.J., N.W.H., N.R.), Intensive Care Medicine (P.W.G.E., H.M.O.-S.), and Epidemiology and Biostatistics (P.M.V.), Amsterdam University Medical Center VUmc, the Departments of Cardiology (J.P.H.) and Intensive Care Medicine (A.P.J.V.), Amsterdam University Medical Center AMC, and the Departments of Cardiology (M.A.V.) and Intensive Care Medicine (B.B.), Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Amsterdam, the Thorax Center, Erasmus Medical Center (L.S.D.J., E.A.D.), and the Departments of Cardiology (G.J.V.) and Intensive Care Medicine (B.J.W.E.), Maasstad Hospital, Rotterdam, the Departments of Cardiology (M. Meuwissen) and Intensive Care Medicine (T.A.R.), Amphia Hospital, Breda, the Departments of Cardiology (H.A.B.) and Intensive Care Medicine (M.J.B.), Rijnstate Hospital, Arnhem, the Departments of Cardiology (G.B.B.) and Intensive Care Medicine (R.B.), Haga Hospital, and the Department of Cardiology, Haaglanden Medical Center (P.V.O.), The Hague, the Departments of Cardiology (P.H.) and Intensive Care Medicine (I.C.C.H.), University of Groningen, Groningen, the Departments of Cardiology (M.V.) and Intensive Care Medicine (J.J.H.), University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Departments of Intensive Care Medicine (A.B.) and Cardiology (M.S.), Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede, the Departments of Cardiology (C.C., N.R.) and Intensive Care Medicine (H.H.), Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Departments of Cardiology (T.A.C.M.H.) and Intensive Care Medicine (W.R.), Noordwest Ziekenhuisgroep, Alkmaar, the Departments of Intensive Care Medicine (T.S.R.D.) and Cardiology (H.J.G.M.C.), Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, the Department of Cardiology, Scheper Hospital, Emmen (G.A.J.J.), the Department of Cardiology, Isala Hospital, Zwolle (M.T.M.G.), the Department of Cardiology, Tergooi Hospital, Blaricum (K.P.), and the Department of Cardiology, Elisabeth-Tweesteden Hospital, Tilburg (M. Magro) - all in the Netherlands.

Background: Ischemic heart disease is a major cause of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. The role of immediate coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the treatment of patients who have been successfully resuscitated after cardiac arrest in the absence of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) remains uncertain.

Methods: In this multicenter trial, we randomly assigned 552 patients who had cardiac arrest without signs of STEMI to undergo immediate coronary angiography or coronary angiography that was delayed until after neurologic recovery. All patients underwent PCI if indicated. The primary end point was survival at 90 days. Secondary end points included survival at 90 days with good cerebral performance or mild or moderate disability, myocardial injury, duration of catecholamine support, markers of shock, recurrence of ventricular tachycardia, duration of mechanical ventilation, major bleeding, occurrence of acute kidney injury, need for renal-replacement therapy, time to target temperature, and neurologic status at discharge from the intensive care unit.

Results: At 90 days, 176 of 273 patients (64.5%) in the immediate angiography group and 178 of 265 patients (67.2%) in the delayed angiography group were alive (odds ratio, 0.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.62 to 1.27; P = 0.51). The median time to target temperature was 5.4 hours in the immediate angiography group and 4.7 hours in the delayed angiography group (ratio of geometric means, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.36). No significant differences between the groups were found in the remaining secondary end points.

Conclusions: Among patients who had been successfully resuscitated after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and had no signs of STEMI, a strategy of immediate angiography was not found to be better than a strategy of delayed angiography with respect to overall survival at 90 days. (Funded by the Netherlands Heart Institute and others; COACT Netherlands Trial Register number, NTR4973.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1816897DOI Listing
April 2019

Myocardial preload alters central pressure augmentation through changes in the forward wave.

J Hypertens 2018 03;36(3):544-551

Department of Vascular Medicine, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam.

Objective: Augmentation index (AIx) is often used to quantify the contribution of wave reflection to central pulse pressure. Recent studies have challenged this view by showing how contractility-induced changes in the forward pressure wave can markedly impact AIx. We hypothesized that changes in preload will also affect AIx through changes in the forward wave and studied this in two experiments.

Methods: Noninvasively obtained aortic pressure was used to study central haemodynamics and wave morphology. In the first experiment, we examined the effects of head-up tilt with and without unilateral thigh cuff in 12 young healthy volunteers (mean age 26 years, 50% men). In the second experiment, we examined the effects of active standing in 31 middle-aged patients (mean age 57 years, 65% men) before and after phlebotomy.

Results: Head-up tilt or active standing significantly decreased AIx [-17.7 ± 10.4 percentage point (pp) in the young population, -4.7 ± 12.3 pp in the middle-aged population, both P < 0.05]. The fall in AIx was associated with increases in HR, diastolic pressure and systemic vascular resistance and a decrease in stroke volume (all P < 0.05). Inflation of a unilateral thigh cuff reduced the decrease in AIx by 10.7 pp, whereas 500 ml of blood loss augmented the fall in AIx by 5.9 pp (both P < 0.05). The changes in AIx were related to a preload-induced change in forward pressure wave shape (earlier peaking and steeper downstroke).

Conclusion: Next to inotropic and chronotropic effects, preload emerges as another myocardial factor that obscures the relation between wave reflection and AIx.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HJH.0000000000001583DOI Listing
March 2018

Blood pressure reduction after gastric bypass surgery is explained by a decrease in cardiac output.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2017 Feb 20;122(2):223-229. Epub 2016 Oct 20.

Department of Vascular Medicine, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands;

Blood pressure (BP) decreases in the first weeks after Roux-and-Y gastric bypass surgery. Yet the pathophysiology of the BP-lowering effects observed after gastric bypass surgery is incompletely understood. We evaluated BP, systemic hemodynamics, and baroreflex sensitivity in 15 obese women[mean age 42 ± 7 standard deviation (SD) yr, body mass index 45 ± 6 kg/m] 2 wk before and 6 wk following Roux-and-Y gastric bypass surgery. Six weeks after gastric bypass surgery, mean body weight decreased by 13 ± 5 kg (10%, P < 0.001). Office BP decreased from 137 ± 10/86 ± 6 to 128 ± 12/81 ± 9 mmHg (P < 0.001, P < 0.01), while daytime ambulatory BP decreased from 128 ± 14/80 ± 9 to 114 ± 10/73 ± 6 mmHg (P = 0.01, P = 0.05), whereas nighttime BP decreased from 111 ± 13/66 ± 7 to 102 ± 9/62 ± 7 mmHg (P = 0.04, P < 0.01). The decrease in BP was associated with a 1.6 ± 1.2 l/min (20%, P < 0.01) decrease in cardiac output (CO), while systemic vascular resistance increased (153 ± 189 dyn·s·cm, 15%, P < 0.01). The maximal ascending slope in systolic blood pressure decreased (192 mmHg/s, 19%, P = 0.01), suggesting a reduction in left ventricular contractility. Baroreflex sensitivity increased from 9.0 [6.4-14.3] to 13.8 [8.5-19.0] ms/mmHg (median [interquartile range]; P < 0.01) and was inversely correlated with the reductions in heart rate (R = -0.64, P = 0.02) and CO (R = -0.61, P = 0.03). In contrast, changes in body weight were not correlated with changes in either BP or CO. The BP reduction following Roux-and-Y gastric bypass surgery is correlated with a decrease in CO independent of changes in body weight. The contribution of heart rate to the reduction in CO together with enhanced baroreflex sensitivity suggests a shift toward increased parasympathetic cardiovascular control.

New & Noteworthy: The reason for the decrease in blood pressure (BP) in the first weeks after gastric bypass surgery remains to be elucidated. We show that the reduction in BP following surgery is caused by a decrease in cardiac output. In addition, the maximal ascending slope in systolic blood pressure decreased suggesting a reduction in left ventricular contractility and cardiac workload. These findings help to understand the physiological changes following gastric bypass surgery and are relevant in light of the increased risk of heart failure in these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00362.2016DOI Listing
February 2017

Effects of thiazide-type and thiazide-like diuretics on cardiovascular events and mortality: systematic review and meta-analysis.

Hypertension 2015 May 2;65(5):1033-40. Epub 2015 Mar 2.

From the Departments of Nephrology (R.H.G.O.E., L.V.) and Vascular Medicine (W.J.F., B.v.d.B., L.M.B., B.-J.H.v.d.B.), Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Thiazide diuretics are recommended as first-line therapy for hypertension and are among the most commonly prescribed drugs worldwide. According to their molecular structure, thiazide diuretics can be divided in thiazide-type (TT) and thiazide-like (TL) diuretics. TL diuretics have a longer elimination half-life compared with TT diuretics and have been shown to exert additional pharmacological effects, which may differently affect cardiovascular risk. In this meta-analysis, we compared the effects of TT and TL diuretics on cardiovascular events and mortality. Randomized, controlled studies in adult hypertensive patients that compared TT or TL diuretics with placebo or antihypertensive drugs and had ≥1 year follow-up were included. Primary outcome was cardiovascular events; secondary outcomes included coronary events, heart failure, cerebrovascular events, and all-cause mortality. Meta-regression analysis was used to identify confounders and correct for the achieved blood pressure reductions. Twenty-one studies with >480 000 patient-years were included. Outcomes were not affected by heterogeneity in age, sex, and ethnicity among included studies, whereas larger blood pressure reductions were significantly associated with increased risk reductions for all outcomes (P<0.001). Corrected for differences in office blood pressure reductions among trials, TL diuretics resulted in a 12% additional risk reduction for cardiovascular events (P=0.049) and a 21% additional risk reduction for heart failure (P=0.023) when compared with TT diuretics. The incidence of adverse events was comparable among TT, TL diuretics, and other antihypertensive therapy. Our data suggest that the best available evidence seems to favor TL diuretics as the drug of choice when thiazide treatment is considered for hypertension.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.114.05122DOI Listing
May 2015

Lack of difference between nebivolol/hydrochlorothiazide and metoprolol/hydrochlorothiazide on aortic wave augmentation and central blood pressure.

J Hypertens 2013 Dec;31(12):2447-54

aDepartment of Vascular Medicine, Academic Medical Center bEdwards Lifesciences BMEYE cLaboratory for Clinical Cardiovascular Physiology, Heart Failure Research Center, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Background: The vasodilating beta-blocker nebivolol is thought to be superior in lowering wave reflection and central blood pressure (BP) compared to nonvasodilating beta-blockers. The results from studies comparing nebivolol with either metoprolol or atenolol, with or without hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ), are not unequivocal.

Methods: We examined the effects of nebivolol 5 mg and metoprolol 100 mg with HCTZ 12.5 mg on aortic wave augmentation, central BP and hemodynamics using a randomized, double-blind, crossover design. We included 22 patients (17 men, age 59.9 ± 6.4 years) with office SBP of 155 ± 16 mmHg and DBP of 93 ± 10 mmHg. Radial applanation tonometry and noninvasive, continuous finger arterial BP measurement was performed at baseline and after 4 weeks of treatment with either drug regimen, separated by a 4-week washout period.

Results: Neither treatment affected aortic wave augmentation significantly. Augmentation index increased 1.0 ± 7.8% (P = 0.5) for nebivolol/HCTZ and 2.4 ± 6.6% (P = 0.07) for metoprolol/HCTZ. Nebivolol/HCTZ lowered central SBP by 15.8 ± 14.9 mmHg and DBP 10.5 ± 8.4 mmHg, and with metoprolol/HCTZ by 13.5 ± 12.3 mmHg for SBP and 9.5 ± 6.8 mmHg for DBP (all P < 0.001). Heart rate was lowered 8.1 ± 5.4 beats/min by nebivolol/HCTZ and 8.6 ± 4.9 beats/min by metoprolol/HCTZ. Peripheral BP was reduced to a similar extent as central BP. Peripheral BP decreased by 16.3 ± 14.9 mmHg systolic and 10.1 ± 8.2 mmHg diastolic with nebivolol/HCTZ, and by 15.2 ± 13.0 mmHg systolic and 9.1 ± 6.9 mmHg diastolic with metoprolol/HCTZ. Both treatment modalities had a similar effect on stroke volume, cardiac output, left-ventricular contractility and peripheral resistance.

Conclusion: Nebivolol was not superior to metoprolol in reducing aortic wave augmentation or central BP when combined with HCTZ.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HJH.0b013e328364fbcaDOI Listing
December 2013

Differential effects of nonselective versus selective β-blockers on cardiac sympathetic activity and hemostasis in patients with heart failure.

J Nucl Med 2013 Oct 22;54(10):1733-9. Epub 2013 Aug 22.

Department of Vascular Medicine, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Unlabelled: Carvedilol, a nonselective β-blocker, may be more effective than the selective β-blocker metoprolol in reducing the risk of thromboembolic events in heart failure. The aim of this study was, first, to assess whether there is a differential response in cardiac sympathetic activity by (123)I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine ((123)I-MIBG) imaging when either β-blocker is used. Second, we assessed whether that response correlates with levels of various serum factors that serve as markers for coagulability.

Methods: In this prospective, randomized, open-label crossover study with masked outcome assessments, stable heart failure patients (left ventricular ejection fraction < 40%) homozygous for the Arg16/Gln27 (n = 13) or Gly16/Glu27 haplotype (n = 8) of the β2-receptor were randomized to equipotent dosages of carvedilol or metoprolol for two 6-wk periods. Primary outcome was sympathetic activity as measured by (123)I-MIBG myocardial washout. Secondary outcomes included markers of hemostasis.

Results: (123)I-MIBG cardiac washout was lower during carvedilol than metoprolol treatment (12.9% ± 3.9% vs. 22.1% ± 2.8%, respectively, P = 0.003), irrespective of β2-adrenergic receptor haplotype. In addition, treatment with carvedilol resulted in a lower von Willebrand factor than did metoprolol (149% ± 13% vs. 157% ± 13%, respectively, P = 0.01), irrespective of β2-adrenergic receptor haplotype.

Conclusion: Compared with metoprolol, carvedilol resulted in greater reduction of sympathetic activity after 6 wk of treatment and lower von Willebrand factor concentrations in both Arg16/Gln27 and Gly16/Glu27 individuals. Therefore, carvedilol may reduce the risk of thromboembolic events in patients with heart failure, irrespective of β2-receptor haplotype status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2967/jnumed.113.120477DOI Listing
October 2013

Central versus peripheral blood pressure in malignant hypertension; effects of antihypertensive treatment.

Am J Hypertens 2013 Apr 10;26(4):574-9. Epub 2013 Jan 10.

Department of Vascular Medicine, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and labetalol are recommended for the immediate treatment of malignant hypertension. Both are intravenous agents but have different effects on systemic hemodynamics, and may have differential effects on pulse-wave reflection and pulse-pressure amplification, with consequences for peripheral versus central blood pressures (BPs).

Methods: We conducted a nonrandomized, open-label study of 8 patients treated with sodium nitroprusside (mean age (±SD), 44±14 years; 6 males; diastolic/systolic BP, 225±22/135±8mm Hg) and 6 patients treated with intravenous labetalol (mean age, 39±15 years; 4 males; systolic/diastolic BP, 232±22/138±17mm Hg) before and after treatment for malignant hypertension, aiming at a 25% reduction in mean arterial pressure. We measured peripheral pressures with an intra-arterial catheter in the radial artery and derived central pressures with a generalized transfer filter.

Results: Mean arterial pressure was similarly reduced with sodium nitroprusside and labetalol (by 27% and 30%, respectively; P = 0.76). There was a nonsignificantly greater reduction in peripheral systolic blood pressure (SBP) with labetalol than with sodium nitroprusside (29±11% vs. 18±7%, P = 0.08). The decline in peripheral diastolic blood pressure (DBP) with the two agents was comparable, whereas the reduction in peripheral pulse pressure was 8±16% with SNP and 33±17% with labetalol (P = 0.01). The decline in reflection magnitude was greater with SNP than with labetalol. There were no significant differences in the reduction of central BP with SNP and labetalol. The amplification of PP increased with SNP but did not change with labetalol.

Conclusions: We found no difference in central SBP or PP in subjects treated with SNP and labetalol, but labetalol produced a greater reduction in peripheral SBP and PP in the immediate treatment of malignant hypertension.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajh/hps075DOI Listing
April 2013

Patients with low HDL-cholesterol caused by mutations in LCAT have increased arterial stiffness.

Atherosclerosis 2012 Dec 27;225(2):481-5. Epub 2012 Sep 27.

Department of Vascular Medicine, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Objective: Carriers of a functional mutation in LCAT, encoding lecithin:cholesterol acyl transferase, are exposed to lifelong low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) levels. We investigated whether LCAT mutation carriers have increased arterial stiffness as a marker of cardiovascular disease and whether arterial stiffness was associated with carotid wall thickening.

Methods: We assessed 45 carriers of LCAT mutations (mean age ± SD 46 ± 13 yrs) and 45 age-matched controls. Probands referred with established cardiovascular disease were excluded. We measured carotid-fermoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) and carotid artery wall thickening by ultrasound and 3.0 T magnetic resonance imaging.

Results: In carriers, HDL-c was lower (32 ± 12 vs. 59 ± 16 mg/dl; p < 0.0001) and triglycerides were higher (median 116 [IQR 80-170] vs. 71 [IQR 53-89] mg/dl; p < 0.001) vs. controls. PWV was higher in carriers vs. controls (7.9 ± 2.0 m/s vs. 7.1 ± 1.6 m/s; p < 0.01). This difference retained significance in multivariate analysis including age, sex, mean arterial pressure and body mass index, and after exclusion of carriers and controls with cardiovascular disease. Both in carriers and controls, PWV was correlated with wall thickening of the carotid arteries as assessed by ultrasound (R 0.50, p < 0.001 for carriers and R 0.36, p < 0.04 for controls) and 3.0 T magnetic resonance imaging (R 0.54, p < 0.001 for carriers and R 0.58, p < 0.001 for controls).

Conclusion: Pulse wave velocity is increased in LCAT mutation carriers with low HDL-c and is associated with carotid wall thickening.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2012.09.022DOI Listing
December 2012

Vascular aspects of Fabry disease in relation to clinical manifestations and elevations in plasma globotriaosylsphingosine.

Hypertension 2012 Oct 6;60(4):998-1005. Epub 2012 Aug 6.

Department of Internal Medicine, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Fabry disease is an X-linked hereditary lysosomal storage disorder attributed to a deficiency of α-galactosidase A leading to increased plasma levels of globotriaosylsphingosine (lysoGb3). The disease presents as a vascular disease, with cerebral, cardiac, and renal complications. Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), brachial flow-mediated dilation (FMD), pulse wave velocity, and advanced glycation end products were measured in 57 classically affected patients (22 men and 35 women), 55 healthy matched controls (20 men and 35 women), and 10 atypical Fabry disease patients (5 men and 5 women). Most patients received enzyme replacement therapy. In classically affected male patients, brachial FMD was decreased (2.9% [95% CI, 0.8% to 7.9%] versus 5.9% [2.1% to 8.5%] in controls; P=0.01), and carotid IMT was increased (0.67 mm [95% CI, 0.50-0.96 mm] versus 0.59 mm [95% CI, 0.40-0.76 mm] in controls; P=0.01). In women and atypical patients these vascular parameters were comparable with controls. Pulse wave velocity was not different; advanced glycation end products were only slightly increased in atypical patients. In classically affected women, a small increase in lysoGb3 was associated with an increase in IMT independent of age. In the classically affected men, all with increased IMT and high levels of plasma lysoGb3, lysoGb3 levels did not add to a higher IMT, suggestive of a ceiling effect. For FMD, elevated lysoGb3 levels (>7 nmol/L) contributed to a 2.9% lower FMD independent of age and sex (P=0.02). Increased carotid IMT and decreased brachial FMD occur in classic Fabry disease, which is associated with plasma lysoGb3 level independent of age and sex. These observations still exist despite enzyme replacement therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.112.195685DOI Listing
October 2012

Arterial stiffness is increased in families with premature coronary artery disease.

Heart 2012 Mar 22;98(6):490-4. Epub 2011 Dec 22.

Department of Vascular Medicine, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Objective: A positive family history of premature coronary artery disease (CAD) is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), independent of traditional risk factors. Therefore, currently used risk algorithms poorly predict risk in these individuals. Novel methods are thus needed to assess cardiovascular risk. Pulse-wave velocity (PWV) might be such a method, but it is unknown whether PWV is increased in first-degree relatives of patients with premature CAD.

Design: Observational case-control study.

Setting: Academic hospital.

Patients: Patients with premature CAD and a positive family history of premature CVD (n=50), their first-degree relatives without CVD (n=50) and unrelated controls (n=50).

Interventions: None.

Main Outcome Measures: PWV was measured with using an Arteriograph system. Differences in PWV were assessed by a generalised linear model and multinomial logistic regression.

Results: Patients with premature CAD had a higher PWV compared with first-degree relatives and controls (9.69±2.90 m/s vs 8.15±1.96 m/s and 7.38±1.08 m/s; p<0.05 patients vs all groups). Linear regression showed all groups related to PWV, with patients having the highest PWV and controls the lowest (p<0.0001). Furthermore, PWV was associated with first-degree relatives (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.72; p<0.05) and premature CAD (OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.32 to 2.24; p<0.05) compared with controls. These findings were independent of blood pressure and other traditional risk factors.

Conclusions: Patients with premature CAD and their first-degree relatives had higher PWV compared with controls, independent of other risk factors. This holds promise for the future, in which arterial stiffness might play a role in risk prediction within families with premature CAD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/heartjnl-2011-300999DOI Listing
March 2012

Carriers of lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase gene mutations have accelerated atherogenesis as assessed by carotid 3.0-T magnetic resonance imaging [corrected].

J Am Coll Cardiol 2011 Dec;58(24):2481-7

Department of Vascular Medicine, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the role of reduced lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) function on atherogenesis using 3.0-T carotid magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and B-mode ultrasound.

Background: The role of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol as a causal factor in atherogenesis has recently been questioned. LCAT plays a key role in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol metabolism.

Methods: Carotid 3.0-T MRI and B-mode ultrasound measurements were performed in 40 carriers of LCAT gene mutations and 40 controls, matched for age. Patients with cardiovascular disease were excluded.

Results: Carriers had 31% lower LCAT activity levels and 38% decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (both p < 0.001 vs. controls). Carriers presented with a 10% higher normalized wall index (0.34 ± 0.07 vs. 0.31 ± 0.04, p = 0.002), a 22% higher mean wall area (17.3 ± 8.5 mm(2) vs. 14.2 ± 4.1 mm(2), p = 0.01), and a 22% higher total wall volume (1,039 ± 508 mm(3) vs. 851 ± 247 mm(3), p = 0.01 vs. controls) as measured by MRI. The prevalence (20 vs. 5, p = 0.002) and the total volume (102 mm(3) vs. 3 mm(3)) of atherosclerotic plaque components on MRI relating to lipid-rich tissue or calcification were also higher in carriers than in controls. All differences retained significance after adjustment for age, sex, blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, body mass index, smoking, and family history of cardiovascular disease. Common carotid intima-media thickness measured with ultrasound was increased in carriers by 12.5% (0.72 ± 0.33 mm vs. 0.64 ± 0.15 mm, p = 0.14).

Conclusions: Carriers of LCAT gene mutations exhibit increased carotid atherosclerosis, indicating an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The present findings imply that increasing LCAT activity may be an attractive target in cardiovascular prevention strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2010.11.092DOI Listing
December 2011

Arterial wave reflection decreases gradually from supine to upright.

Blood Press 2011 Dec 16;20(6):370-5. Epub 2011 Jun 16.

Department of Vascular Medicine, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

BACKGROUND. An increase in total peripheral resistance (TPR) usually increases arterial wave reflection. During passive head-up tilt (HUT), however, arterial wave reflection decreases with increasing TPR. This study addressed whether arterial wave reflection gradually decreases during HUT. METHODS. In 10 healthy volunteers (22-39 years, nine males), we recorded finger arterial pressures in supine position (0°), and 30°and 70°degrees HUT and active standing (90°). Aortic pressure was constructed from the finger pressure signal and hemodynamics were calculated. Arterial wave reflection was quantified as the augmentation index (AIx) and the reflection magnitude (RM). RESULTS. During HUT, heart rate increased (p < 0.001), stroke volume and cardiac output decreased (p < 0.001 and p < 0.01), diastolic blood pressure increased (p < 0.001), whereas systolic blood pressure did not change. TPR increased from 0.9 dyn s/cm(5) at 0? to 1.2, 1.4 and 1.4 dyn s/cm(5) at 30°, 70° and 90° (p < 0.001). AIx fell gradually from 25% at 0°to 16%, -1% and -10% at 30°, 70° and 90° (p < 0.001). The RM decreased from 0.572 at 0°to 0.456 at 90° (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION. From supine to upright, arterial wave reflection represented as AIx and RM gradually decreases in the presence of increasing TPR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/08037051.2011.588484DOI Listing
December 2011

Active standing reduces wave reflection in the presence of increased peripheral resistance in young and old healthy individuals.

J Hypertens 2011 Apr;29(4):682-9

Department of Internal Medicine, Laboratory for Clinical Cardiovascular Physiology, Center for Heart Failure Research, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Objective: Pressure wave reflections are age-dependent and generally assumed to increase with increasing peripheral resistance. We sought to determine the effect of standing on wave reflection in healthy older and younger individuals and the influence of increased peripheral resistance.

Methods: During supine rest and active standing, continuous finger arterial blood pressure was measured. Data obtained in the supine period and after 1 and 5 min standing were analysed. Aortic pressure and flow, calculated from finger pressure, were used to derive forward and backward pressure waves, reflection magnitude (ratio of backward and forward pressure waves), augmentation index, and peripheral resistance.

Results: Fifteen healthy older (aged 53±7 years) and 15 healthy younger (aged 29±5 years) individuals were included. In both groups, upon standing, stroke volume, cardiac output and pulse pressure decreased with an increase in heart rate and in diastolic pressure. In the older group peripheral resistance increased from 1.3±0.4 to 1.5±0.4 and 1.5±0.4 for supine, 1 and 5 min standing, whereas reflection magnitude decreased from 0.67±0.1 to 0.61±0.1 and 0.61±0.1, and augmentation index from 33±11 to 23±12 and 25±11. In the younger group peripheral resistance increased from 0.9±0.2 to 1.1±0.2 and 1.1±0.2, whereas reflection magnitude decreased from 0.55±0.05 to 0.48±0.05 and 0.49±0.05 and augmentation index from 18±11 to 1±18 and 4±19.

Conclusion: With standing, haemodynamic variables change similarly in older and younger individuals. The opposite changes in reflection magnitude and peripheral resistance suggest that reflection and pressure augmentation are not solely dependent on peripheral resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HJH.0b013e328343cda9DOI Listing
April 2011

On-treatment lipoprotein components and risk of cerebrovascular events in the Treating to New Targets study.

Eur J Clin Invest 2011 Feb 27;41(2):134-42. Epub 2010 Sep 27.

Department of Vascular Medicine, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Background: The Treating to New Targets (TNT) study has recently provided evidence that reduction in LDL-C levels below 2·6 mmol L⁻¹ lowers the risk of cerebrovascular events by an additional 20% to 25%, thereby confirming the value of statin therapy in preventing transient ischaemic attacks and stroke. Despite the protective effects of statin therapy, the epidemiological association between lipid components and cerebrovascular events is less clear. We therefore assessed the strength of association between in-trial lipoprotein components and cerebrovascular disease in patients receiving intensive lipid-lowering therapy.

Methods: In 9247 patients (mean age 61·0 years, 81·2% males), the association between lipoprotein components and the risk of cerebrovascular events after the first year into the TNT trial was assessed after stratification of lipoprotein components into approximate quartiles. Cox proportional hazards models were used to explore the association between lipoprotein components and time to first cerebrovascular event after adjustment for potential confounding variables.

Results: All lipoprotein components, except LDL-C, showed a significant gradient for incidence of cerebrovascular events with increasing quartiles of the lipoprotein component. If the lipoprotein components were treated as continuous variables, the adjusted hazard ratios (95% CI) for cerebrovascular events for 1 SD difference in 1-year lipoprotein components were 1·13 (1·02-1·25) for LDL-C, 0·86 (0·76-0·97) for HDL-C, 1·17 (1·04-1·28) for apoB, 0·83 (0·74-0·94) for apoA-1, 1·22 (1·10-1·34) for TC/HDL-C and 1·24 (1·12-1·37) for apoB/apoA-1.

Conclusions: In coronary heart disease patients receiving intensive lipid-lowering treatment, the on-treatment apoB/apoA-1 ratio provides the strongest association with incidence of cerebrovascular events followed by TC/HDL-C.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2362.2010.02387.xDOI Listing
February 2011

Effects on peripheral and central blood pressure of cocoa with natural or high-dose theobromine: a randomized, double-blind crossover trial.

Hypertension 2010 Nov 7;56(5):839-46. Epub 2010 Sep 7.

Department of Vascular Medicine, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Flavanol-rich cocoa products have been reported to lower blood pressure. It has been suggested that theobromine is partially responsible for this effect. We tested whether consumption of flavanol-rich cocoa drinks with natural or added theobromine could lower peripheral and central blood pressure. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled 3-period crossover trial we assigned 42 healthy individuals (age 62±4.5 years; 32 men) with office blood pressure of 130 to 159 mm Hg/85 to 99 mm Hg and low added cardiovascular risk to a random treatment sequence of dairy drinks containing placebo, flavanol-rich cocoa with natural dose consisting of 106 mg of theobromine, or theobromine-enriched flavanol-rich cocoa with 979 mg of theobromine. Treatment duration was 3 weeks with a 2-week washout. The primary outcome was the difference in 24-hour ambulatory systolic blood pressure between placebo and active treatment after 3 weeks. The difference in central systolic blood pressure between placebo and active treatment was a secondary outcome. Treatment with theobromine-enriched cocoa resulted in a mean±SE of 3.2±1.1 mm Hg higher 24-hour ambulatory systolic blood pressure compared with placebo (P<0.01). In contrast, 2 hours after theobromine-enriched cocoa, laboratory peripheral systolic blood pressure was not different from placebo, whereas central systolic blood pressure was 4.3±1.4 mm Hg lower (P=0.001). Natural dose theobromine cocoa did not significantly change either 24-hour ambulatory or central systolic blood pressure compared with placebo. In conclusion, theobromine-enriched cocoa significantly increased 24-hour ambulatory systolic blood pressure while lowering central systolic blood pressure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.110.158139DOI Listing
November 2010

Activation of inflammation and coagulation after infusion of C-reactive protein in humans.

Circ Res 2005 Apr 17;96(7):714-6. Epub 2005 Mar 17.

Department of Vascular Medicine, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

C-reactive protein (CRP) has been postulated to play a causal part in atherosclerosis and its acute complications. We assessed the effects of CRP-infusion on coagulation and inflammatory pathways to determine its role in atherothrombotic disease. Seven male volunteers received an infusion on two occasions, containing 1.25 mg/kg recombinant human CRP (rhCRP) or diluent, respectively. CRP-concentrations rose after rhCRP-infusion from 1.9 (0.3 to 8.5) to 23.9 (20.5 to 28.1) mg/L, and subsequently both inflammation and coagulation were activated. This sequence of events suggests that CRP is not only a well known marker of cardiovascular disease, but is also probably a mediator of atherothrombotic disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.RES.0000163015.67711.ABDOI Listing
April 2005
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