Publications by authors named "Barbara Poniedziałek"

45 Publications

Platelet function in patients undergoing surgical and transcatheter aortic valve replacement: a comparative study.

Kardiol Pol 2021 ;79(5):554-561

1st Department of Cardiology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznań, Poland.

Background: Intervention-induced platelet hypercoagulability may pose a risk of serious adverse events for patients.

Aims: This study aimed to assess whether surgical and transcatheter aortic valve replacement (SAVR and TAVR) differ in periprocedural platelet activity.

Methods: The total number of 24 patients with a mean age (SD) of 71 (13) years who underwent SAVR (n = 12) or TAVR (n = 12) were recruited for the study. The following parameters were evaluated at 4 time-points: (i) platelet indices: total platelet count (PLT), platelet distribution width (PDW) and mean platelet volume (MPV), (ii) MPV/PLT ratio, (iii) platelet level of lipid peroxidation: malondialdehyde (MDA) content and MDA/PLT ratio. Eventually, percentage variations of PLT, PDW, and MPV in relation to the baseline values were determined.

Results: MPV/PLT ratio increased significantly after procedures in both groups (P = 0.01 in TAVI and P = 0.01 in SAVR). MDA concentrations were significantly higher when assessed directly post-procedure (P = 0.04) as well as 24 hours later (P = 0.01) in the SAVR and TAVI groups. The indirect parameter of platelet activity indexed for platelet counts (MDA/PLT) was comparable between both groups before and 48 hours after procedures, but was significantly higher in SAVR patients, particularly after 24 hours after interventions (P = 0.04; medians TAVR vs SAVR, respectively).

Conclusions: Standard surgical aortic valve replacement is associated with a more pronounced platelet reaction to intervention-induced injury, as compared to the transcatheter-based procedure. The importance of these laboratory findings requires further investigation focused on early and late clinical outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.33963/KP.15964DOI Listing
January 2021

The Perception and Attitudes toward COVID-19 Vaccines: A Cross-Sectional Study in Poland.

Vaccines (Basel) 2021 Apr 14;9(4). Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Poznań University of Medical Sciences, 60-179 Poznań, Poland.

Vaccine hesitancy is a major threat to the success of COVID-19 vaccination programs. The present cross-sectional online survey of adult Poles ( = 1020) expressing a willingness to receive the COVID-19 vaccine was conducted between February and March 2021 and aimed to assess (i) the general trust in different types of vaccines, (ii) the level of acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccines already in use in Poland (BNT162b2 by BioNTech/Pfizer, mRNA-1273 by Moderna and AZD1222 by Oxford/AstraZeneca) as well as eight vaccines approved outside European Union (EU) or in advanced stages of clinical trials, (iii) level of fear of vaccination against COVID-19, and (iv) main sources of information on COVID-19 vaccination. Among all major vaccine technology, the highest level of trust was observed for the mRNA platform, with a considerable number of surveyed (>20%) not aware of the existence of vaccines produced using the traditional approach (inactivated and live attenuated vaccines). The age of participants was the main factor differentiating the level of trust in a particular vaccine type. Both BNT162b and mRNA-1273 received a high level of acceptance, contrary to AZD1222. From eight vaccines unauthorized in the EU at the moment of study, the CVnCoV (mRNA; CureVac) was met with the highest level of trust, followed by Ad26.COV2.S (vector; Janssen/Johnson&Johnson) and NVX-CoV2373 (protein; Novavax). Sputnik V (vector; Gamaleya Research Institute) was decidedly the least trusted vaccine. The median level of fear (measured by the 10-point Likert-type scale) in the studied group was 4.0, mostly related to the risk of serious allergic reactions, other severe adverse events and unknown long-term effects of vaccination. Female, individuals with a lower level of education and those not seeking any information on the COVID-19 vaccines revealed a higher fear of vaccination. Experts' materials were the major source of information on COVID-19 vaccines in the studied group. The study shows the level of trust in COVID-19 vaccines can vary much across the producers while the mRNA vaccines are received with a high level of acceptance. It also emphasizes the need for effective and continuous science communication when fighting the pandemic as it may be an ideal time to increase the general awareness of vaccines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9040382DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8069794PMC
April 2021

Platelet function in patients undergoing surgical and transcatheter aortic valve replacement: a comparative study.

Kardiol Pol 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Background: Intervention-induced platelet hypercoagulability may pose a risk of serious adverse events for patients.

Aims: The aim of this study was to assess whether surgical (SAVR) and transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) differ in periprocedural platelet activity.

Methods: The total number of 24 patients with a mean age (SD) of 71 (13) years who underwent SAVR (n=12) or TAVR (n=12) were recruited for the study. The following parameters were evaluated at four time-points: (i) platelet indices: total platelet count (PLT), platelet distribution width (PDW) and mean platelet volume (MPV), (ii) MPV/PLT ratio, (iii) platelet level of lipid peroxidation: malondialdehyde (MDA) content and MDA/PLT ratio. Eventually, percentage variations of PLT, PDW and MPV in relation to the baseline values were determined.

Results: MPV/PLT ratio increased significantly after procedures in both groups (P = 0.01 in TAVI and P = 0.01 in SAVR). MDA concentrations were significantly higher when assessed directly post-procedure (P = 0.04) as well as 24h later (P = 0.01) in the SAVR and TAVI groups. The indirect parameter of platelet activity indexed for platelet counts (MDA/PLT) was comparable between both groups before and 48 hours after procedures, but was significantly higher in SAVR patients, particularly after 24h after interventions (P = 0.04; medians TAVR vs. SAVR, respectively).

Conclusion: Standard surgical aortic valve replacement is associated with a more pronounced platelet reaction to intervention-induced injury, as compared to the transcatheter-based procedure. The importance of these laboratory findings requires further investigation focused on early and late clinical outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.33963/KP.15964DOI Listing
April 2021

Oxidative Stress, Programmed Cell Death and Microcystin Release in in Response to Grazers.

Front Microbiol 2020 17;11:1201. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Department of Environmental Medicine, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan´, Poland.

There is increasing evidence that programmed cell death (PCD) in cyanobacteria is triggered by oxidative stress and that it contributes to the survival of the cyanobacterial population such as . At the same time, microcystins (MCs) released during cell lysis have been implicated in colony formation (enabled by the release of polysaccharides) in - a strategy that allows the effect of a stressor, including grazing to be avoided or decreased. This experimental research has explored whether extracts of and (corresponding to 5, 25, 50, and 100 individuals per liter) reveal the effect on the growth, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) content, lipid peroxidation, PCD, MC-LR release, and bound exopolysaccharide (EPS) level in during 7 days of exposure. As demonstrated, extracts of both daphnids induced dose-dependent growth inhibition, increase in ROS levels, lipid peroxidation, and PCD. Moreover, the release of MC-LR and an increase in the bound EPS fraction were observed in treated cultures. Generally, the greatest effects were observed under the influence of extracts. The study indicates that grazer presence can potentially trigger a series of events in the population, with cells undergoing oxidative stress-induced PCD associated with MC release, which in turn increases EPS production by intact cells. As argued, this strategy is likely to have evolved in response to abiotic stressors, since both PCD and synthesis of MC in cyanobacteria predate the metazoan lineage. Nevertheless, it may still provide a benefit for the survival of the MC-producing population under grazer pressure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.01201DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7311652PMC
June 2020

In Vitro Toxicological Screening of Stable and Senescing Cultures of , , and .

Toxins (Basel) 2020 06 17;12(6). Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Department of Environmental Medicine, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Rokietnicka 8, 60-806 Poznań, Poland.

Toxicity of cyanobacteria is the subject of ongoing research, and a number of toxic metabolites have been described, their biosynthesis pathways have been elucidated, and the mechanism of their action has been established. However, several knowledge gaps still exist, e.g., some strains produce hitherto unknown toxic compounds, while the exact dynamics of exerted toxicity during cyanobacterial growth still requires further exploration. Therefore, the present study investigated the toxicity of extracts of nine freshwater strains of , an sp. strain isolated from the Baltic Sea, a freshwater strain of , and two strains of obtained from 25- and 70-day-old cultures. An in vitro experimental model based on hepatocytes (oxidative stress markers, DNA fragmentation, and serine/threonine protein activity) and brain homogenate (cholinesterase activity) was employed. The studied extracts demonstrated toxicity to fish cells, and in general, all examined extracts altered at least one or more of considered parameters, indicating that they possess, to some degree, toxic potency. Although the time from which the extracts were obtained had a significant importance for the response of fish cells, we observed strong variability between the different strains and species. In some strains, extracts that originated from 25-day-old cultures triggered more harmful effects on fish cells compared to those obtained from 70-day-old cultures, whereas in other strains, we observed the opposite effect or a lack of a significant change. Our study revealed that there was no clear or common pattern regarding the degree of cyanobacterial bloom toxicity at a given stage of development. This means that young cyanobacterial blooms that are just forming can pose an equally toxic threat to aquatic vertebrates and ecosystem functioning as those that are stable or old with a tendency to collapse. This might be largely due to a high variability of strains in the bloom.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxins12060400DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7354461PMC
June 2020

Prognostic Value of Oxidative Stress Markers in Patients with Pulmonary Arterial or Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2019 18;2019:3795320. Epub 2019 Dec 18.

1st Department of Cardiology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland.

Oxidative stress is regarded to play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and inoperable chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). This study evaluated the prognostic value of serum oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), catalase activity (CAT), and superoxide activity (SOD)) in patients with PAH and CTEPH ( = 45). During 13 months of follow-up (median 9 months), clinical deterioration occurred in 14 patients (including 2 deaths). On the Cox regression analysis, MDA, TAC, and CAT were associated with clinical deterioration ( = 0.0068, HR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.10-1.82; = 0.0038, HR = 0.033, 95% CI: 0.0032-0.33; and = 0.046, HR = 0.20, 95% CI: 0.04-0.98, respectively). There was no significant difference in SOD ( = 0.53, HR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.87-1.08). The cut-off value derived from ROC curve analysis was 3.79 M ( = 0.0048, AUC = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.62-0.91) for MDA, 0.49 mM ( = 0.027, AUC = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.18-0.47) for TAC, and 1.34 U/L ( = 0.029, AUC = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.55-0.86) for CAT. MDA in the group with deterioration was higher ( = 0.0041), while TAC as well as CAT were lower ( = 0.027 and = 0.028, respectively) when compared to stable patients. Survival without clinical deterioration was significantly longer in patients with lower MDA ( = 0.037, HR = 0.37, 95% CI: 0.12-1.14, log-rank), higher TAC ( = 0.0018, HR = 0.19, 95% CI: 0.06-0.60, log-rank), and higher CAT ( = 0.044, HR = 0.31 95% CI: 0.11-0.88, log-rank). Markers of oxidative stress such as MDA, TAC, and CAT were associated with adverse clinical outcomes in patients with PAH and inoperable or residual CTEPH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/3795320DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6939433PMC
June 2020

The Effect of Mushroom Extracts on Human Platelet and Blood Coagulation: In vitro Screening of Eight Edible Species.

Nutrients 2019 Dec 12;11(12). Epub 2019 Dec 12.

Department of Environmental Medicine, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, 60-806 Poznan, Poland.

Cardiovascular diseases remain the leading global cause of mortality indicating the need to identify all possible factors reducing primary and secondary risk. This study screened the in vitro antiplatelet and anticoagulant activities of hot water extracts of eight edible mushroom species (, , , , , , , and ) increasingly cultivated for human consumption, and compared them to those evoked by acetylsalicylic acid (ASA). The antioxidant capacity and concentration of polysaccharides, phenolic compounds, organic acids, ergosterol, macro elements, and trace elements were also characterized. The most promising antiplatelet effect was exhibited by . - and . extracts as demonstrated by the highest rate of inhibition of adenosine-5'-diphosphate (ADP)-induced and arachidonic acid (AA)-induced aggregation. The response to both extracts exceeded the one evoked by 140 µmol/L of ASA in the ADP test and was comparable to it in the case of the AA test. Such a dual effect was also observed for . extract, even though it was proven to be cytotoxic in platelets and leukocytes. The extract of . revealed an additive effect on AA-induced platelet aggregation. None of the mushroom extracts altered the monitored coagulation parameters (prothrombin time, prothrombin ratio, and International Normalized Ratio). The effect of mushroom extracts on platelet function was positively related to their antioxidative properties and concentration of polysaccharides and ergosterol, and inversely related to zinc concentration. The study suggests that selected mushrooms may exert favorable antiplatelet effects, highlighting the need for further experimental and clinical research in this regard.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu11123040DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6950045PMC
December 2019

Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement Is Associated with Less Oxidative Stress and Faster Recovery of Antioxidant Capacity than Surgical Aortic Valve Replacement.

J Clin Med 2019 Sep 2;8(9). Epub 2019 Sep 2.

Department of Environmental Medicine, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, 61-848 Poznan, Poland.

The objective of this study was to compare oxidative stress indices in 24 patients (mean ± SD age 71 ± 13 years) undergoing surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) versus transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC), copper/zinc ratio (Cu/Zn), activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were assessed at four different time-points: pre-procedure, immediately post-procedure, and one day and two days after the procedure. All oxidative stress parameters were comparable in both groups pre-procedure. TAC decreased significantly when assessed immediately after procedures in both groups ( < 0.001); however, the magnitude of the reduction was more pronounced after SAVR (88% decrease from baseline: 1.8 ± 0.1 vs. 0.2 ± 0.03 mM) compared to TAVR procedures (53% decrease from baseline: 1.9 ± 0.1 vs. 1.0 ± 0.1 mM; < 0.001). TAC returned to baseline two days after TAVR in all patients, but was still reduced by 55% two days after SAVR. In concordance, TBARS levels and Cu/Zn ratio increased significantly with maximum levels immediately after procedures in both groups ( < 0.001), but the magnitude of the increase was significantly higher in SAVR compared to TAVR (TBARS: 3.93 ± 0.61 µM vs. 1.25 ± 0.30 µM, = 0.015; Cu/Zn ratio: 2.33 ± 0.11 vs. 1.80 ± 0.12; < 0.001). Two days after the procedure, TBARS levels and the Cu/Zn ratio returned to baseline after TAVR, with no full recovery after SAVR. TAVR is associated with a lesser redox imbalance and faster recovery of antioxidant capacity compared to SAVR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm8091364DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6781199PMC
September 2019

Is the presence of Central European strains of Raphidiopsis (Cylindrospermopsis) raciborskii a threat to a freshwater fish? An in vitro toxicological study in common carp cells.

Aquat Toxicol 2019 Jan 17;206:105-113. Epub 2018 Nov 17.

Department of Environmental Medicine, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznań, Poland. Electronic address:

As yet European strains of Raphidiopsis raciborskii (previously Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii) have not been found to produce known cyanotoxins although their extracts have caused adverse effects in mammals, as shown using in vitro and in vivo experimental models. The present study investigated whether R. raciborskii isolated from Western Poland and Ukraine can affect fish cells using in vitro exposures of hepatocytes and red blood cells (RBC), and brain homogenates obtained from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to 1.0% and 0.1% extracts of 7 strains. The studied extracts evoked different responses of catalase activity in hepatocytes with both increase and decrease observed under low and high concentrations. The cellular thiol pool was also altered with most extracts inducing a decrease in the activity of glutathione-S-transferase, and Ukrainian strains leading to an increase in glutathione level and a decrease in metallothionein content. All the studied extracts induced comparable reactive oxygen species formation, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation and DNA fragmentation in hepatocytes, and all but one increased the activity of caspase-3. Only one extract caused lysosomal membrane destabilization as measured by neutral red retention in RBC. In contrast to extracts of Ukrainian isolates, exposure of brain homogenates to extracts of Polish strains induced an increase in acetylcholinesterase activity suggesting the neurotoxic action of their exudates. The results indicate that both Polish and Ukrainian strains of R. raciborskii may pose a toxicological risk to freshwater fish, and further, that Polish strains may produce compound(s) evoking neurotoxic effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2018.11.012DOI Listing
January 2019

Correction to: The chemistry and toxicity of discharge waters from copper mine tailing impoundment in the valley of the Apuseni Mountains in Romania.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 06;25(18):18221

Department of Environmental Medicine, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznań, Poland.

The authors would like to correct the error in the "Abstract" section of original publication. The correct sentence should read "The sampled waters were highly acidic (pH 2.1-4.9) and had high electrical conductivity (2.80-15.61 mS cm-).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-2001-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6828431PMC
June 2018

Identification of toxic metals in human embryonic tissues.

Arch Med Sci 2018 Mar 22;14(2):415-421. Epub 2015 Oct 22.

Department of Mother's and Child's Health, Gynecologic and Obstetrical University Hospital, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland.

Introduction: The cause of a significant number of miscarriages remains unexplained. There is a need to identify the potential role of environmental, dietary and lifestyle factors in the risk of pregnancy loss. The present study was the first to investigate the content of miscarried embryonic material with respect to eight metals (aluminium, cadmium, chromium, copper, manganese, nickel, lead and zinc).

Material And Methods: Embryonic tissue samples ( = 20) were obtained from women undergoing misoprostol-induced removal of the embryo between the 6 and 9 week of gestation. The content of metals was analyzed using microwave-induced nitrogen plasma atomic emission spectrometry. Based on a short questionnaire, the smoking habits, dietary patterns and place of living of the investigated women were determined.

Results: The general mean content of metals (μg/g) decreased in the order copper (33.9) > manganese (24.7) > chromium (13.6) > zinc (13.3) > aluminium (6.5) > nickel (3.0) > lead (2.9) > cadmium (2.5). Profoundly increased concentrations (p < 0.05) of the toxic elements aluminium (over 5-fold), cadmium (over 2-fold) and lead (over 2-fold) were observed in samples obtained from former smoking women. The miscarried material in urban populations also revealed higher levels of cadmium (over 1.5-fold) and lead (over 2-fold) compared to that obtained from women living in rural areas ( < 0.05). No associations with age or diet were found ( > 0.05).

Conclusions: This study identified increased levels of aluminum, cadmium and lead in miscarried embryonic material and suggests some causative factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5114/aoms.2015.53915DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5868650PMC
March 2018

The altered platelet mineral ratios in pregnancy complicated with intrauterine growth restriction.

Reprod Toxicol 2018 03 23;76:46-52. Epub 2017 Dec 23.

Department of Environmental Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland. Electronic address:

Altered function of maternal platelets has been evidenced in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) but intraplatelet burden of trace elements, factors known to affect platelet activity, remains unknown in IUGR pregnancy. This study assessed the intraplatelet status of Ca, Cu, Mg, Na, K, P, Zn and their ratios (Ca/P, Ca/Mg, Na/K, Cu/Zn) in IUGR pregnancy (n = 35), uncomplicated pregnancy (n = 25) and in non-pregnant females (n = 25). The IUGR group was characterized by the lowest content of Ca, Mg and Zn, and Ca/P ratio (<1.0), and the highest Ca/Mg and Cu/Zn ratios. The studied parameters in non-pregnant women and in uncomplicated pregnancy were comparable except P content and Ca/Mg ratio which were significantly lower in the former group. No differences in Na and K contents, and Na/K ratio between studied groups were found. This study reports that maternal intraplatelet status of selected minerals may be altered in IUGR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.reprotox.2017.12.009DOI Listing
March 2018

Relation between polyphenols, malondialdehyde, antioxidant capacity, lactate dehydrogenase and toxic elements in human colostrum milk.

Chemosphere 2018 Jan 21;191:548-554. Epub 2017 Oct 21.

Department of Mother's and Child's Health, Gynecologic and Obstetrical University Hospital, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznań, Poland.

The present study investigated the interrelationships between the concentration of total polyphenols (TP), malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), lactate dehydrogenase activity (LDH) and content of toxic elements (Al, As, Cd, Ni, Pb) in human colostrum milk (n = 75), and further assessed their potential association with maternal lifestyle characteristics. As and Cd were always below detection limits while Al, Ni and Pb were found at the level of 89.7, 6.2 and 1.3 μg L, respectively. Concentrations of TP and MDA, in the studied group were 46.91 ± 21.25 mg GAE L and 0.66 ± 0.27 nmol mL, respectively, and were inversely correlated (Rs = -0.32; p < 0.01). TP and TAC increased significantly with maternal consumption of vegetables (Rs = 0.25 and Rs = 0.37, respectively; p < 0.05). Concentration of Al was positively correlated with MDA (Rs = 0.21; p < 0.01) and negatively with TP (Rs = -0.28; p < 0.01). Positive correlation was also found between Pb and MDA (Rs = 0.32; p < 0.01). No association with place of living (urban/rural), women's age and former smoking were found for any studied milk parameter. The results add to the general understanding of factors influencing redox balance in milk and potentially affecting its quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.10.098DOI Listing
January 2018

Rare-earth elements in human colostrum milk.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2017 Nov 19;24(33):26148-26154. Epub 2017 Oct 19.

Department of Environmental Medicine, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznań, Poland.

Rare-earth elements (REEs) are used in a growing number of applications, and their release to environment has increased over the decades. Knowledge of REEs in human milk and factors that could possibly influence their concentration is scarce. This study evaluated the concentrations of 16 REEs (Ce, Eu, Er, Gd, La, Nd, Pr, Sc, Sm, Dy, Ho, Lu, Tb, Tm, Y, and Yb) in human colostrum milk collected from Polish women (n = 100) with the ICP-OES technique. The concentrations (mean ± SD) of Pr (41.9 ± 13.2 μg L), Nd (11.0 ± 4.0 μg L), La (7.1 ± 5.2 μg L), and Er (2.2 ± 0.8 μg L) were found above detection limits. The total mean ± SD concentration of detected REEs was 60.9 ± 17.8 μg L. Current smokers displayed significantly increased Nd concentrations compared to women who had never smoked. No other associations between REEs in colostrum milk and age, diet in pregnancy (food supplement use and frequency of fish, meat, and vegetable consumption) or place of living (urban/rural) were found. This study adds to general understanding of the occurrence and turnover of REEs in women and human fluids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-0359-6DOI Listing
November 2017

The chemistry and toxicity of discharge waters from copper mine tailing impoundment in the valley of the Apuseni Mountains in Romania.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2017 09 25;24(26):21445-21458. Epub 2017 Jul 25.

Department of Environmental Medicine, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznań, Poland.

Copper mining generates large quantities of waste, tailings, and acid outflows causing long-term environmental impacts and potential threats to human health. Valea Şesei is the largest tailing impoundment in Romania, created by flooding the valley (known as Valea Şesei) of the Metalliferous Mountains (a division of the Apuseni Mountains) with copper mining waste. The present study (i) estimated the total volume of tailings in this area; (ii) screened the concentration of 65 elements (rare earth and platinum group elements, alkali metals and alkali earth metals, transition and post-transition metals and metalloids) and cyanide concentrations in wastewater samples collected from tailing impoundment; (iii) evaluated the toxicity of these water samples using five in vitro bioassays employing human cells isolated from healthy donors and a short-term (1 h) exposure model. The sampled waters were highly acidic (pH 2.1-4.9) and had high electrical conductivity (2.80-15.61 mS cm). No cyanides were detected in any sample. Water samples collected from the stream (AMD) inflowing to the tailing impoundment were characterized by the greatest concentrations of alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, transition and post-transition metals, metalloids, rare earth elements, and noble metal group. At other sites, the elemental concentrations were lower but remained high enough to pose a relevant risk. The greatest magnitude of in vitro toxic effects was induced by AMD. Observed alterations included redox imbalance in human neutrophils followed by lipid peroxidation and decreased cell survival, significant aggregation of red blood cells, and increased prothrombin time. The study highlights that Valea Şesei is a large sink for toxic elements, posing environmental and health risks, and requiring action to prevent further release of chemicals and to initiate restoration of the area.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-9782-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5579155PMC
September 2017

The chemistry and toxicity of discharge waters from copper mine tailing impoundment in the valley of the Apuseni Mountains in Romania.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2017 09 25;24(26):21445-21458. Epub 2017 Jul 25.

Department of Environmental Medicine, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznań, Poland.

Copper mining generates large quantities of waste, tailings, and acid outflows causing long-term environmental impacts and potential threats to human health. Valea Şesei is the largest tailing impoundment in Romania, created by flooding the valley (known as Valea Şesei) of the Metalliferous Mountains (a division of the Apuseni Mountains) with copper mining waste. The present study (i) estimated the total volume of tailings in this area; (ii) screened the concentration of 65 elements (rare earth and platinum group elements, alkali metals and alkali earth metals, transition and post-transition metals and metalloids) and cyanide concentrations in wastewater samples collected from tailing impoundment; (iii) evaluated the toxicity of these water samples using five in vitro bioassays employing human cells isolated from healthy donors and a short-term (1 h) exposure model. The sampled waters were highly acidic (pH 2.1-4.9) and had high electrical conductivity (2.80-15.61 mS cm). No cyanides were detected in any sample. Water samples collected from the stream (AMD) inflowing to the tailing impoundment were characterized by the greatest concentrations of alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, transition and post-transition metals, metalloids, rare earth elements, and noble metal group. At other sites, the elemental concentrations were lower but remained high enough to pose a relevant risk. The greatest magnitude of in vitro toxic effects was induced by AMD. Observed alterations included redox imbalance in human neutrophils followed by lipid peroxidation and decreased cell survival, significant aggregation of red blood cells, and increased prothrombin time. The study highlights that Valea Şesei is a large sink for toxic elements, posing environmental and health risks, and requiring action to prevent further release of chemicals and to initiate restoration of the area.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-9782-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5579155PMC
September 2017

Synthetic analogues of cyanobacterial alkaloid cylindrospermopsin and their toxicological activity.

Toxicol In Vitro 2017 Oct 10;44:172-181. Epub 2017 Jul 10.

Department of Environmental Medicine, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznań, Poland.

Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is a naturally occurring alkaloid produced by a variety of cyanobacteria and known to induce oxidative stress-mediated toxicity in eukaryotic cells. Despite extensive research on the mechanism of CYN toxicity, an understanding of the structural features responsible for this toxicity and the mechanism by which it can enter the cell are still not clear. It was established that the presence of both the uracil and guanidine groups is essential in biological activity of CYN whilst not much is known in this regard on the role of tether that separates them and the attached hydroxyl group. Therefore, in the present study we have prepared three synthetic analogues possessing uracil and guanidine groups separated by a variable length tether (4-6 carbons) and containing a hydroxyl function in a position orientation to CYN, together with a tetracyclic analogue of CYN lacking the hydroxyl group at C-7. The toxicity of these compounds was then compared with CYN and guanidinoacetate (GAA; the primary substrate in CYN biosynthesis) in an in vitro model using human neutrophils isolated from healthy subjects. The lowest activity measured by means of reactive oxygen species generation, lipid peroxidation and cell death was observed for GAA and the tetracyclic analogue. The greatest toxicity was found in an analogue with a 6-carbon tether, but all three analogues and CYN caused rapid onset of redox imbalance. These results add to the general understanding of CYN toxicity and preliminary findings suggest that the -OH group at C-7 may be significant for the cellular transport of CYN and/or be involved in its toxic activity inside the cell, a hypothesis which requires further testing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tiv.2017.07.007DOI Listing
October 2017

Platelets redox balance assessment: Current evidence and methodological considerations.

Vascul Pharmacol 2017 08 3;93-95:6-13. Epub 2017 Jul 3.

Department of Environmental Medicine, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland.

Altered function of platelets can lead to cardiovascular complications in numerous disorders. Various studies aimed to investigate mechanisms triggering platelets activation cascade show a significant role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in this matter. Moreover, ROS are known causal factor of oxidative stress that can result in DNA, lipid and protein damage. This review aims to comprehensively present the variety of methods that are potentially useful in assessment of platelets redox balance, such as intracellular concentration of particular ROS, activity of antioxidant enzymes, reduced/oxidized glutathione ratio, level of lipid peroxidation, Cu/Zn ratio, and molecular oxygen consumption. They may help to establish the platelet-related etiological factors in different disorders and to evaluate the antiplatelet therapies. The advantages and limitations of these methods are also discussed. The present paper highlights that clinicians may benefit from implementation of such tools and further encourages developing interdisciplinary evidence-based practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vph.2017.06.002DOI Listing
August 2017

Screening of protozoan and microsporidian parasites in feces of great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo).

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2017 Apr 2;24(10):9813-9819. Epub 2017 Mar 2.

Department of Environmental Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznań, Poland.

The global population of great cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo L.) is on the rise. These birds, characterized by rapid metabolism, can deposit large quantities of feces, and because they breed on the land but forage on water, both terrestrial and aquatic environments can be simultaneously affected by their activities. The contribution of great cormorants in the dispersal of bacterial and viral pathogens has been immensely studied; whereas, the occurrence of eukaryotic parasites such as protozoans and microsporidians in these birds is little known. The present study investigated the presence of dispersive stages of potentially zoonotic protozoans belonging to the genera Blastocystis, Giardia and Cryptosporidium, and Microsporidia spores in feces collected from birds inhabiting the breeding colony established at one lake island in Poland, Europe. The feces were examined by coprological techniques (staining with iron hematoxylin, Ziehl-Neelsen, and modified Weber's chromotrope 2R-based trichrome), and with immunofluorescence antibody MERIFLUOR Cryptosporidium/Giardia assay. As found, the Cryptosporidium oocysts were identified rarely in 8% of samples (2/25; 3-5 × 10/g) and no cysts of Giardia and Blastocystis were detected. Microsporidian spores were detected in 4% of samples (1/25) but at very high frequency (4.3 × 10/g). No dispersive stages of parasites were identified in water samples collected from the littoral area near the colony. Despite the profuse defecation of cormorants, their role in the dispersion of the investigated parasites may not be as high as hypothesized.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-8652-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5388712PMC
April 2017

C-reactive protein as a diagnostic and prognostic factor in inflammatory bowel diseases.

Postepy Hig Med Dosw (Online) 2016 Nov 7;70(0):1124-1130. Epub 2016 Nov 7.

Department of Internal Diseases, Metablism and Nutrition, Poznan University of Medical Sciences.

Aim: The study aimed to evaluate high-sensitivity CRP (hsCRP) as a diagnostic and predictive marker in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

Material/methods: Medical history of 106 patients with IBD revealed hsCRP concentrations at diagnosis and during the follow-up period.

Results: The study showed that the majority of investigated patients had elevated hsCRP concentrations at diagnosis, although the mean concentration was much higher in the group of patients with Crohn's disease (CD) than the group with ulcerative colitis (UC) (P<0.001). The overall decrease in mean hsCRP concentration observed during the follow-up period was larger in the group of CD patients. The analysis showed a correlation between hsCRP concentrations at diagnosis and risk of surgery in the group of CD patients (r=0.408, P=0.002), but not in the group of UC patients. In a logistic regression analysis, surgery in CD patients was associated with age (OR: 0.89, 95% CI: 0.8-1.0, P=0.05) and hsCRP concentration (OR: 1.02, 95% CI: 1.0-1.04, P=0.03) at diagnosis.

Discussion: HsCRP might be a useful diagnostic marker in differentiating active IBD from other diseases. Particularly important however seems to be the predictive value of hsCRP at diagnosis in prognosing the clinical outcome of the disease in CD patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5604/17322693.1223798DOI Listing
November 2016

The surprising world of cyanobacteria: cylindrospermopsin has a soil face.

J Phycol 2015 Dec;51(6):1037-9

Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jpy.12358DOI Listing
December 2015

Metal accumulation in the human uterus varies by pathology and smoking status.

Fertil Steril 2016 06 26;105(6):1511-1518.e3. Epub 2016 Feb 26.

Department of Environmental Medicine, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznań, Poland.

Objective: To evaluate the content of Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn in human endometrium (END), endocervix (ECX), and endometrial (END-P) and endocervical (ECX-P) polyps in relation to histologic image and female demographic characteristics and habits.

Design: Tissues were collected during curettage of the uterine cavity, subjected to histopathologic examination, digested, and analyzed with the use of a microwave induced nitrogen plasma atomic emission spectrometer. Demographic/lifestyle characteristics were assessed with the use of a questionnaire.

Setting: University hospital and research laboratory.

Patient(s): One hundred nine white Polish women undergoing curettage of the END (n = 60) or ECX (n = 23) or dissection of END-P (n = 16) or ECX-P (n = 10).

Interventions(s): None.

Main Outcome Measure(s): Trace element concentrations in collected tissues.

Result(s): Histologic states of analyzed END included: normal (n = 22), irregularity (n = 3), polypoid (n = 12), simple hyperplasia (n = 10), leiomyoma (n = 5), and cancer (n = 8); whereas for ECX: normal (n = 10), inflammation (n = 8), irregularity (n = 2), and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN; n = 3). All elements were identified in the sampled material. Compared with histologically normal tissues, endometrial cancer, hyperplasia, and CIN revealed significantly increased levels of toxic metals (Cd and Pb), altered status of Cu and Mn, and an elevated Cu/Zn ratio. Current and former smoking was associated with significantly higher Cd and Pb levels in investigated tissues. Polyps represented significant accumulators of Al, Cd, Ni, and Pb (END-P) or Al, Cd, and Cu (ECX-P).

Conclusion(s): The findings of this study are important in understanding the presence and role of metals in the female reproductive system and its pathology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2016.02.006DOI Listing
June 2016

Invasive giant hogweeds in Poland: Risk of burns among forestry workers and plant distribution.

Burns 2015 Dec 18;41(8):1816-1822. Epub 2015 Oct 18.

Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Rokietnicka 8, 60-806 Poznan, Poland.

The Caucasian giant hogweeds (Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden. and Heracleum mantegazzianum Sommier et Lever) are aggressive invaders that are successfully spreading in different parts of the world. Exposure of human skin to these plants may lead to phototoxicity and even chemical burns manifested by cutaneous, full-thickness, and long-lasting dermatitis, and in extreme cases, massive skin necrosis. Forestry workers are a group with potentially increased risk of exposure to these plants because of the outdoor nature of their work and their active involvement in managing invasive species. Therefore, in this study, we aimed at investigating their level of awareness with regard to the giant hogweeds in Poland. The morphology of the plants, health threats, treatment, and control methods were all considered. We also evaluated the distribution of these plants within forest districts in Poland. For this reason, we surveyed 1563 employees (forest rangers, manual workers, and administration staff) of the State Forests National Forest Holding in Poland "State Forests," working in 367 different forest districts. It was initially found that the forestry workers were generally aware of the giant hogweeds' morphology and phototoxicity. More than 20% of the surveyed individuals had been exposed to these plants at least once in their lives, but only less than half of them were aware of proceeding afterward. At the same time, <35% of those surveyed had any knowledge of the control and management of these giant hogweeds. As demonstrated by our study, stands of these species are widely distributed within the Polish forest districts (reported in over 50%). Therefore, there is an urgent need to implement an efficient, multistrategic, and long-term approach to both control their spread and protect human health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.burns.2015.06.007DOI Listing
December 2015

Usefulness of selected laboratory markers in ulcerative colitis.

Eur Cytokine Netw 2015 Apr-Jun;26(2):26-37

Introduction: This study aimed to compare the accuracy of selected laboratory markers in assessing disease activity in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). The analysis included serum IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, TNF-, IFN-, hsCRP, peripheral regulatory T cells, as well as fecal calprotectin and lactoferrin.

Patients And Methods: A group of 45 adults with UC was enrolled in the study. Disease activity was assessed using the Mayo endoscopic index, while for clinical activity scoring, the Clinical Activity Index (CAI) was used. Concentrations of markers investigated were estimated by means of flow cytometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays: the results were correlated with both indices.

Results: The study demonstrated that both fecal markers, i.e. calprotectin (r = 0.880, P<0.001) and lactoferrin (r = 0.799, P<0.001) correlated closely with the Mayo endoscopic score, and might be used to evaluate the severity of UC in the clinical setting. The correlation of these markers with CAI was also significant, with r = 0.831 for calprotectin (P<0.001) and r = 0.672 for lactoferrin (P<0.05). As for the other markers investigated, only IL-6 (r = 0.598, P<0.001), IL-17A (r = 0.587, P<0.005), and TNF- (r = 0.701, P<0.001) correlated closely with the Mayo endoscopic index. The correlation of the markers with CAI was also significant, though weaker, with r = 0.525 for IL-6 (P<0.001), r = 0.587 for IL-17A (P<0.05), and r = 0.624 for TNF- (P<0.001).

Discussion: Despite the fact, that UC is generally considered to be an IL-13-driven, Th2-like type of disease, markers of inflammation such as serum interleukin (IL)-6, IL-17, TNF-, fecal calprotectin and lactoferrin might be useful in assessing disease activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1684/ecn.2015.0363DOI Listing
August 2016

Free-ranging domestic cats are characterized by increased metal content in reproductive tissues.

Reprod Toxicol 2015 Dec 28;58:54-60. Epub 2015 Aug 28.

State Veterinary Inspection, Poznań, Poland.

Trace metals may be supportive to mammalian reproduction but also reveal certain toxicities. The present study investigated the content of selected metals (Ca, Cd, Cu, Mn, Mg, Ni, Pb, Zn) in uterine and testicular tissue of free-ranging and household cats and its relation with hair metal status, cats' age, weight, physical activity, diet and inhabited environment. Free-rangers and cats not fed by humans were characterized by higher concentrations of essential metals in their reproductive tissues as well as increased levels of toxic elements, particularly Cd and Ni. No difference in metal status was found for household individuals fed on different varieties of commercial food. Cats inhabiting urbanized areas were characterized by higher Pb levels in their reproductive system. Feline hair was found to be less, if at all, susceptible to environmental, lifestyle and dietary variables and most importantly, did not reflect a metal burden in reproductive tissues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.reprotox.2015.08.004DOI Listing
December 2015

Impact of heavy metals on the female reproductive system.

Ann Agric Environ Med 2015 ;22(2):259-64

Department of Educational Medicine, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland.

Introduction: It has been recognized that environmental pollution can affect the quality of health of the human population. Heavy metals are among the group of highly emitted contaminants and their adverse effect of living organisms has been widely studied in recent decades. Lifestyle and quality of the ambient environment are among these factors which can mainly contribute to the heavy metals exposure in humans.

Objective: A review of literature linking heavy metals and the female reproductive system and description of the possible associations with emission and exposure of heavy metals and impairments of female reproductive system according to current knowledge.

Results: The potential health disorders caused by chronic or acute heavy metals toxicity include immunodeficiency, osteoporosis, neurodegeneration and organ failures. Potential linkages of heavy metals concentration found in different human organs and blood with oestrogen-dependent diseases such as breast cancer, endometrial cancer, endometriosis and spontaneous abortions, as well as pre-term deliveries, stillbirths and hypotrophy, have also been reported.

Conclusions: Environmental deterioration can lead to the elevated risk of human exposure to heavy metals, and consequently, health implications including disturbances in reproduction. It is therefore important to continue the investigations on metal-induced mechanisms of fertility impairment on the genetic, epigenetic and biochemical level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5604/12321966.1152077DOI Listing
April 2016

The role of the enzymatic antioxidant system in cylindrospermopsin-induced toxicity in human lymphocytes.

Toxicol In Vitro 2015 Aug 9;29(5):926-32. Epub 2015 Apr 9.

Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznań, Poland.

Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is known to induce cytotoxic effects in eukaryotic cells although the exact mechanism underlying these alterations is not fully explained. Given that CYN was previously found to decrease the proliferation of human lymphocytes through DNA damage and cell cycle arrest followed by an increase in the apoptotic rate, the present study evaluated the possible involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress in these cytopathic responses. The status of enzymatic antioxidants: superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT) as well as level of lipid peroxidation (LO) under CYN influence in human lymphocytes were also studied. It was found that CYN exposure (0.01-1.0 μg/ml) induces a concentration-dependent increase in H2O2 content within a time as short as 0.5h, reaching its maximum level after 3 and 6h. The highest H2O2 content was accompanied by a significant decrease of SOD and CAT activity and an elevated level of GPx. Moreover, CYN treatment resulted in a detectable increase in LO. We conclude that ROS and the products of LO play an essential role in CYN-induced toxicity in human lymphocytes. Our study helps to elucidate the sequence of events caused by CYN in eukaryotic cells and explain the background for previously observed cytopathic responses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tiv.2015.03.023DOI Listing
August 2015

Different effect of smoking on genders in Crohn's disease.

Turk J Gastroenterol 2015 Mar;26(2):133-9

Department of Transplant Immunology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland.

Background/aims: Smoking is a well-established environmental risk factor in Crohn's disease (CD). The study was aimed to investigate possible gender differences in the effect of smoking on the course of CD, with a special focus on selected immune parameters such as Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines and regulatory T cells (Tregs).

Materials And Methods: A group of 55 adults with CD was enrolled to the study. The analysis of clinical, demographic and immunological characteristics of patients was performed according to their smoking status and gender. Values were considered significant when p≤0.05.

Results: Patients who smoked, particularly females, more frequently suffered from a moderate-to-severe form of the disease, requiring glucocorticoid and immunosuppressive therapies. Smokers, particularly females, were also hospitalized and underwent surgeries more frequently than non-smokers. Cytometric analysis showed higher levels of serum proinflammatory cytokines and lower levels of peripheral Tregs in female smokers and former smokers, comparing to males from these subgroups.

Conclusion: Presented results demonstrate that in all investigated subgroups, particularly however among current smokers and former smokers, female patients seemed to be more affected by CD. Females developed more severe form of the disease and experienced the onset earlier than men. The imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory factors observed in CD patients was also more distinct in female smokers and former smokers, comparing to males, and could substantially contribute to the severity of the disease. Exposure to smoking seems to be one of the environmental factors contributing to the gender differences in CD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5152/tjg.2015.5356DOI Listing
March 2015

Selected biologic markers of inflammation and activity of Crohn's disease.

Autoimmunity 2015 24;48(5):318-27. Epub 2015 Feb 24.

Laboratory of Transplant Immunology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences , Poznan , Poland .

The study aimed to compare the accuracy of selected biologic markers in assessing the disease activity in patients with Crohn's disease (CD). The analysis included serum IL-2, IL-6, IL-17, TNF-α, IFN-γ, hsCRP, peripheral CD4 + CD25 + FOXP3 + regulatory T cells, as well as fecal calprotectin and lactoferrin. A group of 55 adults with CD was enrolled to the study. Disease activity was assessed using Crohn's Disease Endoscopic Index of Severity (CDEIS), which currently represents the gold standard for the evaluation of endoscopic activity. For clinical activity scoring, the Crohn's Disease Activity Index (CDAI) was used. Concentrations of investigated markers were estimated by means of flow cytometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and the results were correlated with both indices. The study demonstrated that both fecal markers, i.e. calprotectin (r = 0.827, p < 0.001) and lactoferrin (r = 0.704, p < 0.001), correlate closely with CDEIS score, and might be used to evaluate the severity of CD in clinical setting. The correlation of those markers with CDAI was also significant, with r = 0.742 for calprotectin (p < 0.001) and r = 0.675 for lactoferrin (p < 0.05). As for the other investigated markers, only hsCRP (r = 0.672, p < 0.001) and IL-17 (r = 0.296, p < 0.005) correlated closely with CDEIS. The correlation of the markers with CDAI was also significant, though weaker, with r = 0.518 for hsCRP (p < 0.001) and r = 0.296 for IL-17 (p < 0.05). The study showed that IL-17, despite its vague role in the pathogenesis of CD, might be a useful marker, comparable with hsCRP, in assessing the activity of the disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/08916934.2015.1016221DOI Listing
April 2016

Toxic potencies of metabolite(s) of non-cylindrospermopsin producing Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii isolated from temperate zone in human white cells.

Chemosphere 2015 Feb 28;120:608-14. Epub 2014 Oct 28.

Department of Biology and Environmental Protection, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznań, Poland.

Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii (Nostocales, Cyanobacteria) has worldwide distribution and is well known for producing the toxic alkaloid, cylindrospermopsin (CYN). Strains unable to synthesize this compound but potentially toxic were recently identified in Europe. Here, for the first time the effect of cell-free extracts of a non-CYN-producing strain of C. raciborskii was studied in human cells (neutrophils and lymphocytes) isolated from healthy donors. The observed effects were compared to those induced by CYN (1.0-0.01 μg mL(-1)). Short-term (1h) extract treatments resulted in altered viability of cells demonstrated by increased necrosis and apoptosis in neutrophils and elevated apoptosis in lymphocytes. CYN did not induce similar effects, regardless of the toxin concentration. Exposure of T-lymphocytes to 100% C. raciborskii extract in isolated and whole-blood 72 h cultures resulted in decrease of proliferation by 20.6% and 32.5%, respectively. In comparison, exposure to 1.0 μg mL(-1) of CYN caused lymphocytes proliferation to be inhibited by 91.0% in isolated cultures and 56.5% in whole-blood assay. Significant antiproliferative properties were also found for 0.1 μg mL(-1) of CYN in whole-blood culture. From the results we conclude that strains occurring in temperate zones may pose a threat to human health through the production of hitherto unknown metabolites that reveal a toxic pattern different to that of CYN. At the same time our study demonstrates that CYN is a powerful but slowly-acting toxin in human immune cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.09.067DOI Listing
February 2015