Publications by authors named "Barbara Oehl-Jaschkowitz"

23 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

De Novo and Bi-allelic Pathogenic Variants in NARS1 Cause Neurodevelopmental Delay Due to Toxic Gain-of-Function and Partial Loss-of-Function Effects.

Authors:
Andreea Manole Stephanie Efthymiou Emer O'Connor Marisa I Mendes Matthew Jennings Reza Maroofian Indran Davagnanam Kshitij Mankad Maria Rodriguez Lopez Vincenzo Salpietro Ricardo Harripaul Lauren Badalato Jagdeep Walia Christopher S Francklyn Alkyoni Athanasiou-Fragkouli Roisin Sullivan Sonal Desai Kristin Baranano Faisal Zafar Nuzhat Rana Muhammed Ilyas Alejandro Horga Majdi Kara Francesca Mattioli Alice Goldenberg Helen Griffin Amelie Piton Lindsay B Henderson Benyekhlef Kara Ayca Dilruba Aslanger Joost Raaphorst Rolph Pfundt Ruben Portier Marwan Shinawi Amelia Kirby Katherine M Christensen Lu Wang Rasim O Rosti Sohail A Paracha Muhammad T Sarwar Dagan Jenkins Jawad Ahmed Federico A Santoni Emmanuelle Ranza Justyna Iwaszkiewicz Cheryl Cytrynbaum Rosanna Weksberg Ingrid M Wentzensen Maria J Guillen Sacoto Yue Si Aida Telegrafi Marisa V Andrews Dustin Baldridge Heinz Gabriel Julia Mohr Barbara Oehl-Jaschkowitz Sylvain Debard Bruno Senger Frédéric Fischer Conny van Ravenwaaij Annemarie J M Fock Servi J C Stevens Jürg Bähler Amina Nasar John F Mantovani Adnan Manzur Anna Sarkozy Desirée E C Smith Gajja S Salomons Zubair M Ahmed Shaikh Riazuddin Saima Riazuddin Muhammad A Usmani Annette Seibt Muhammad Ansar Stylianos E Antonarakis John B Vincent Muhammad Ayub Mona Grimmel Anne Marie Jelsig Tina Duelund Hjortshøj Helena Gásdal Karstensen Marybeth Hummel Tobias B Haack Yalda Jamshidi Felix Distelmaier Rita Horvath Joseph G Gleeson Hubert Becker Jean-Louis Mandel David A Koolen Henry Houlden

Am J Hum Genet 2020 08 31;107(2):311-324. Epub 2020 Jul 31.

Department of Neuromuscular Disorders, University College London (UCL) Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London, WC1N 3BG, UK. Electronic address:

Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (ARSs) are ubiquitous, ancient enzymes that charge amino acids to cognate tRNA molecules, the essential first step of protein translation. Here, we describe 32 individuals from 21 families, presenting with microcephaly, neurodevelopmental delay, seizures, peripheral neuropathy, and ataxia, with de novo heterozygous and bi-allelic mutations in asparaginyl-tRNA synthetase (NARS1). We demonstrate a reduction in NARS1 mRNA expression as well as in NARS1 enzyme levels and activity in both individual fibroblasts and induced neural progenitor cells (iNPCs). Molecular modeling of the recessive c.1633C>T (p.Arg545Cys) variant shows weaker spatial positioning and tRNA selectivity. We conclude that de novo and bi-allelic mutations in NARS1 are a significant cause of neurodevelopmental disease, where the mechanism for de novo variants could be toxic gain-of-function and for recessive variants, partial loss-of-function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2020.06.016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7413890PMC
August 2020

Correction: The ARID1B spectrum in 143 patients: from nonsyndromic intellectual disability to Coffin-Siris syndrome.

Authors:
Pleuntje J van der Sluijs Sandra Jansen Samantha A Vergano Miho Adachi-Fukuda Yasemin Alanay Adila AlKindy Anwar Baban Allan Bayat Stefanie Beck-Wödl Katherine Berry Emilia K Bijlsma Levinus A Bok Alwin F J Brouwer Ineke van der Burgt Philippe M Campeau Natalie Canham Krystyna Chrzanowska Yoyo W Y Chu Brain H Y Chung Karin Dahan Marjan De Rademaeker Anne Destree Tracy Dudding-Byth Rachel Earl Nursel Elcioglu Ellen R Elias Christina Fagerberg Alice Gardham Blanca Gener Erica H Gerkes Ute Grasshoff Arie van Haeringen Karin R Heitink Johanna C Herkert Nicolette S den Hollander Denise Horn David Hunt Sarina G Kant Mitsuhiro Kato Hülya Kayserili Rogier Kersseboom Esra Kilic Malgorzata Krajewska-Walasek Kylin Lammers Lone W Laulund Damien Lederer Melissa Lees Vanesa López-González Saskia Maas Grazia M S Mancini Carlo Marcelis Francisco Martinez Isabelle Maystadt Marianne McGuire Shane McKee Sarju Mehta Kay Metcalfe Jeff Milunsky Seiji Mizuno John B Moeschler Christian Netzer Charlotte W Ockeloen Barbara Oehl-Jaschkowitz Nobuhiko Okamoto Sharon N M Olminkhof Carmen Orellana Laurent Pasquier Caroline Pottinger Vera Riehmer Stephen P Robertson Maian Roifman Caroline Rooryck Fabienne G Ropers Monica Rosello Claudia A L Ruivenkamp Mahmut S Sagiroglu Suzanne C E H Sallevelt Amparo Sanchis Calvo Pelin O Simsek-Kiper Gabriela Soares Lucia Solaeche Fatma Mujgan Sonmez Miranda Splitt Duco Steenbeek Alexander P A Stegmann Constance T R M Stumpel Saori Tanabe Eyyup Uctepe G Eda Utine Hermine E Veenstra-Knol Sunita Venkateswaran Catheline Vilain Catherine Vincent-Delorme Anneke T Vulto-van Silfhout Patricia Wheeler Golder N Wilson Louise C Wilson Bernd Wollnik Tomoki Kosho Dagmar Wieczorek Evan Eichler Rolph Pfundt Bert B A de Vries Jill Clayton-Smith Gijs W E Santen

Genet Med 2019 Sep;21(9):2160-2161

Department of Clinical Genetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

The original version of this Article contained an error in the spelling of the author Pleuntje J. van der Sluijs, which was incorrectly given as Eline (P. J.) van der Sluijs. This has now been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-018-0368-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6752317PMC
September 2019

The ARID1B spectrum in 143 patients: from nonsyndromic intellectual disability to Coffin-Siris syndrome.

Authors:
Pleuntje J van der Sluijs Sandra Jansen Samantha A Vergano Miho Adachi-Fukuda Yasemin Alanay Adila AlKindy Anwar Baban Allan Bayat Stefanie Beck-Wödl Katherine Berry Emilia K Bijlsma Levinus A Bok Alwin F J Brouwer Ineke van der Burgt Philippe M Campeau Natalie Canham Krystyna Chrzanowska Yoyo W Y Chu Brain H Y Chung Karin Dahan Marjan De Rademaeker Anne Destree Tracy Dudding-Byth Rachel Earl Nursel Elcioglu Ellen R Elias Christina Fagerberg Alice Gardham Blanca Gener Erica H Gerkes Ute Grasshoff Arie van Haeringen Karin R Heitink Johanna C Herkert Nicolette S den Hollander Denise Horn David Hunt Sarina G Kant Mitsuhiro Kato Hülya Kayserili Rogier Kersseboom Esra Kilic Malgorzata Krajewska-Walasek Kylin Lammers Lone W Laulund Damien Lederer Melissa Lees Vanesa López-González Saskia Maas Grazia M S Mancini Carlo Marcelis Francisco Martinez Isabelle Maystadt Marianne McGuire Shane McKee Sarju Mehta Kay Metcalfe Jeff Milunsky Seiji Mizuno John B Moeschler Christian Netzer Charlotte W Ockeloen Barbara Oehl-Jaschkowitz Nobuhiko Okamoto Sharon N M Olminkhof Carmen Orellana Laurent Pasquier Caroline Pottinger Vera Riehmer Stephen P Robertson Maian Roifman Caroline Rooryck Fabienne G Ropers Monica Rosello Claudia A L Ruivenkamp Mahmut S Sagiroglu Suzanne C E H Sallevelt Amparo Sanchis Calvo Pelin O Simsek-Kiper Gabriela Soares Lucia Solaeche Fatma Mujgan Sonmez Miranda Splitt Duco Steenbeek Alexander P A Stegmann Constance T R M Stumpel Saori Tanabe Eyyup Uctepe G Eda Utine Hermine E Veenstra-Knol Sunita Venkateswaran Catheline Vilain Catherine Vincent-Delorme Anneke T Vulto-van Silfhout Patricia Wheeler Golder N Wilson Louise C Wilson Bernd Wollnik Tomoki Kosho Dagmar Wieczorek Evan Eichler Rolph Pfundt Bert B A de Vries Jill Clayton-Smith Gijs W E Santen

Genet Med 2019 06 8;21(6):1295-1307. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Department of Clinical Genetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Purpose: Pathogenic variants in ARID1B are one of the most frequent causes of intellectual disability (ID) as determined by large-scale exome sequencing studies. Most studies published thus far describe clinically diagnosed Coffin-Siris patients (ARID1B-CSS) and it is unclear whether these data are representative for patients identified through sequencing of unbiased ID cohorts (ARID1B-ID). We therefore sought to determine genotypic and phenotypic differences between ARID1B-ID and ARID1B-CSS. In parallel, we investigated the effect of different methods of phenotype reporting.

Methods: Clinicians entered clinical data in an extensive web-based survey.

Results: 79 ARID1B-CSS and 64 ARID1B-ID patients were included. CSS-associated dysmorphic features, such as thick eyebrows, long eyelashes, thick alae nasi, long and/or broad philtrum, small nails and small or absent fifth distal phalanx and hypertrichosis, were observed significantly more often (p < 0.001) in ARID1B-CSS patients. No other significant differences were identified.

Conclusion: There are only minor differences between ARID1B-ID and ARID1B-CSS patients. ARID1B-related disorders seem to consist of a spectrum, and patients should be managed similarly. We demonstrated that data collection methods without an explicit option to report the absence of a feature (such as most Human Phenotype Ontology-based methods) tended to underestimate gene-related features.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-018-0330-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6752273PMC
June 2019

Behavioral and psychological features in girls and women with triple-X syndrome.

Am J Med Genet A 2018 11 2;176(11):2284-2291. Epub 2018 Aug 2.

Department of Neurobehavioral Genetics, Trier University, Trier, Germany.

Triple-X syndrome is a common sex chromosome aneuploidy, which appears in 1 out of 1,000 females. The aim of our study was to describe the behavioral features of a large group of girls and women with triple-X in comparison to a control group. A total of 72 subjects with triple-X and 69 subjects of an age-matched control group were included. Psychological and behavioral questionnaires were allocated to three age groups, representing a range of ages from young childhood to adulthood. Regarding the females between 4 and 7 years of age, we found significant differences for social problems, attention problems, and school performance. For the age group 8-17 years, we found larger significant differences for the majority of the scales listed in the child behavior checklist. The most significant differences (p < .001) were from total behavior problems, internalizing problems, and four other scales. Young females with triple-X have significantly lower general self-esteem, especially concerning school and family. In the adults, there were significant differences concerning psychological symptoms and distress, with higher scores in the triple-X subjects. Regardless, their mean scores were still in the normal range. We did not find clinical evidence for more than 50% of the triple-X females in any age group, indicating that approximately half of them do not have behavioral problems, and that more than 60% do not differ in their competence from the control group. However, our findings suggest that triple-X influences mental health and the overall well-being of the individuals across their whole life spans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.40477DOI Listing
November 2018

Maternal variants in and other maternal effect proteins are associated with multilocus imprinting disturbance in offspring.

J Med Genet 2018 07 24;55(7):497-504. Epub 2018 Mar 24.

Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK.

Background: Genomic imprinting results from the resistance of germline epigenetic marks to reprogramming in the early embryo for a small number of mammalian genes. Genetic, epigenetic or environmental insults that prevent imprints from evading reprogramming may result in imprinting disorders, which impact growth, development, behaviour and metabolism. We aimed to identify genetic defects causing imprinting disorders by whole-exome sequencing in families with one or more members affected by multilocus imprinting disturbance.

Methods: Whole-exome sequencing was performed in 38 pedigrees where probands had multilocus imprinting disturbance, in five of whom maternal variants in have previously been found.

Results: We now report 15 further pedigrees in which offspring had disturbance of imprinting, while their mothers had rare, predicted-deleterious variants in maternal effect genes, including , and . As well as clinical features of well-recognised imprinting disorders, some offspring had additional features including developmental delay, behavioural problems and discordant monozygotic twinning, while some mothers had reproductive problems including pregnancy loss.

Conclusion: The identification of 20 putative maternal effect variants in 38 families affected by multilocus imprinting disorders adds to the evidence that maternal genetic factors affect oocyte fitness and thus offspring development. Testing for maternal-effect genetic variants should be considered in families affected by atypical imprinting disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jmedgenet-2017-105190DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6047157PMC
July 2018

Noncoding copy-number variations are associated with congenital limb malformation.

Genet Med 2018 06 12;20(6):599-607. Epub 2017 Oct 12.

Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics, Berlin, Germany.

PurposeCopy-number variants (CNVs) are generally interpreted by linking the effects of gene dosage with phenotypes. The clinical interpretation of noncoding CNVs remains challenging. We investigated the percentage of disease-associated CNVs in patients with congenital limb malformations that affect noncoding cis-regulatory sequences versus genes sensitive to gene dosage effects.MethodsWe applied high-resolution copy-number analysis to 340 unrelated individuals with isolated limb malformation. To investigate novel candidate CNVs, we re-engineered human CNVs in mice using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-based genome editing.ResultsOf the individuals studied, 10% harbored CNVs segregating with the phenotype in the affected families. We identified 31 CNVs previously associated with congenital limb malformations and four novel candidate CNVs. Most of the disease-associated CNVs (57%) affected the noncoding cis-regulatory genome, while only 43% included a known disease gene and were likely to result from gene dosage effects. In transgenic mice harboring four novel candidate CNVs, we observed altered gene expression in all cases, indicating that the CNVs had a regulatory effect either by changing the enhancer dosage or altering the topological associating domain architecture of the genome.ConclusionOur findings suggest that CNVs affecting noncoding regulatory elements are a major cause of congenital limb malformations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/gim.2017.154DOI Listing
June 2018

The maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 6 (upd(6)mat) "phenotype": result of placental trisomy 6 mosaicism?

Mol Genet Genomic Med 2017 11 22;5(6):668-677. Epub 2017 Sep 22.

Institute of Human Genetics, University of Essen, Essen, Germany.

Background: Maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 6 (upd(6)mat) is a rare finding and its clinical relevance is currently unclear. Based on clinical data from two new cases and patients from the literature, the pathogenetic significance of upd(6)mat is delineated.

Methods: Own cases were molecularly characterized for isodisomic uniparental regions on chromosome 6. For further cases with upd(6)mat, a literature search was conducted and genetic and clinical data were ascertained.

Results: Comparison of isodisomic regions between the new upd(6)mat cases and those from four reports did not reveal any common isodisomic region. Among the patients with available cytogenetic data, five had a normal karyotype in lymphocytes, whereas a trisomy 6 (mosaicism) was detected prenatally in four cases. A common clinical picture was not obvious in upd(6)mat, but intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and preterm delivery were frequent.

Conclusion: A common upd(6)mat phenotype is not obvious, but placental dysfunction due to trisomy 6 mosaicism probably contributes to IUGR and preterm delivery. In fact, other clinical features observed in upd(6)mat patients might be caused by homozygosity of recessive mutations or by an undetected trisomy 6 cell line. Upd(6)mat itself is not associated with clinical features, and can rather be regarded as a biomarker. In case upd(6)mat is detected, the cause for the phenotype is identified indirectly, but the UPD is not the basic cause.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mgg3.324DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5702562PMC
November 2017

Tubulin-related cerebellar dysplasia: definition of a distinct pattern of cerebellar malformation.

Eur Radiol 2017 Dec 4;27(12):5080-5092. Epub 2017 Jul 4.

Neuropsychiatry and Neurorehabilitation Unit, Scientific Institute, IRCCS Eugenio Medea, Via D. L. Monza 20, 23842, Bosisio Parini, Lecco, Italy.

Objective: To determine the neuroimaging pattern of cerebellar dysplasia (CD) and other posterior fossa morphological anomalies associated with mutations in tubulin genes and to perform clinical and genetic correlations.

Methods: Twenty-eight patients harbouring 23 heterozygous pathogenic variants (ten novel) in tubulin genes TUBA1A (n = 10), TUBB2B (n = 8) or TUBB3 (n = 5) were studied by a brain MRI scan performed either on a 1.5 T (n = 10) or 3 T (n = 18) MR scanner with focus on the posterior fossa.

Results: Cerebellar anomalies were detected in 24/28 patients (86%). CD was recognised in 19/28 (68%) including cortical cerebellar dysplasia (CCD) in 18/28, either involving only the cerebellar hemispheres (12/28) or associated with vermis dysplasia (6/28). CCD was located only in the right hemisphere in 13/18 (72%), including four TUBB2B-, four TUBB3- and five TUBA1A-mutated patients, while in the other five TUBA1A cases it was located only in the left hemisphere or in both hemispheres. The postero-superior region of the cerebellar hemispheres was most frequently affected.

Conclusions: The cerebellar involvement in tubulinopathies shows specific features that may be labelled as 'tubulin-related CD'. This pattern is unique and differs from other genetic causes of cerebellar dysplasia.

Key Points: • Cortical cerebellar dysplasia without cysts is suggestive of tubulin-related disorder. • Cerebellar dysplasia in tubulinopathies shows specific features labelled as 'tubulin-related CD'. • Focal and unilateral involvement of cerebellar hemispheres has important implications for counselling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-017-4945-2DOI Listing
December 2017

Dravet syndrome: a new causative SCN1A mutation?

Clin Case Rep 2017 05 18;5(5):613-615. Epub 2017 Mar 18.

Department of Pediatrics and Neonatology Saarland University Hospital Homburg/Saar Germany.

Dravet syndrome is often caused by SCN1A mutations and has a wide variation in clinical appearance. Indication for genetic analysis should be an epileptic encephalopathy or severe clinical course of seizures in infants with episodes of fever before the first year of life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccr3.787DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5412774PMC
May 2017

47 patients with FLNA associated periventricular nodular heterotopia.

Orphanet J Rare Dis 2015 Oct 15;10:134. Epub 2015 Oct 15.

Department of Human Genetics, University of Regensburg, Medical Center, Regensburg, Germany.

Background: Heterozygous loss of function mutations within the Filamin A gene in Xq28 are the most frequent cause of bilateral neuronal periventricular nodular heterotopia (PVNH). Most affected females are reported to initially present with difficult to treat seizures at variable age of onset. Psychomotor development and cognition may be normal or mildly to moderately impaired. Distinct associated extracerebral findings have been observed and may help to establish the diagnosis including patent ductus arteriosus Botalli, progressive dystrophic cardiac valve disease and aortic dissection, chronic obstructive lung disease or chronic constipation. Genotype-phenotype correlations could not yet be established.

Methods: Sanger sequencing and MLPA was performed for a large cohort of 47 patients with Filamin A associated PVNH (age range 1 to 65 years). For 34 patients more detailed clinical information was available from a structured questionnaire and medical charts on family history, development, epileptologic findings, neurological examination, cognition and associated clinical findings. Available detailed cerebral MR imaging was assessed for 20 patients.

Results: Thirty-nine different FLNA mutations were observed, they are mainly truncating (37/39) and distributed throughout the entire coding region. No obvious correlation between the number and extend of PVNH and the severity of the individual clinical manifestation was observed. 10 of the mutation carriers so far are without seizures at a median age of 19.7 years. 22 of 24 patients with available educational data were able to attend regular school and obtain professional education according to age.

Conclusions: We report the clinical and mutation spectrum as well as MR imaging for a large cohort of 47 patients with Filamin A associated PVNH including two adult males. Our data are reassuring in regard to psychomotor and cognitive development, which is within normal range for the majority of patients. However, a concerning median diagnostic latency of 17 to 20 years was noted between seizure onset and the genetic diagnosis, intensely delaying appropriate medical surveillance for potentially life threatening cardiovascular complications as well as genetic risk assessment and counseling prior to family planning for this X-linked dominant inherited disorder with high perinatal lethality in hemizygous males.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13023-015-0331-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4608144PMC
October 2015

Congenital CLN disease in two siblings.

Wien Med Wochenschr 2015 May 10;165(9-10):210-3. Epub 2015 Jun 10.

Department of Pediatrics and Neonatology (Neonatal Intensive Care Unit), University Children´s Hospital of Saarland/Saarland University Hospitals, Building 9, 66421, Homburg, Germany,

Background: Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCL) is characterized by a combination of retinopathy, dementia, and epilepsy. As a group, they encompass ten distinct biological and clinical entities and are the most common type of childhood neurodegenerative disease.

Patients And Methods: Case reports.

Results: We demonstrate the clinical course of two neonates (brother and sister) with infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCL) (CLN 10 disease) presenting with intractable seizures and respiratory insufficiency immediately after birth. Characteristic clinical, radiological and pathological findings of this form of NCL are presented.

Conclusions: We conclude that the diagnosis of CLN10 should be kept in mind as a differential diagnosis in newborns presenting with respiratory insufficiency and severe epilepsy that is largely refractory to anti-epileptic drugs (AED) treatment. Because of the severity of CLN10 disease and futility of treatment, important ethical issues arise when caring for children with this clinical entity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10354-015-0359-4DOI Listing
May 2015

Next-generation sequencing in X-linked intellectual disability.

Eur J Hum Genet 2015 Nov 4;23(11):1513-8. Epub 2015 Feb 4.

Institute of Medical Genetics and Applied Genomics, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.

X-linked intellectual disability (XLID) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder with more than 100 genes known to date. Most genes are responsible for a small proportion of patients only, which has hitherto hampered the systematic screening of large patient cohorts. We performed targeted enrichment and next-generation sequencing of 107 XLID genes in a cohort of 150 male patients. Hundred patients had sporadic intellectual disability, and 50 patients had a family history suggestive of XLID. We also analysed a sporadic female patient with severe ID and epilepsy because she had strongly skewed X-inactivation. Target enrichment and high parallel sequencing allowed a diagnostic coverage of >10 reads for ~96% of all coding bases of the XLID genes at a mean coverage of 124 reads. We found 18 pathogenic variants in 13 XLID genes (AP1S2, ATRX, CUL4B, DLG3, IQSEC2, KDM5C, MED12, OPHN1, SLC9A6, SMC1A, UBE2A, UPF3B and ZDHHC9) among the 150 male patients. Thirteen pathogenic variants were present in the group of 50 familial patients (26%), and 5 pathogenic variants among the 100 sporadic patients (5%). Systematic gene dosage analysis for low coverage exons detected one pathogenic hemizygous deletion. An IQSEC2 nonsense variant was detected in the female ID patient, providing further evidence for a role of this gene in encephalopathy in females. Skewed X-inactivation was more frequently observed in mothers with pathogenic variants compared with those without known X-linked defects. The mutation rate in the cohort of sporadic patients corroborates previous estimates of 5-10% for X-chromosomal defects in male ID patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ejhg.2015.5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4613482PMC
November 2015

Deletions of exons with regulatory activity at the DYNC1I1 locus are associated with split-hand/split-foot malformation: array CGH screening of 134 unrelated families.

Orphanet J Rare Dis 2014 Jul 29;9:108. Epub 2014 Jul 29.

Background: A growing number of non-coding regulatory mutations are being identified in congenital disease. Very recently also some exons of protein coding genes have been identified to act as tissue specific enhancer elements and were therefore termed exonic enhancers or "eExons".

Methods: We screened a cohort of 134 unrelated families with split-hand/split-foot malformation (SHFM) with high resolution array CGH for CNVs with regulatory potential.

Results: In three families with an autosomal dominant non-syndromic SHFM phenotype we detected microdeletions encompassing the exonic enhancer (eExons) 15 and 17 of DYNC1I1. In a fourth family, who had hearing loss in addition to SHFM, we found a larger deletion of 510 kb including the eExons of DYNC1I1 and, in addition, the human brain enhancer hs1642. Exons 15 and 17 of DYNC1I1 are known to act as tissue specific limb enhancers of DLX5/6, two genes that have been shown to be associated with SHFM in mice. In our cohort of 134 unrelated families with SHFM, deletions of the eExons of DYNC1I1 account for approximately 3% of the cases, while 17p13.3 duplications were identified in 13% of the families, 10q24 duplications in 12%, and TP63 mutations were detected in 4%.

Conclusions: We reduce the minimal critical region for SHFM1 to 78 kb. Hearing loss, however, appears to be associated with deletions of a more telomeric region encompassing the brain enhancer element hs1642. Thus, SHFM1 as well as hearing loss at the same locus are caused by deletion of regulatory elements. Deletions of the exons with regulatory potential of DYNC1I1 are an example of the emerging role of exonic enhancer elements and their implications in congenital malformation syndromes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13023-014-0108-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4237947PMC
July 2014

Deletions in 14q24.1q24.3 are associated with congenital heart defects, brachydactyly, and mild intellectual disability.

Am J Med Genet A 2014 Mar 19;164A(3):620-6. Epub 2013 Dec 19.

Practice of Human Genetics, Homburg (Saar), Germany.

Interstitial deletions of chromosome band 14q24.1q24.3 are apparently very rare. We report on three unrelated patients with overlapping de novo deletions of sizes 5.4, 2.8, and 2.3 Mb in this region. While some clinical problems such as intestinal malrotation, cryptorchidism, and ectopic kidney were only observed in single patients, all three patients had mild intellectual disability, congenital heart defects (truncus arteriosus, pulmonary atresia, atrial septal defect, and/or ventricular septal defect), brachydactyly, hypertelorism, broad nasal bridge, and thin upper lips. Likely haploinsufficiency of one or several of the 19 genes in the common deleted interval (ACTN1, DCAF5, EXD2, GALNTL1, ERH, SLC39A9, PLEKHD1, CCDC177, KIAA0247, LOC100289511, SRSF5, SLC10A1, SMOC1, SLC8A3, ADAM21P1, COX16, SYNJ2BP, SYNJ2BP-COX16, ADAM21) was responsible for these manifestations, but apart from SMOC1, mutations in which cause autosomal recessive Waardenburg anophthalmia syndrome, and ACTN1, mutations in which are associated with congenital macrothrombocytopenia, no disease associations have so far been reported for the other genes. Functional studies and a systematic search for mutations or chromosome aberrations in this region will elucidate the role of individual genes in the clinical manifestations and will provide insight into the underlying biological mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.36321DOI Listing
March 2014

Molecular karyotyping as a relevant diagnostic tool in children with growth retardation with Silver-Russell features.

J Pediatr 2012 Nov 8;161(5):933-42. Epub 2012 Jun 8.

Institute of Human Genetics, RWTH Aachen, Aachen, Germany.

Objective: To determine the contribution of submicroscopic chromosomal imbalances to the etiology of Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS) and SRS-like phenotypes.

Study Design: We performed molecular karyotyping in 41 patients with SRS or SRS-like features without known chromosome 7 and 11 defects using the Affymetrix SNP Array 6.0 system (Affymetrix, High Wycombe, United Kingdom).

Results: In 8 patients, pathogenic copy number variations with sizes ranging from 672 kb to 9.158 Mb were identified. The deletions in 1q21, 15q26, 17p13, and 22q11 were associated with known microdeletion syndromes with overlapping features with SRS. The duplications in 22q13 and Xq25q27 represent unique novel copy number variations but have an obvious influence on the phenotype. In 5 additional patients, the pathogenetic relevance of the detected variants remained unclear.

Conclusion: Pathogenic submicroscopic imbalances were detectable in a significant proportion of patients with short stature and features reminiscent of SRS. Therefore, molecular karyotyping should be implemented in routine diagnostics for growth-retarded patients with even slight dysmorphisms suggestive for SRS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2012.04.045DOI Listing
November 2012

Phenotypic spectrum associated with CASK loss-of-function mutations.

J Med Genet 2011 Nov 27;48(11):741-51. Epub 2011 Sep 27.

Institute of Human Genetics, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany.

Background: Heterozygous mutations in the CASK gene in Xp11.4 have been shown to be associated with a distinct brain malformation phenotype in females, including disproportionate pontine and cerebellar hypoplasia.

Methods: The study characterised the CASK alteration in 20 new female patients by molecular karyotyping, fluorescence in situ hybridisation, sequencing, reverse transcriptase (RT) and/or quantitative real-time PCR. Clinical and brain imaging data of a total of 25 patients were reviewed.

Results: 11 submicroscopic copy number alterations, including nine deletions of ~11 kb to 4.5 Mb and two duplications, all covering (part of) CASK, four splice, four nonsense, and one 1 bp deletion are reported. These heterozygous CASK mutations most likely lead to a null allele. Brain imaging consistently showed diffuse brainstem and cerebellar hypoplasia with a dilated fourth ventricle, but of remarkably varying degrees. Analysis of 20 patients in this study, and five previously reported patients, revealed a core clinical phenotype comprising severe developmental delay/intellectual disability, severe postnatal microcephaly, often associated with growth retardation, (axial) hypotonia with or without hypertonia of extremities, optic nerve hypoplasia, and/or other eye abnormalities. A recognisable facial phenotype emerged, including prominent and broad nasal bridge and tip, small or short nose, long philtrum, small chin, and/or large ears.

Conclusions: These findings define the phenotypic spectrum associated with CASK loss-of-function mutations. The combination of developmental and brain imaging features together with mild facial dysmorphism is highly suggestive of this disorder and should prompt subsequent testing of the CASK gene.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jmedgenet-2011-100218DOI Listing
November 2011

Christianson syndrome in a patient with an interstitial Xq26.3 deletion.

Am J Med Genet A 2011 Nov 19;155A(11):2771-4. Epub 2011 Sep 19.

Department Human Molecular Genetics, Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics, Berlin, Germany.

Interstitial deletions of chromosome band Xq26.3 are rare. We report on a 2-year-old boy in whom array comparative genomic hybridization analysis revealed an interstitial 314 kb deletion in Xq26.3 affecting SLC9A6 and FHL1. Mutations in SLC9A6 are associated with Christianson syndrome (OMIM 300243), a syndromic form of X-linked mental retardation (XLMR) characterized by microcephaly, severe global developmental delay, ataxia and seizures. FHL1 mutations cause Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (OMIM 310300), X-linked myopathy with postural muscle atrophy (XMPMA, OMIM 300696), scapuloperoneal myopathy (OMIM 300695), or reducing body myopathy (OMIM 300717, 300718). The clinical problems of the patient reported here comprised severe intellectual disability, absent speech, ataxia, epilepsy, and gastroesophageal reflux, and could mostly be attributed to SLC9A6 insufficiency. In contrast to the majority of reported Christianson syndrome patients who were microcephalic, this patient was normocephalic, but his head circumference had decelerated from the 50th centile at birth to the 25th centile at the age of 2 ²/¹² years. Muscle problems due to the FHL1 deletion are not to be expected before late childhood, which is the earliest age of onset for FHL1 associated Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy. This patient broadens the spectrum of SLC9A6 mutations and contributes to the clinical delineation of Christianson syndrome. This is also the first patient with a deletion affecting both SLC9A6 and the complete FHL1 gene.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.34230DOI Listing
November 2011

Mutations in the small GTPase gene RAB39B are responsible for X-linked mental retardation associated with autism, epilepsy, and macrocephaly.

Am J Hum Genet 2010 Feb;86(2):185-95

Dulbecco Telethon Institute at Division of Neuroscience, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy.

Human Mental Retardation (MR) is a common and highly heterogeneous pediatric disorder affecting around 3% of the general population; at least 215 X-linked MR (XLMR) conditions have been described, and mutations have been identified in 83 different genes, encoding proteins with a variety of function, such as chromatin remodeling, synaptic function, and intracellular trafficking. The small GTPases of the RAB family, which play an essential role in intracellular vesicular trafficking, have been shown to be involved in MR. We report here the identification of mutations in the small GTPase RAB39B gene in two male patients. One mutation in family X (D-23) introduced a stop codon seven amino acids after the start codon (c.21C > A; p.Y7X). A second mutation, in the MRX72 family, altered the 5' splice site (c.215+1G > A) and normal splicing. Neither instance produced a protein. Mutations segregate with the disease in the families, and in some family members intellectual disabilities were associated with autism spectrum disorder, epileptic seizures, and macrocephaly. We show that RAB39B, a novel RAB GTPase of unknown function, is a neuronal-specific protein that is localized to the Golgi compartment. Its downregulation leads to an alteration in the number and morphology of neurite growth cones and a significant reduction in presynaptic buttons, suggesting that RAB39B is required for synapse formation and maintenance. Our results demonstrate developmental and functional neuronal alteration as a consequence of downregulation of RAB39B and emphasize the critical role of vesicular trafficking in the development of neurons and human intellectual abilities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2010.01.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2820185PMC
February 2010

Feingold syndrome associated with two novel MYCN mutations in sporadic and familial cases including monozygotic twins.

Am J Med Genet A 2008 Sep;146A(17):2304-7

Department of Medical Genetics, University Hospital and University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.32444DOI Listing
September 2008

Novel POMGnT1 mutations define broader phenotypic spectrum of muscle-eye-brain disease.

Neurogenetics 2007 Nov 29;8(4):279-88. Epub 2007 Sep 29.

Center for Human Genetics and Department of Human Genetics, University of Regensburg, Universitätklinikum D3, Franz-Josef-Strauss-Allee 11, Regensburg 93053, Germany.

Muscle-eye-brain disease (MEB, OMIM 253280) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a distinct triad of congenital muscular dystrophy, structural eye abnormalities, and cobblestone lissencephaly. Clinically, MEB patients present with early onset muscular hypotonia, severely compromised motor development, and mental retardation. Magnetic resonance imaging reveals a lissencephaly type II with hypoplasia of the brainstem and cerebellum. MEB is associated with mutations in the gene for protein O-mannose beta-1,2-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (POMGnT1, OMIM 606822). In this paper, we report the clinical findings of nine MEB patients from eight families. Eight of the nine patients presented typical features of MEB. However, a broad phenotypic variability was observed, ranging from two patients with severe autistic features to another patient with an unusually mild phenotype, initially diagnosed as congenital muscular dystrophy. Furthermore, severe hydrocephalus was reported in two families during a previous pregnancy, emphasizing the phenotypic overlap with Walker-Warburg syndrome. In addition to three previously reported mutations, we identified six novel POMGnT1 mutations (one missense, five truncating) in the present patient cohort. Our data suggest mutational hotspots within the minimal catalytic domain at arginine residue 442 (exon 16) and in intron 17. It is interesting to note that all mutations analyzed so far result in a complete loss of enzyme activity. Therefore, we conclude that the type and position of the POMGnT1 mutations are not of predictive value for the clinical severity. This supports the notion that additional environmental and/or genetic factors may contribute to the observed broad spectrum of POMGnT1-associated phenotypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10048-007-0096-yDOI Listing
November 2007

Extradural ependymal tumor with myxopapillary and ependymoblastic differentiation in a case of Schinzel-Giedion syndrome.

Acta Neuropathol 2007 Mar 13;113(3):339-46. Epub 2006 Dec 13.

Institute of Brain Research, Eberhard-Karls University, Medical School, Tuebingen, Germany.

Primary extradural ependymomas are rare neoplasms usually of the myxopapillary type. Reports on malignant primary extradural ependymal tumors are exceptionally rare. We here report on a 3-year-old boy with Schinzel-Giedion syndrome (SGS), who presented with lumbar spina bifida occulta and a progressive extraspinal lesion in the subcutaneous sacrococcygeal region. Microscopic examinations revealed an uncommon ependymal tumor with well-differentiated regions reflecting myxopapillary ependymoma and highly anaplastic regions with numerous mitoses, necroses, ependymal rosettes and ependymoblastic rosettes. Final neuropathologic diagnosis was an extraspinal anaplastic ependymal tumor with myxopapillary and ependymoblastic differentiation, corresponding to WHO grade IV. SGS is a very rare disorder with a likely autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance. So far, 42 cases have been reported, among them 7 were diagnosed to have malignant neoplasms, including three malignant sacrococcygeal teratomas, two sacrococcygeal primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET), one hepatoblastoma and one malignant kidney tumor. The present case is the first report on an ependymal tumor with a mixture of myxopapillary, anaplastic and ependymoblastic features and the first report on an ependymal tumor arising on the genetic background of SGS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00401-006-0179-0DOI Listing
March 2007