Publications by authors named "Barry Bohnet"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Brainstem spreading depolarization and cortical dynamics during fatal seizures in Cacna1a S218L mice.

Brain 2019 02;142(2):412-425

Department of Human Genetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is a fatal complication of epilepsy in which brainstem spreading depolarization may play a pivotal role, as suggested by animal studies. However, patiotemporal details of spreading depolarization occurring in relation to fatal seizures have not been investigated. In addition, little is known about behavioural and neurophysiological features that may discriminate spontaneous fatal from non-fatal seizures. Transgenic mice carrying the missense mutation S218L in the α1A subunit of Cav2.1 (P/Q-type) Ca2+ channels exhibit enhanced excitatory neurotransmission and increased susceptibility to spreading depolarization. Homozygous Cacna1aS218L mice show spontaneous non-fatal and fatal seizures, occurring throughout life, resulting in reduced life expectancy. To identify characteristics of fatal and non-fatal spontaneous seizures, we compared behavioural and electrophysiological seizure dynamics in freely-behaving homozygous Cacna1aS218L mice. To gain insight on the role of brainstem spreading depolarization in SUDEP, we studied the spatiotemporal distribution of spreading depolarization in the context of seizure-related death. Spontaneous and electrically-induced seizures were investigated by video monitoring and electrophysiological recordings in freely-behaving Cacna1aS218L and wild-type mice. Homozygous Cacna1aS218L mice showed multiple spontaneous tonic-clonic seizures and died from SUDEP in adulthood. Death was preceded by a tonic-clonic seizure terminating with hindlimb clonus, with suppression of cortical neuronal activity during and after the seizure. Induced seizures in freely-behaving homozygous Cacna1aS218L mice were followed by multiple spreading depolarizations and death. In wild-type or heterozygous Cacna1aS218L mice, induced seizures and spreading depolarization were never followed by death. To identify temporal and regional features of seizure-induced spreading depolarization related to fatal outcome, diffusion-weighted MRI was performed in anaesthetized homozygous Cacna1aS218L and wild-type mice. In homozygous Cacna1aS218L mice, appearance of seizure-related spreading depolarization in the brainstem correlated with respiratory arrest that was followed by cardiac arrest and death. Recordings in freely-behaving homozygous Cacna1aS218L mice confirmed brainstem spreading depolarization during spontaneous fatal seizures. These data underscore the value of the homozygous Cacna1aS218L mouse model for identifying discriminative features of fatal compared to non-fatal seizures, and support a key role for cortical neuronal suppression and brainstem spreading depolarization in SUDEP pathophysiology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awy325DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6351775PMC
February 2019

Diffusion tensor imaging shows mechanism-specific differences in injury pattern and progression in rat models of acute spinal cord injury.

Neuroimage 2019 02 26;186:43-55. Epub 2018 Oct 26.

ICORD, 818 W. 10th Ave., Vancouver, BC V5Z 1M9, Canada. Electronic address:

We investigate the ability of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to distinguish between three experimental rat models of spinal cord injury mechanism - contusion, dislocation, and distraction. Ex vivo DTI scans were performed on cord specimens that were preserved at different time points of the acute injury (3 hr, 24 hr, and 7 days post-injury) across all three injury mechanisms. White matter was classified as abnormal if their DTI metric was substantially different from regional values measured from a set of uninjured controls, thus allowing generation of binary "white matter damage maps" which categorizes each pixel in the DTI image as "normal" or "damaged". Damage classification was most robust using thresholds in the longitudinal diffusivity, which supports previous studies that show that longitudinal diffusivity is the most robust DTI metric in depicting damage in SCI. Furthermore, the spatial damage patterns from all subjects in the same group were consolidated into a "damage occurrence ratio map", which illustrates an average damage shape that characterizes the injury mechanism. Our analysis has yielded a dataset which highlights the differences in injury pattern due to the initial mode of mechanical injury. For example, contusion produced an initial injury that emanated radially outward from the central canal, with subsequent damage along the caudal corticospinal tract and rostral gracile fasciculus; dislocation injuries showed a high level of involvement in the lateral and ventral white matter which became less apparent by 7 days post-injury, and distraction injuries were found to be less focal and more distributed rostrocaudally. This work represents a first step in adopting the use of the primary injury mechanism as a clinical prognostic factor in SCI, which may help to inform the trialing of existing neuroprotective treatment candidates, the development of new therapies as well as personalize the management of SCI for the individual patient.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2018.10.067DOI Listing
February 2019

In vivo imaging reveals that pregabalin inhibits cortical spreading depression and propagation to subcortical brain structures.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2017 02 21;114(9):2401-2406. Epub 2017 Feb 21.

Michael Smith Laboratories, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada;

Migraine is characterized by severe headaches that can be preceded by an aura likely caused by cortical spreading depression (SD). The antiepileptic pregabalin (Lyrica) shows clinical promise for migraine therapy, although its efficacy and mechanism of action are unclear. As detected by diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) in wild-type (WT) mice, the acute systemic administration of pregabalin increased the threshold for SD initiation in vivo. In familial hemiplegic migraine type 1 mutant mice expressing human mutations (R192Q and S218L) in the Ca2.1 (P/Q-type) calcium channel subunit, pregabalin slowed the speed of SD propagation in vivo. Acute systemic administration of pregabalin in vivo also selectively prevented the migration of SD into subcortical striatal and hippocampal regions in the R192Q strain that exhibits a milder phenotype and gain of Ca2.1 channel function. At the cellular level, pregabalin inhibited glutamatergic synaptic transmission differentially in WT, R192Q, and S218L mice. The study describes a DW-MRI analysis method for tracking the progression of SD and provides support and a mechanism of action for pregabalin as a possible effective therapy in the treatment of migraine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1614447114DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5338525PMC
February 2017

High-resolution myelin water imaging in post-mortem multiple sclerosis spinal cord: A case report.

Mult Scler 2016 10 27;22(11):1485-1489. Epub 2016 Jan 27.

Department of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada/International Collaboration on Repair Discoveries (ICORD), University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada/Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Background: Loss of myelin in the spinal cord in multiple sclerosis (MS) is likely an important, and early, contributor to atrophy and associated disability. In vivo measurement of myelin is possible using myelin water fraction (MWF) imaging, but MWF has never been assessed in MS along the entire length of the spinal cord in vivo or in post-mortem tissue.

Objective: To assess the feasibility of measuring the distribution of MWF along the entire length of the spinal cord in post-mortem MS tissue using high-field MRI.

Methods: One formalin-fixed spinal cord from a female with secondary progressive MS (age: 78 years, disease duration: 25 years) was cut into 104 5-mm-thick cross sections along the entire length of the spinal cord from the cervico-medullary junction to the conus medullaris and imaged using a 64 echo T2 relaxation experiment at 7T.

Results: Myelin water maps showed cord anatomy in superb detail, white matter demonstrating a higher MWF than the grey matter. Anatomical variation in myelin distribution along cervical, thoracic and lumbar regions was observed. Lesions demonstrated myelin loss.

Conclusion: Post-mortem myelin water imaging of formalin-fixed MS spinal cord is feasible.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1352458515624559DOI Listing
October 2016
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