Publications by authors named "Bart A A Franx"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Imaging Markers for the Characterization of Gray and White Matter Changes from Acute to Chronic Stages after Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury.

J Neurotrauma 2021 Jun 11;38(12):1642-1653. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Biomedical MR Imaging and Spectroscopy Group, Center for Image Sciences, University Medical Center Utrecht and Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands. ORCID ID: 0000-0002-8185-9209; 0000-0002-4623-4078.

Despite clinical symptoms, a large majority of people with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) have normal computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Therefore, present-day neuroimaging tools are insufficient to diagnose or classify low grades of TBI. Advanced neuroimaging techniques, such as diffusion-weighted and functional MRI, may yield novel biomarkers that may aid in the diagnosis of TBI. Therefore, the present study had two aims: first, to characterize the development of MRI-based measures of structural and functional changes in gray and white matter regions from acute to chronic stages after mild and moderate TBI; and second, to identify the imaging markers that can most accurately predict outcome after TBI. To these aims, 52 rats underwent serial functional (resting-state) and structural (T1-, T2-, and diffusion-weighted) MRI before and 1 h, 1 day, 1 week, 1 month and 3-4 months after mild or moderate experimental TBI. All rats underwent behavioral testing. Histology was performed in subgroups of rats at different time points. Early after moderate TBI, axial and radial diffusivities were increased, and fractional anisotropy was reduced in the corpus callosum and bilateral hippocampi, which normalized over time and was paralleled by recovery of sensorimotor function. Correspondingly, histology revealed decreased myelin staining early after TBI, which was not detected at chronic stages. No significant changes in individual outcome measures were detected after mild TBI. However, multivariate analysis showed a significant additive contribution of diffusion parameters in the distinction between control and different grades of TBI-affected brains. Therefore, combining multiple imaging markers may increase the sensitivity for TBI-related pathology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/neu.2020.7151DOI Listing
June 2021

Sex-Specific Differences in Fat Storage, Development of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Brain Structure in Juvenile HFD-Induced Obese Ldlr-/-.Leiden Mice.

Nutrients 2019 Aug 10;11(8). Epub 2019 Aug 10.

Department of Anatomy, Radboud university medical center, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Preclinical Imaging Center PRIME, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Background: Sex-specific differences play a role in metabolism, fat storage in adipose tissue, and brain structure. At juvenile age, brain function is susceptible to the effects of obesity; little is known about sex-specific differences in juvenile obesity. Therefore, this study examined sex-specific differences in adipose tissue and liver of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice, and putative alterations between male and female mice in brain structure in relation to behavioral changes during the development of juvenile obesity.

Methods: In six-week-old male and female Ldlr-/-.Leiden mice (n = 48), the impact of 18 weeks of HFD-feeding was examined. Fat distribution, liver pathology and brain structure and function were analyzed imunohisto- and biochemically, in cognitive tasks and with MRI.

Results: HFD-fed female mice were characterized by an increased perigonadal fat mass, pronounced macrovesicular hepatic steatosis and liver inflammation. Male mice on HFD displayed an increased mesenteric fat mass, pronounced adipose tissue inflammation and microvesicular hepatic steatosis. Only male HFD-fed mice showed decreased cerebral blood flow and reduced white matter integrity.

Conclusions: At young age, male mice are more susceptible to the detrimental effects of HFD than female mice. This study emphasizes the importance of sex-specific differences in obesity, liver pathology, and brain function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu11081861DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6723313PMC
August 2019

Butyrate Reduces HFD-Induced Adipocyte Hypertrophy and Metabolic Risk Factors in Obese LDLr-/-.Leiden Mice.

Nutrients 2017 Jul 7;9(7). Epub 2017 Jul 7.

Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Preclinical Imaging Centre, Department of Anatomy, Radboud University Medical Center, 6525 EZ Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Adipose tissue (AT) has a modulating role in obesity-induced metabolic complications like type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) via the production of so-called adipokines such as leptin, adiponectin, and resistin. The adipokines are believed to influence other tissues and to affect insulin resistance, liver function, and to increase the risk of T2DM. In this study, we examined the impact of intervention with the short-chain fatty acid butyrate following a high-fat diet (HFD) on AT function and other metabolic risk factors associated with obesity and T2DM in mice during mid- and late life. In both mid- and late adulthood, butyrate reduced HFD-induced adipocyte hypertrophy and elevations in leptin levels, which were associated with body weight, and cholesterol and triglyceride levels. HFD feeding stimulated macrophage accumulation primarily in epididymal AT in both mid- and late life adult mice, which correlated with liver inflammation in late adulthood. In late-adult mice, butyrate diminished increased insulin levels, which were related to adipocyte size and macrophage content in epididymal AT. These results suggest that dietary butyrate supplementation is able to counteract HFD-induced detrimental changes in AT function and metabolic outcomes in late life. These changes underlie the obesity-induced elevated risk of T2DM, and therefore it is suggested that butyrate has potential to attenuate risk factors associated with obesity and T2DM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu9070714DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5537829PMC
July 2017

Weight Loss in Patients with Dementia: Considering the Potential Impact of Pharmacotherapy.

Drugs Aging 2017 06;34(6):425-436

Department of Neurology, Section for NeuroEpidemiology, State University of New York, Downstate Medical Center, 450 Clarkson Avenue, Box 1213, Brooklyn, NY, 11203, USA.

Unintentional body weight loss is common in patients with dementia and is linked to cognitive impairment and poorer disease outcomes. It is proposed that some dementia medications with market approval, while aiming to improve cognitive and functional outcomes of a patient with dementia, are associated with reported body weight or body mass index loss. This review presents evidence in the published literature on body weight loss in dementia, describes selected theories behind body weight loss, evaluates the potential impact of approved dementia pharmacotherapies on body weight, considers the potential role for medical foods, understands the potential influence of treatments for neuropsychiatric symptoms and signs, and finally, summarizes this important area.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40266-017-0462-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6779159PMC
June 2017
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