Publications by authors named "Barbara Meyer"

169 Publications

The effect of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on aggressive behaviour in adult male prisoners: a structured study protocol for a multi-centre, double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial and translation into policy and practice.

Trials 2021 May 2;22(1):318. Epub 2021 May 2.

Corrective Services NSW, 20 Lee St, Haymarket, NSW, 2000, Australia.

Background: Interventions to better manage aggressive behaviour and reduce recidivism are a primary concern for corrective services. Nutritional interventions to correct prisoner behaviour have been largely overlooked in the literature. Emerging evidence suggests that dietary intake influences aggressive behaviours and that nutritional supplementation with omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) could attenuate both the severity and frequency of aggressive behaviour.

Methods: Adult male prisoners who have a history of aggressive behaviour (n = 600) will be recruited from at least 6 Correctional Centres and randomised to receive either n-3 LCPUFA or placebo supplementation for a 16-week duration. Treatment will be with either 1 g/day of n-3 LCPUFA (694 mg DHA and 397 mg EPA) or placebo capsules, which are a corn/soy oil blend and are identical in size and colour. The primary outcome measure is the Inmate Behavioural Observation Scale (IBOS): an objective measure of aggressive behaviour. Secondary outcome measures include questionnaires (including aggression, attention deficit disorder, impulsivity, depression/anxiety/stress scales), engagement in programmes, recidivism and quality of life. Baseline and post-intervention assessments include the IBOS, questionnaires and blood to measure the levels of n-3 LCPUFA.

Discussion: To conclusively test the potential that increasing n-3 LCPUFA intakes can improve rates of prisoner aggression and associated mental health and violence-related social system management costs, we propose an adequately powered multi-centre, double-blind, randomised controlled trial, examining the effects of n-3 LCPUFA supplementation on aggressive behaviour in adult male prisoners. If successful, this study will inform prisoner policy with respect to nutrition and by inference contribute to a broader community approach to preventative mental health practices.

Trial Registration: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry (ANZCTR) ACTRN12618001665224 . Registered on 10 October 2018.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-021-05252-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8088826PMC
May 2021

Fingertip Whole Blood as an Indicator of Omega-3 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Changes during Dose-Response Supplementation in Women: Comparison with Plasma and Erythrocyte Fatty Acids.

Nutrients 2021 Apr 23;13(5). Epub 2021 Apr 23.

School of Medicine, Molecular Horizons, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia.

The sensitivity of fingertip whole blood to reflect habitual dietary and dose-dependent supplemental omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LCPUFA) intake in premenopausal women was compared to that of venous erythrocytes and plasma fatty acids. Samples were obtained from women in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in which premenopausal women ( = 53) were supplemented with DHA-rich tuna oil capsules and/or placebo (Sunola oil) capsules (6 capsules per day) for 8 weeks to achieve doses of either 0, 0.35, 0.7 or 1.05 g/day n-3 LCPUFA. All blood biomarkers were very similar in their ability to reflect dietary n-3 LCPUFA intake (r = 0.38-0.46 for EPA and DHA intake), and in their dose-dependent increases in n-3 LCPUFA levels after supplementation (R = 0.41-0.51 for dose effect on biomarker EPA and DHA levels (mol %)). Fingertip whole blood is an effective alternative to erythrocytes and plasma as a biomarker n-3 LCPUFA intake in premenopausal women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13051419DOI Listing
April 2021

[Emergency treatment of severe bleeding in immune thrombocytopenia].

Anaesthesist 2021 Mar 16. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Klinik für Anästhesiologie, Intensiv‑, Rettungs- und Schmerzmedizin, Kantonsspital St. Gallen, Rorschacherstraße 95, 9000, St. Gallen, Schweiz.

Immune thrombozytopenia (ITP) is a rare acquired thrombocytopenia occurring in 2 to 4 persons per 100,000 per year. ITP is defined as a platelet count less than 100 G/l in patients in whom other causes of thrombocytopenia have been ruled out. Severe bleeding is rare but may constitute a life-threatening condition. Therapeutic options include platelet transfusions, glucocorticoids and intravenous immune globuline (IVIG). Emergency splenectomy has to be considered in otherwise untreatable bleeding. We present the case of a 65-year-old patient with chronic refractory ITP and finally fatal bleeding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00101-021-00939-2DOI Listing
March 2021

The Feasibility of the "Omega Kid" Study Protocol: A Double-Blind, Randomised, Placebo-Controlled Trial Investigating the Effect of Omega-3 Supplementation on Self-Regulation in Preschool-Aged Children.

Nutrients 2021 Jan 13;13(1). Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Illawarra Health and Medical Research Institute, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia.

Self-regulation, the regulation of behaviour in early childhood, impacts children's success at school and is a predictor of health, wealth, and criminal outcomes in adulthood. Self-regulation may be optimised by dietary supplementation of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFAs). The aim of the "Omega Kid" study is to investigate the feasibility of a protocol to investigate whether n-3 LCPUFA supplementation enhances self-regulation in preschool-aged children. The protocol assessed involved a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial of 12 weeks duration, with an intervention of 1.6 g of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) per day (0.3 g EPA and 1.3 g DHA) in a microencapsulated powder compared to placebo. Children (n = 78; 40 boys and 38 girls) aged 3-5 years old were recruited and randomly allocated to the treatment (n = 39) or placebo group (n = 39). The HS-Omega-3 Index served as a manipulation check on the delivery of either active (n-3 LCPUFAs) or placebo powders. Fifty-eight children (76%) completed the intervention (28-30 per group). Compliance to the study protocol was high, with 92% of children providing a finger-prick blood sample at baseline and high reported-adherence to the study intervention (88%). Results indicate that the protocol is feasible and may be employed in an adequately powered clinical trial to test the hypothesis that n-3 LCPUFA supplementation will improve the self-regulation of preschool-aged children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13010213DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7828487PMC
January 2021

Dose-dependent action of the RNA binding protein FOX-1 to relay X-chromosome number and determine sex.

Elife 2020 12 29;9. Epub 2020 Dec 29.

Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, United States.

We demonstrate how RNA binding protein FOX-1 functions as a dose-dependent X-signal element to communicate X-chromosome number and thereby determine nematode sex. FOX-1, an RNA recognition motif protein, triggers hermaphrodite development in XX embryos by causing non-productive alternative pre-mRNA splicing of , the master sex-determination switch gene that triggers male development in XO embryos. RNA binding experiments together with genome editing demonstrate that FOX-1 binds to multiple GCAUG and GCACG motifs in a intron, causing intron retention or partial exon deletion, thereby eliminating male-determining XOL-1 protein. Transforming all motifs to GCAUG or GCACG permits accurate alternative splicing, demonstrating efficacy of both motifs. Mutating subsets of both motifs partially alleviates non-productive splicing. Mutating all motifs blocks it, as does transforming them to low-affinity GCUUG motifs. Combining multiple high-affinity binding sites with the twofold change in FOX-1 concentration between XX and XO embryos achieves dose-sensitivity in splicing regulation to determine sex.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.62963DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7787662PMC
December 2020

In pregnancy, maternal HDL is specifically enriched in, and carries the highest proportion of, DHA in plasma.

Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2020 12 12;163:102209. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

School of Medicine, University of Wollongong, Northfields Ave, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia. Electronic address:

Arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are important for neurological development. The aim was to determine the distribution and relative enrichment of AA and DHA among lipoprotein fractions prior to pregnancy, throughout gestation and in the post-partum period. Our hypothesis was that in pregnancy, in contrast to the non-pregnant state, AA and DHA are carried in highest concentration in the very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) fraction secondary to increased gestational liver triglyceride secretion. Two independent prospective, observational cohort studies carried out in Glasgow were combined; one early in pregnancy and one later in pregnancy with post-partum follow up. Across the pregnancy timeline plasma lipoproteins were isolated using sequential ultracentrifugation and lipoprotein fatty acids were extracted and analysed by gas chromatography. High density lipoprotein (HDL) had the highest concentration of AA and DHA compared to other lipoproteins. HDL became progressively enriched in the proportion of triglycerides at 16 weeks of gestation, which peaked at 35 weeks and returned to baseline at 13 weeks postpartum. HDL DHA per HDL-cholesterol and HDL DHA per apoA-I became progressively enriched at 16 weeks of gestation, peaked at 25 weeks and returned to baseline at 13 weeks postpartum, whereas HDL AA (per HDL-C or HDL-apoA-I) did not differ. DHA is carried primarily in HDL rather than VLDL. HDL has anti-oxidant properties that might afford DHA protection against oxidation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plefa.2020.102209DOI Listing
December 2020

Effect of Omega-3 Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (n-3 LCPUFA) Supplementation on Cognition in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Literature Review with a Focus on n-3 LCPUFA Blood Values and Dose of DHA and EPA.

Nutrients 2020 Oct 12;12(10). Epub 2020 Oct 12.

Conditions for Lifelong Learning, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Open University of the Netherlands, 6419 Heerlen, The Netherlands.

Omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) supplementation in the cardiovascular field is effective if a certain Omega-3 index (O3I) is achieved or the daily n-3 LCPUFA dose is high enough. Whether this applies to studies on cognition in children and adolescents is unclear. The aims of the current review were to investigate whether: (1) a certain O3I level and (2) a minimum daily n-3 LCPUFA dose are required to improve cognition in 4-25 year olds. Web of Science and PubMed were searched. Inclusion criteria: placebo controlled randomized controlled trial; participants 4-25 years; supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and/or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA); assessing cognition; in English and ≥10 participants per treatment arm. Thirty-three studies were included, 21 in typically developing participants, 12 in those with a disorder. A positive effect on cognitive measures was more likely in studies with an increase in O3I to >6%. Half of the studies in typically developing children with daily supplementation dose ≥450 mg DHA + EPA showed improved cognition. For children with a disorder no cut-off value was found. In conclusion, daily supplementation of ≥450 mg DHA + EPA per day and an increase in the O3I to >6% makes it more likely to show efficacy on cognition in children and adolescents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12103115DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7599612PMC
October 2020

The Effect of Dietary Supplementation on Aggressive Behaviour in Australian Adult Male Prisoners: A Feasibility and Pilot Study for a Randomised, Double Blind Placebo Controlled Trial.

Nutrients 2020 Aug 27;12(9). Epub 2020 Aug 27.

School of Medicine, Lipid Research Centre, Molecular Horizons, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia.

This study aimed to assess the feasibility of conducting a nutrition trial in adult male prisoners. Adult male prisoners were recruited for a 16-week randomised control trial comparing the effect of ingestion of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) and multivitamin supplements versus placebo on aggressive behaviour. The baseline and post-intervention assessments from the participant blood samples were the erythrocyte n-3 LCPUFA levels as well as measures of aggressive behaviour determined through institutional records of misconduct (IRM), the Inmate Behaviour Observation Scale (IBOS), and questionnaires. A total of 136 adult male prisoners consented to the study with a retention rate of 60%, and 93% of blood samples were successfully collected. The IRM and IBOS scores were collected for 100% of participants, whilst 82-97% of participants completed the questionnaires. From the baseline data, the Odds Ratio shows that prisoners are 4.3 times more likely to have an IBOS >2 if they are below the 6% cut off on the omega-3 index. Both groups improved across all outcome measures and, at the current sample size, no significant differences were seen between them. A power calculation suggests a total sample size of 600 participants is required to detect the effects of this dietary supplementation, and that this supplementation study is feasible in a Correctional Centre. Important criteria for the exclusion and consideration of logistics and compliance are presented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12092617DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7551402PMC
August 2020

A Forgotten Pioneer: The Little Known Biographic Stages of Erich Lindemann's Life (1888-1945).

Protist 2020 Jun 7;171(3):125729. Epub 2020 Jun 7.

Max-Planck-Institut für Evolutionsbiologie, August-Thienemann-Str. 2, D - 24 306 Plön, Germany.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.protis.2020.125729DOI Listing
June 2020

Assessment of Periprostatic and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Lipolysis and Adipocyte Size from Men with Localized Prostate Cancer.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 May 28;12(6). Epub 2020 May 28.

Discipline of Physiology, School of Medical Sciences, Charles Perkins Centre, Faculty of Medicine and Health, The University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW 2006, Australia.

The prostate is surrounded by periprostatic adipose tissue (PPAT), the thickness of which has been associated with more aggressive prostate cancer (PCa). There are limited data regarding the functional characteristics of PPAT, how it compares to subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), and whether in a setting of localized PCa, these traits are altered by obesity or disease aggressiveness. PPAT and SAT were collected from 60 men (age: 42-78 years, BMI: 21.3-35.6 kg/m) undergoing total prostatectomy for PCa. Compared to SAT, adipocytes in PPAT were smaller, had the same basal rates of fatty acid release (lipolysis) yet released less polyunsaturated fatty acid species, and were more sensitive to isoproterenol-stimulated lipolysis. Basal lipolysis of PPAT was increased in men diagnosed with less aggressive PCa (Gleason score (GS) ≤ 3 + 4) compared to men with more aggressive PCa (GS ≥ 4 + 3) but no other measured adipocyte parameters related to PCa aggressiveness. Likewise, there was no difference in PPAT lipid biology between lean and obese men. In conclusion, lipid biological features of PPAT do differ from SAT; however, we did not observe any meaningful difference in ex vivo PPAT biology that is associated with PCa aggressiveness or obesity. As such, our findings do not support a relationship between altered PCa behavior in obese men and the metabolic reprogramming of PPAT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12061385DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7352157PMC
May 2020

Histone H3K9 methylation promotes formation of genome compartments in via chromosome compaction and perinuclear anchoring.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 05 8;117(21):11459-11470. Epub 2020 May 8.

Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720;

Genomic regions preferentially associate with regions of similar transcriptional activity, partitioning genomes into active and inactive compartments within the nucleus. Here we explore mechanisms controlling genome compartment organization in and investigate roles for compartments in regulating gene expression. Distal arms of chromosomes, which are enriched for heterochromatic histone modifications H3K9me1/me2/me3, interact with each other both and while interacting less frequently with central regions, leading to genome compartmentalization. Arms are anchored to the nuclear periphery via the nuclear envelope protein CEC-4, which binds to H3K9me. By performing genome-wide chromosome conformation capture experiments (Hi-C), we showed that eliminating H3K9me1/me2/me3 through mutations in the methyltransferase genes and significantly impaired formation of inactive Arm and active Center compartments. mutations also impaired compartmentalization, but to a lesser extent. We found that H3K9me promotes compartmentalization through two distinct mechanisms: Perinuclear anchoring of chromosome arms via CEC-4 to promote their association, and an anchoring-independent mechanism that compacts individual chromosome arms. In both and mutants, no dramatic changes in gene expression were found for genes that switched compartments or for genes that remained in their original compartment, suggesting that compartment strength does not dictate gene-expression levels. Furthermore, H3K9me, but not perinuclear anchoring, also contributes to formation of another prominent feature of chromosome organization, megabase-scale topologically associating domains on X established by the dosage compensation condensin complex. Our results demonstrate that H3K9me plays crucial roles in regulating genome organization at multiple levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2002068117DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7261013PMC
May 2020

High Variability in Erythrocyte, Plasma and Whole Blood EPA and DHA Levels in Response to Supplementation.

Nutrients 2020 Apr 8;12(4). Epub 2020 Apr 8.

School of Medicine, Molecular Horizons, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia.

(1) Aim: the aim of this secondary analysis was to report the variability in response to -3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) supplementation in erythrocytes, plasma and whole blood of a previously published dose response study. (2) Methods: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of parallel design was conducted, whereby pre-menopausal women were randomly assigned to consume 0, 0.35, 0.7 or 1 g/day of supplemental eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Fasted blood samples were taken at baseline and after eight weeks intervention. Erythrocyte, plasma and whole blood fatty acids were extracted using the method of Lepage and Roy and analysed using gas chromatography. (3) Results: There were significant increases in EPA plus DHA levels in the 0.7 g and 1 g dose groups, with the highest increase with the 1 g dose notably: in erythrocytes (from 5.69% to 7.59%), plasma (from 2.94% to 5.48%) and in whole blood (from 3.81% to 6.03%). There was high variability in response to the supplement in erythrocytes, plasma and whole blood across the different doses. (4) Conclusion: there is high individual variability in -3 LCPUFA levels in response to -3 LCPUFA supplementation, which should be taken into account in clinical trials using -3 LCPUFA supplements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12041017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7231102PMC
April 2020

An Examination of Athletic Trainers' Occupational Recovery Experiences During Time After Work.

J Athl Train 2020 May 27;55(5):532-537. Epub 2020 Mar 27.

Athletic Training, Drake University, Des Moines, IA.

Context: Although researchers have directed scholars toward investigating the effectiveness of the nonwork personal time of athletic trainers (ATs), no one has characterized the occupational recovery experiences of ATs.

Objective: To examine the reliability and validity of the Recovery Experience Questionnaire (REQ) for use in AT populations.

Design: Cross-sectional study.

Setting: Web-based survey.

Patients Or Other Participants: A total of 144 ATs (71 men, 73 women) working in a variety of National Collegiate Athletic Association sports across all levels of competition.

Main Outcome Measure(s): The REQ was administered to assess the AT recovery experience.

Results: Preliminary evidence emerged for the reliability (ω = 0.80-0.90) and validity of the REQ for use in AT populations. Weak linear relationships were identified between stress and perceptions of psychological detachment ( = -0.314, < .001), mastery ( = -0.179, = .32), control ( = -0.284, = .001), and relaxation ( = -0.157, = .06).

Conclusions: Our results support measuring and applying occupational recovery for AT stress and work-life balance. Given that occupational recovery as a construct was only weakly related to stress, it is clearly a unique and distinct variable worth considering within the work-life balance line of inquiry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4085/1062-6050-26-18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7249284PMC
May 2020

Inflammation (IL-1β) Modifies the Effect of Vitamin D and Omega-3 Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Core Symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorder-An Exploratory Pilot Study.

Nutrients 2020 Feb 28;12(3). Epub 2020 Feb 28.

School of Sport, Exercise and Nutrition, College of Health, Massey University, Auckland 0745, New Zealand.

Background: The role of vitamin D and omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 LCPUFA) in improving core symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in children has been investigated by a few randomised controlled trials and the results are mixed and inconclusive. The response to treatment with these nutrients is heterogenous and may be influenced by inflammatory state. As an exploratory analysis, we investigated whether inflammatory state would modulate the effect of these nutrients on core symptoms of ASD. Methods Seventy-three New Zealand children with ASD (2.5-8.0 years) completed a 12-month randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of vitamin D (VID, 2000 IU/day), omega-3 LCPUFA; (OM, 722 mg/day docosahexaenoic acid), or both (VIDOM). Non-fasting baseline plasma interleukin-1β (IL-1β) was available for 67 children (VID = 15, OM = 21, VIDOM = 15, placebo = 16). Children were categorised as having undetectable/normal IL-1β (<3.2 pg/ml, =15) or elevated IL-1β (≥3.2 pg/mL, = 52). The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) questionnaire was used to assess core symptoms of ASD (baseline, 12-month). Mixed model repeated measure analyses (including all children or only children with elevated IL-1β) were used.

Results: We found evidence for an interaction between baseline IL-1β and treatment response for SRS-total, SRS-social communicative functioning, SRS-awareness and SRS-communication (all < 0.10). When all children were included in the analysis, two outcome comparisons (treatments vs. placebo) showed greater improvements: VID, no effect (all > 0.10); OM and VIDOM ( = 0.01) for SRS-awareness. When only children with elevated IL-1β were included, five outcomes showed greater improvements: OM ( = 0.01) for SRS-total; OM ( = 0.03) for SRS-social communicative functioning; VID ( = 0.01), OM ( = 0.003) and VIDOM ( = 0.01) for SRS-awareness.

Conclusion: Inflammatory state may have modulated responses to vitamin D and omega-3 LCPUFA intervention in children with ASD, suggesting children with elevated inflammation may benefit more from daily vitamin D and omega-3 LCPUFA supplementation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12030661DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7146497PMC
February 2020

Stunting is a recognized problem: Evidence for the potential benefits of ω-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids.

Nutrition 2020 05 30;73:110564. Epub 2019 Jul 30.

School of Medicine, Lipid Research Centre, Molecular Horizons, Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health, University of Wollongong NSW, Australia; Illawarra Health and Medical Research Institute, Wollongong NSW, Australia.

Stunting remains a major nutritional problem worldwide, especially in middle- and low-income countries including Indonesia. A number of nutritional feeding programs to cure stunting are basically addressing the problem of malnutrition. These programs are particularly designed to promote recovery of normal metabolic function and weight gain. The currently available remedial formula for malnutrition contains energy and nutrients to recover the weight, but there is less nutrition that would support optimal functional development of tissues including the central nervous system. Research has documented that sufficient intakes of dietary ω-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are important for optimal health throughout the life span, especially brain development and cognition. The aim of this study was to review the evidence for the role of food sources of these fatty acids on children's health and growth. To our knowledge, very little work has been conducted on remedial formulas enriched with ω-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids for malnutrition and optimal health, highlighting a need for intervention studies investigating the health benefits of the formula for malnutrition and optimal health, which may prevent stunting and also may promote optimal health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2019.110564DOI Listing
May 2020

Zero Intercalary Plates in Parvodinium (Peridiniopsidaceae, Peridiniales) and Phylogenetics of P. elpatiewskyi, comb. nov.

Protist 2020 02 22;171(1):125700. Epub 2019 Nov 22.

Department Biologie, Systematische Botanik und Mykologie, GeoBio-Center, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Menzinger Str. 67, D-80 638 München, Germany. Electronic address:

Parvodinium elpatiewskyi, comb. nov., is a common freshwater dinophyte without intercalary plates and with various spines on hypothecal sutures. However, the taxonomy of the species has had a complex history, and its systematic placement remained unclear. The conserved type of P. elpatiewskyi, comb. nov., illustrated here for the first time using electron microscopy, is an environmental sample. Based on the newly collected material from Berlin (Germany) we provide a morphological description using light and electron microscopy as well as new molecular rRNA sequence data to specify the phylogenetic position of P. elpatiewskyi, comb. nov. This species belongs to Peridiniopsidaceae, more precisely to Parvodinium, which usually possesses two intercalary plates. However, evolutionary inference indicates the loss of such plates in P. elpatiewskyi, comb. nov. Other traits that are of taxonomic importance and have not received enough attention in the past are the large Sd plate converging the second antapical plate and the presence of cellular hypocystal opening during replication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.protis.2019.125700DOI Listing
February 2020

Maternal Adipose Tissue Expansion, A Missing Link in the Prediction of Birth Weight Centile.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2020 03;105(3)

Institute of Cardiovascular and Me dical Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.

Context: Maternal body mass index (BMI) is associated with increased birth weight but does not explain all the variance in fetal adiposity.

Objective: To assess the contribution of maternal body fat distribution to offspring birth weight and adiposity.

Design: Longitudinal study throughout gestation and at delivery.

Setting: Women recruited at 12 weeks of gestation and followed up at 26 and 36 weeks. Cord blood was collected at delivery.

Patients: Pregnant women (n = 45) with BMI 18.0 to 46.3 kg/m2 and healthy pregnancy outcome.

Methods: Maternal first trimester abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue thickness (SAT and VAT) was assessed by ultrasound.

Main Outcome Measures: Maternal body fat distribution, maternal and cord plasma glucose and lipid concentrations, placental weight, birth weight, and fetal adiposity assessed by cord blood leptin.

Results: VAT was the only anthropometric measure independently associated with birth weight centile (r2 adjusted 15.8%, P = .002). BMI was associated with trimester 2 and trimesters 1 through 3 area under the curve (AUC) glucose and insulin resistance (Homeostatic Model Assessment). SAT alone predicted trimester 2 lipoprotein lipase (LPL) mass (a marker of adipocyte insulin sensitivity) (11.3%, P = .017). VAT was associated with fetal triglyceride (9.3%, P = .047). Placental weight was the only independent predictor of fetal adiposity (48%, P < .001). Maternal trimester 2 and AUC LPL were inversely associated with fetal adiposity (r = -0.69, P = .001 and r = -0.58, P = .006, respectively).

Conclusions: Maternal VAT provides additional information to BMI for prediction of birth weight. VAT may be a marker of reduced SAT expansion and increased availability of maternal fatty acids for placental transport.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/clinem/dgz248DOI Listing
March 2020

ISSFAL Official Statement Number 6: The importance of measuring blood omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid levels in research.

Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2020 06 6;157:102029. Epub 2019 Nov 6.

School of Medicine, Lipid Research Centre, Molecular Horizons, University of Wollongong and Illawarra Health & Medical Research Institute, Northfields Avenue, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia. Electronic address:

A statement on measuring blood omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid levels was developed and edited based on input from ISSFAL members and accepted by vote of the ISSFAL Board of Directors. Summary of Statement: Omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LCPUFA) levels at baseline and post-intervention should be assessed and reported in future research to evaluate the efficacy of n-3 LCPUFA supplementation: b ecause; 1. there are numerous factors that affect n-3 LCPUFA levels in humans as described in the systematic literature review [1]; 2. assessing intake of n-3 LCPUFA from the diet and/or supplements is not sufficient to accurately determine n-3 LCPUFA levels in humans; 3. some studies do not provide sufficient doses of n-3 LCPUFA to produce a significant impact on bloodstream/organ content and there is substantial variability in the uptake of n-3 LPCUFA into tissues between individuals. In secondary analyses, clinical trials should consider the influence of fatty acid status (baseline, endpoint and change from baseline to endpoint) on the outcome variables.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plefa.2019.102029DOI Listing
June 2020

Supplementation with the omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids: Changes in the concentrations of omega-3 index, fatty acids and molecular phospholipids of people at ultra high risk of developing psychosis.

Schizophr Res 2020 12 9;226:52-60. Epub 2019 Oct 9.

Orygen - The National Centre of Excellence in Youth Mental Health, Parkville, Australia; The Centre for Youth Mental Health, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia. Electronic address:

Omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) are necessary for optimum mental health, with recent studies showing low n-3 LCPUFA in people at ultra-high risk (UHR) of developing psychosis. Furthermore, people at UHR of psychosis had increased erythrocyte sphingomyelin (SM) and reduced phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) concentrations as well as 27 erythrocyte phospholipid species that differed when compared to erythrocytes from age matched people not at UHR of psychosis. The aim of this analysis was to evaluate the effect of n-3 supplementation on the different erythrocyte lipid species (including SM and PE concentrations) in people at UHR of psychosis. Participants were randomly assigned to fish oil (containing 840 mg EPA and 560 mg DHA per day) or placebo (paraffin oil) for 6 months. Fasted blood samples were taken at baseline and post intervention. Mass spectrometry was used to analyse the molecular phospholipids and fatty acid composition of erythrocytes for both groups. The n-3 index was significantly increased from 3.0% to 4.12% after 6 months of receiving n-3 capsules. Fish oil capsules increased the phospholipid molecular species containing n-3 LCPUFA, and concomitant decreases in n-6 LCPUFA species. SM species did not show any significant changes in n-3 LCPUFA group however, three SM species (SM 16:0, SM 18:0, SM 18:1) significantly increased after 6 months of supplementation with placebo. N-3 supplementation for 6 months led to higher n-3 incorporation into erythrocytes, at the expense of n-6 PUFA across all phospholipid classes analyzed and may have prevented the increase in SM seen in the placebo group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2019.08.033DOI Listing
December 2020

Goal orientation, motivational climate, and exercise as predictors of eating disorder risk factors among college students.

J Am Coll Health 2021 Feb-Mar;69(2):168-175. Epub 2019 Sep 9.

Department of Kinesiology-Integrated Health Care & Performance Unit, University of Wisconsin Milwaukee College of Health Sciences, Milwaukee, USA.

This study examined how goal orientation, motivational climate, and exercise could be used to predict college students' eating disorder symptomology. Recruited in February 2017, the participants included 275 college-aged students from a university in the southeastern United States. Using achievement goal theory as the framework to conceptualize motivations behind eating disorder behaviors, each participant filled out questionnaires related to goal mindsets, perceptions of the social climate in the university recreation center, and exercise habits. Data were analyzed using multiple regression analyses, with R coefficients being used to evaluate prediction models. The results of the study suggested that goal orientation and ego-involving climate were the only significant predictors of eating disorder symptomology, accounting for 3.4% of the total variance. This study provided preliminary evidence of the importance of studying achievement goal theory-related variables that contribute to our understanding of eating disorder symptomology in the collegiate population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07448481.2019.1657431DOI Listing
September 2019

X Chromosome Domain Architecture Regulates Caenorhabditis elegans Lifespan but Not Dosage Compensation.

Dev Cell 2019 10 5;51(2):192-207.e6. Epub 2019 Sep 5.

Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. Electronic address:

Mechanisms establishing higher-order chromosome structures and their roles in gene regulation are elusive. We analyzed chromosome architecture during nematode X chromosome dosage compensation, which represses transcription via a dosage-compensation condensin complex (DCC) that binds hermaphrodite Xs and establishes megabase-sized topologically associating domains (TADs). We show that DCC binding at high-occupancy sites (rex sites) defines eight TAD boundaries. Single rex deletions disrupted boundaries, and single insertions created new boundaries, demonstrating that a rex site is necessary and sufficient to define DCC-dependent boundary locations. Deleting eight rex sites (8rexΔ) recapitulated TAD structure of DCC mutants, permitting analysis when chromosome-wide domain architecture was disrupted but most DCC binding remained. 8rexΔ animals exhibited no changes in X expression and lacked dosage-compensation mutant phenotypes. Hence, TAD boundaries are neither the cause nor the consequence of DCC-mediated gene repression. Abrogating TAD structure did, however, reduce thermotolerance, accelerate aging, and shorten lifespan, implicating chromosome architecture in stress responses and aging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.devcel.2019.08.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6810858PMC
October 2019

Comparison of erythrocyte omega-3 index, fatty acids and molecular phospholipid species in people at ultra-high risk of developing psychosis and healthy people.

Schizophr Res 2020 12 10;226:44-51. Epub 2019 Jul 10.

School of Medicine, Molecular Horizons, Lipid Research Centre, University of Wollongong, and Illawarra Health & Medical Research Institute, Wollongong, Australia. Electronic address:

People classified as ultra-high risk (UHR) of developing psychosis have reduced cellular membrane omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). We aimed to compare omega-3 index, fatty acids and molecular phospholipid species from erythrocytes of people with UHR (n = 285) with age-matched healthy controls (n = 120) assessed by mass spectrometry. Lower proportions of PUFA were observed in the UHR group compared to healthy controls; specifically, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) was 29.3% lower, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was 27.2% lower, arachidonic acid (AA) was 15.8% lower and the omega-3 index was 26.9% lower. The AA to EPA ratio was higher in the UHR group compared to the healthy group. Smoking status had no significant effect on PUFA levels in healthy or the UHR groups. BMI was associated with PUFA levels in the UHR group only and the statistical model only explains 2% of the variance of the PUFA levels. The proportion of nervonic acid was 64.4% higher in the UHR group compared to healthy controls. At a lipid class level, the UHR group had 16% higher concentrations of sphingomyelin (SM) and 46% lower concentrations phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) compared to healthy group. Of the 49 individual molecular phospholipids, twenty-seven phospholipid species were lower in the UHR group. In conclusion, there are clear differences in the proportions of erythrocyte fatty acids and phospholipids between UHR and healthy controls and UHR had higher concentrations of SM and lower concentrations of PE. These differences may represent a promising prodromal risk biomarker in the UHR population to aid clinical diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2019.06.020DOI Listing
December 2020

The demethylase NMAD-1 regulates DNA replication and repair in the Caenorhabditis elegans germline.

PLoS Genet 2019 07 8;15(7):e1008252. Epub 2019 Jul 8.

Division of Newborn Medicine, Children's Hospital Boston, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America.

The biological roles of nucleic acid methylation, other than at the C5-position of cytosines in CpG dinucleotides, are still not well understood. Here, we report genetic evidence for a critical role for the putative DNA demethylase NMAD-1 in regulating meiosis in C. elegans. nmad-1 mutants have reduced fertility. They show defects in prophase I of meiosis, which leads to reduced embryo production and an increased incidence of males due to defective chromosomal segregation. In nmad-1 mutant worms, nuclear staging beginning at the leptotene and zygotene stages is disorganized, the cohesin complex is mislocalized at the diplotene and diakinesis stages, and chromosomes are improperly condensed, fused, or lost by the end of diakinesis. RNA sequencing of the nmad-1 germline revealed reduced induction of DNA replication and DNA damage response genes during meiosis, which was coupled with delayed DNA replication, impaired DNA repair and increased apoptosis of maturing oocytes. To begin to understand how NMAD-1 regulates DNA replication and repair, we used immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry to identify NMAD-1 binding proteins. NMAD-1 binds to multiple proteins that regulate DNA repair and replication, including topoisomerase TOP-2 and co-localizes with TOP-2 on chromatin. Moreover, the majority of TOP-2 binding to chromatin depends on NMAD-1. These results suggest that NMAD-1 functions at DNA replication sites to regulate DNA replication and repair during meiosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1008252DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6638966PMC
July 2019

Relationship Between Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Psychopathology in the NEURAPRO Clinical Trial.

Front Psychiatry 2019 6;10:393. Epub 2019 Jun 6.

Orygen-The National Centre of Excellence in Youth Mental Health, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Deficiencies in membrane polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) such as omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids are thought to contribute to the pathophysiological processes underlying psychotic disorders. Emerging evidence suggests that the levels of PUFA are related to clinical symptoms but significant heterogeneity exists between studies. Here, we investigated associations of membrane PUFA with clinical symptoms and functioning in a large sample of individuals at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis. A total of 285 participants of the NEURAPRO clinical trial were investigated for erythrocyte PUFA levels, including the n-3 index, n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Severity of general psychopathology [Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS)], psychotic symptoms (BPRS psychosis subscale), negative symptoms [Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS)], manic symptoms [Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS)], depressive symptoms [Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS)], and functioning [Social and Occupational Functioning Scale (SOFAS), Global Functioning Social (GF-S) and Role (GF-R) scales] were assessed concurrently. Partial correlation taking into account the effects of gender, age, and smoking was used to examine the relationship between PUFAs and symptoms severity. The n-3 index negatively correlated with the severity of general psychopathology, psychotic symptoms, depressive symptoms, and manic symptoms. The n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio positively correlated with severity of psychotic and depressive symptoms. The n-3 PUFA DHA negatively correlated with the severity of general psychopathology, positive, manic, and depressive symptoms. EPA negatively correlated with manic symptoms. Nervonic acid, an n-9 monounsaturated fatty acid, positively correlated with general psychopathology, positive and negative symptoms, depressive symptoms, and manic symptoms. The long-chain saturated fatty acid tetracosanoic acid positively correlated with general psychopathology, positive, manic, and depressive symptoms. Partially consistent with a previous study, psychotic symptoms, depressive symptoms, and symptoms of mania were associated with several classes of FAs in the present study. These findings support the relevance of membrane fatty acids for the onset of psychotic symptoms and indicate that FAs should be further evaluated as biomarkers in the UHR for psychosis group. ANZCTR, identifier: 12608000475347.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00393DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6562242PMC
June 2019

Multifaceted intervention to enhance cognition in older people at risk of cognitive decline: study protocol for the Protein Omega-3 and Vitamin D Exercise Research (PONDER) study.

BMJ Open 2019 05 9;9(5):e024145. Epub 2019 May 9.

Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition (IPAN), School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria, Australia.

Introduction: An increasing number of people are living with cognitive impairment and dementia. Current pharmacological therapies at best reduce Alzheimer's disease symptomatology but do not delay dementia onset in those at high risk. Structured exercise interventions can enhance cognition in older people; however, to produce long lasting, clinically relevant cognitive benefits, it is proposed that a multifaceted approach incorporating exercise with dietary supplements will address a wider range of mechanisms involved in cognitive decline. The Protein Omega-3 aNd vitamin D Exercise Research (PONDER) study aims to investigate the cognitive effects of a multimodal exercise programme combined with nutritional supplementation in older adults with subjective memory impairment (SMI).

Methods And Analysis: The PONDER study is a single-centre, 12-month, community-based, parallel group, randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled trial involving a 6-month multifaceted intervention with a further 6-month follow-up. Participants will be 148 people from Melbourne, Australia, aged 60-85 years with SMI who will be randomised (1:1 ratio) to either a 6-month supervised multimodal exercise programme combined with omega-3 fatty acid, vitamin D and protein supplementation or a stretching/flexibility exercise programme combined with placebo supplements. The primary outcome is the change in cognition after 6 months as assessed by the Trail Making Test and global cognitive function assessed from the Cogstate Computerised battery. Secondary outcomes will include memory, working memory/learning and attention/psychomotor function, the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, mood, quality of life, muscle strength, physical function, body composition, cardiovascular health and sleep quality. Cognition at 12 months will represent a secondary outcome.

Ethics And Dissemination: This study has been approved by the Deakin University Human Research Ethics Committee (project 2016-260). Informed consent will be obtained from all participants. The authors intend to submit the findings of the study to peer-reviewed journals or academic conferences to be published.

Trial Registration Number: ACTRN12616001549415; Pre-results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-024145DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6527972PMC
May 2019

A randomised controlled trial of vitamin D and omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in the treatment of irritability and hyperactivity among children with autism spectrum disorder.

J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2019 03 26;187:9-16. Epub 2018 Oct 26.

College of Health, Massey University, New Zealand. Electronic address:

Irritability and hyperactivity are common in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Because pharmacological treatments may have adverse effects, and despite limited evidence, caregivers/parents often use dietary supplements such as vitamin D and omega-3 fatty acids to address these behavioural symptoms. As a secondary objective of the VIDOMA (Vitamin D and Omega-3 in ASD) trial, we evaluated the efficacy of vitamin D, omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid [omega-3 LCPUFA; docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)], or both on irritability and hyperactivity. New Zealand children with ASD (aged 2.5-8 years) participated in a 12-month randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of vitamin D (2000 IU/day, VID), omega-3 LCPUFA (722 mg/day DHA, OM), or both (2000 IU/day vitamin D + 722 mg/day DHA, VIDOM). The primary outcomes were the Aberrant Behaviour Checklist (ABC) domains of irritability and hyperactivity. Biomarkers (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and omega-3 index) and primary outcomes were measured at baseline and 12-months. Out of 111 children who completed baseline data collection, 66% completed the study (VID = 19, OM = 23, VIDOM = 15, placebo = 16). After 12 months, children receiving OM (-5.0 ± 5.0, P = 0.001) and VID (-4.0±4.9, P = 0.01) had greater reduction in irritability than placebo (0.8±6.1). Compared to placebo, children on VID also had greater reduction in hyperactivity (-5.2±6.3 vs. -0.8±5.6, P = 0.047). Serum 25(OH)D concentration (nmol/L, mean±SD) increased by 27±14 in VID and by 36±17 in VIDOM groups (P < 0.0001), and omega-3 index (%, median (25th, 75th percentiles)) by 4.4 (3.3, 5.9) in OM and by 4.0 (2.0, 6.0) in VIDOM groups (P < 0.0001), indicating a good compliance rate. The results indicate that vitamin D and omega-3 LCPUFA reduced irritability symptoms in children with ASD. Vitamin D also reduced hyperactivity symptoms in these children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsbmb.2018.10.017DOI Listing
March 2019

Non-dietary factors associated with n-3 long-chain PUFA levels in humans - a systematic literature review.

Br J Nutr 2019 04 28;121(7):793-808. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

3School of Medicine,Lipid Research Centre,Molecular Horizons,Illawarra Health & Medical Research Institute,University of Wollongong,Wollongong,NSW 2522,Australia.

Numerous health benefits are attributed to the n-3 long-chain PUFA (n-3 LCPUFA); EPA and DHA. A systematic literature review was conducted to investigate factors, other than diet, that are associated with the n-3 LCPUFA levels. The inclusion criteria were papers written in English, carried out in adult non-pregnant humans, n-3 LCPUFA measured in blood or tissue, data from cross-sectional studies, or baseline data from intervention studies. The search revealed 5076 unique articles of which seventy were included in the qualitative synthesis. Three main groups of factors potentially associated with n-3 LCPUFA levels were identified: (1) unmodifiable factors (sex, genetics, age), (2) modifiable factors (body size, physical activity, alcohol, smoking) and (3) bioavailability factors (chemically bound form of supplements, krill oil v. fish oil, and conversion of plant-derived α-linolenic acid (ALA) to n-3 LCPUFA). Results showed that factors positively associated with n-3 LCPUFA levels were age, female sex (women younger than 50 years), wine consumption and the TAG form. Factors negatively associated with n-3 LCPUFA levels were genetics, BMI (if erythrocyte EPA and DHA levels are <5·6 %) and smoking. The evidence for girth, physical activity and krill oil v. fish oil associated with n-3 LCPUFA levels is inconclusive. There is also evidence that higher ALA consumption leads to increased levels of EPA but not DHA. In conclusion, sex, age, BMI, alcohol consumption, smoking and the form of n-3 LCPUFA are all factors that need to be taken into account in n-3 LCPUFA research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114519000138DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6521789PMC
April 2019

A Randomised-Controlled Trial of Vitamin D and Omega-3 Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in the Treatment of Core Symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Children.

J Autism Dev Disord 2019 May;49(5):1778-1794

College of Health, Massey University, Auckland, 0745, New Zealand.

We evaluated the efficacy of vitamin D (VID), omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 LCPUFA, OM), or both (VIDOM) on core symptoms of ASD. New Zealand children with ASD (n = 73; aged 2.5-8.0 years) received daily 2000 IU vitamin D, 722 mg docosahexaenoic acid, both, or placebo. Outcome measures were Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) and Sensory Processing Measure (SPM). Of 42 outcome measures comparisons (interventions vs. placebo), two showed greater improvements (P = 0.03, OM and VIDOM for SRS-social awareness) and four showed trends for greater improvements (P < 0.1, VIDOM for SRS-social communicative functioning, OM for SRS-total, VIDOM for SPM-taste/smell and OM for SPM-balance/motion). Omega-3 LCPUFA with and without vitamin D may improve some core symptoms of ASD but no definitive conclusions can be made.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10803-018-3860-yDOI Listing
May 2019

A High-Throughput Method for the Analysis of Erythrocyte Fatty Acids and the Omega-3 Index.

Lipids 2018 10;53(10):1005-1015

School of Medicine and Lipid Research Centre, University of Wollongong, Northfields Avenue, Wollongong, NSW, 2522, Australia.

Omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) have several health benefits. In particular, low n-3 LCPUFA status is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and led to the development of the omega-3 index that is the proportion of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in the erythrocyte membranes, as a marker of CVD risk. Most methods used to measure the omega-3 index are laborious and time consuming. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a high-throughput method for the extraction and measurement of erythrocyte fatty acids and the omega-3 index. For sample extraction and quantification, two methods were used; a single-step extraction, degradation, and derivatization method by Lepage and Roy, followed by gas chromatography flame ionization detection (GC-FID), which is commonly used and a high-throughput method using an automated methyl tert-butyl ether extraction followed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Both methods were first applied to the analysis of known concentrations of synthetic phospholipid (PL) mixtures to determine recovery and precision prior to their application in the analysis of human erythrocytes. The range of recoveries over five synthetic PL mixtures were 86.4-108.9% and the coefficient of variation was <10% (within-run) and ≤15.2% (between-run). Both methods showed high correlation (R = 0.993) for the omega-3 index and there was no systematic bias in the detection of omega-3 index using either method. The new high-throughput method described here offers considerable advantages in terms of simplicity and throughput compared to the GC-FID method and provides additional information on molecular PL concentrations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/lipd.12108DOI Listing
October 2018