Publications by authors named "Barbara Lenz"

19 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Safety, Tissue Distribution, and Metabolism of LNA-Containing Antisense Oligonucleotides in Rats.

Toxicol Pathol 2021 Jun 1:1926233211011615. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Roche Pharma Research and Early Development, Pharmaceutical Sciences, Roche Innovation Center Basel, Switzerland.

Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) are chemically modified nucleic acids with therapeutic potential, some of which have been approved for marketing. We performed a study in rats to investigate mechanisms of toxicity after administration of 3 tool locked nucleic acid (LNA)-containing ASOs with differing established safety profiles. Four male rats per group were dosed once, 3, or 6 times subcutaneously, with 7 days between dosing, and sacrificed 3 days after the last dose. These ASOs were either unconjugated (naked) or conjugated with N-acetylgalactosamine for hepatocyte-targeted delivery. The main readouts were in-life monitoring, clinical and anatomic pathology, exposure assessment and metabolite identification in liver and kidney by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, ASO detection in liver and kidney by immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, immune electron microscopy, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging. The highly toxic compounds showed the greatest amount of metabolites and a low degree of tissue accumulation. This study reveals different patterns of cell death associated with toxicity in liver (apoptosis and necrosis) and kidney (necrosis only) and provides new ultrastructural insights on the tissue accumulation of ASOs. We observed that the immunostimulatory properties of ASOs can be either primary from sequence-dependent properties or secondary to cell necrosis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/01926233211011615DOI Listing
June 2021

Multiorgan Crystal Deposition of an Amphoteric Drug in Rats Due to Lysosomal Accumulation and Conversion to a Poorly Soluble Hydrochloride Salt.

Toxicol Sci 2021 04;180(2):383-394

Roche Pharma Research and Early Development, Pharmaceutical Sciences, Roche Innovation Center Basel, F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd, 4070 Basel, Switzerland.

Poor solubility of drug candidates mainly affects bioavailability, but poor solubility of drugs and metabolites can also lead to precipitation within tissues, particularly when high doses are tested. RO0728617 is an amphoteric compound bearing basic and acidic moieties that has previously demonstrated good solubility at physiological pH but underwent widespread crystal deposition in multiple tissues in rat toxicity studies. The aim of our investigation was to better characterize these findings and their underlying mechanism(s), and to identify possible screening methods in the drug development process. Main microscopic features observed in rat RO0728617 toxicity studies were extensive infiltrates of crystal-containing macrophages in multiple organs. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry revealed that these crystals contained the orally administered parent compound, and locality was confirmed to be intracytoplasmic and partly intralysosomal by electron microscopic examination. Crystal formation was explained by lysosomal accumulation of the compound followed by precipitation of the hydrochloride salt under physiological conditions in the lysosomes, which have a lower pH and higher chloride concentration in comparison to the cytosol. This study demonstrates that risk of drug precipitation can be assessed by comparing the estimated lysosomal drug concentration at a given dose with the solubility of the compound at lysosomal conditions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfaa191DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8041455PMC
April 2021

Adversity Considerations for Thyroid Follicular Cell Hypertrophy and Hyperplasia in Nonclinical Toxicity Studies: Results From the 6th ESTP International Expert Workshop.

Toxicol Pathol 2020 12;48(8):920-938

Food Safety Commission of Japan, Tokyo, Japan.

The European Society of Toxicologic Pathology organized an expert workshop in May 2018 to address adversity considerations related to thyroid follicular cell hypertrophy and/or hyperplasia (FCHH), which is a common finding in nonclinical toxicity studies that can have important implications for risk assessment of pharmaceuticals, food additives, and environmental chemicals. The broad goal of the workshop was to facilitate better alignment in toxicologic pathology and regulatory sciences on how to determine adversity of FCHH. Key objectives were to describe common mechanisms leading to thyroid FCHH and potential functional consequences; provide working criteria to assess adversity of FCHH in context of associated findings; and describe additional methods and experimental data that may influence adversity determinations. The workshop panel was comprised of representatives from the European Union, Japan, and the United States. Participants shared case examples illustrating issues related to adversity assessments of thyroid changes. Provided here are summary discussions, key case presentations, and panel recommendations. This information should increase consistency in the interpretation of adverse changes in the thyroid based on pathology findings in nonclinical toxicity studies, help integrate new types of biomarker data into the review process, and facilitate a more systematic approach to communicating adversity determinations in toxicology reports.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0192623320972009DOI Listing
December 2020

Only Hyperuricemia with Crystalluria, but not Asymptomatic Hyperuricemia, Drives Progression of Chronic Kidney Disease.

J Am Soc Nephrol 2020 12 16;31(12):2773-2792. Epub 2020 Sep 16.

Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine IV, Ludwig-Maximilian's-University Hospital, Munich, Germany

Background: The roles of asymptomatic hyperuricemia or uric acid (UA) crystals in CKD progression are unknown. Hypotheses to explain links between UA deposition and progression of CKD include that () asymptomatic hyperuricemia does not promote CKD progression unless UA crystallizes in the kidney; () UA crystal granulomas may form due to pre-existing CKD; and () proinflammatory granuloma-related M1-like macrophages may drive UA crystal-induced CKD progression.

Methods: MALDI-FTICR mass spectrometry, immunohistochemistry, 3D confocal microscopy, and flow cytometry were used to characterize a novel mouse model of hyperuricemia and chronic UA crystal nephropathy with granulomatous nephritis. Interventional studies probed the role of crystal-induced inflammation and macrophages in the pathology of progressive CKD.

Results: Asymptomatic hyperuricemia alone did not cause CKD or drive the progression of aristolochic acid I-induced CKD. Only hyperuricemia with UA crystalluria due to urinary acidification caused tubular obstruction, inflammation, and interstitial fibrosis. UA crystal granulomas surrounded by proinflammatory M1-like macrophages developed late in this process of chronic UA crystal nephropathy and contributed to the progression of pre-existing CKD. Suppressing M1-like macrophages with adenosine attenuated granulomatous nephritis and the progressive decline in GFR. In contrast, inhibiting the JAK/STAT inflammatory pathway with tofacitinib was not renoprotective.

Conclusions: Asymptomatic hyperuricemia does not affect CKD progression unless UA crystallizes in the kidney. UA crystal granulomas develop late in chronic UA crystal nephropathy and contribute to CKD progression because UA crystals trigger M1-like macrophage-related interstitial inflammation and fibrosis. Targeting proinflammatory macrophages, but not JAK/STAT signaling, can attenuate granulomatous interstitial nephritis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2020040523DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7790211PMC
December 2020

Combining In Vivo and Organotypic In Vitro Approaches to Assess the Human Relevance of Basimglurant (RG7090), a Potential CAR Activator.

Toxicol Sci 2020 08;176(2):329-342

Roche Pharma Research and Early Development, Roche Innovation Center Basel, F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd, 4070 Basel, Switzerland.

Basimglurant (RG7090), a small molecule under development to treat certain forms of depression, demonstrated foci of altered hepatocytes in a long-term rodent-toxicity study. Additional evidence pointed toward the activation of the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), an established promoter of nongenotoxic and rodent-specific hepatic tumors. This mode of action and the potential human relevance was explored in vivo using rodent and cynomolgus monkey models and in vitro using murine and human liver spheroids. Wild type (WT) and CAR/pregnane X receptor (PXR) knockout mice (CAR/PXR KO) were exposed to RG7090 for 8 consecutive days. Analysis of liver lysates revealed induction of Cyp2b mRNA and enzyme activity, a known activation marker of CAR, in WT but not in CAR/PXR KO animals. A series of proliferative genes were upregulated in WT mice only, and immunohistochemistry data showed increased cell proliferation exclusively in WT mice. In addition, primary mouse liver spheroids were challenged with RG7090 in the presence or absence of modified antisense oligonucleotides inhibiting CAR and/or PXR mRNA, showing a concentration-dependent Cyp2b mRNA induction only if CAR was not repressed. On the contrary, neither human liver spheroids nor cynomolgus monkeys exposed to RG7090 triggered CYP2B mRNA upregulation. Our data suggested RG7090 to be a rodent-specific CAR activator, and that CAR activation and its downstream processes were involved in the foci of altered hepatocytes formation detected in vivo. Furthermore, we demonstrated the potential of a new in vitro approach using liver spheroids and antisense oligonucleotides for CAR knockdown experiments, which could eventually replace in vivo investigations using CAR/PXR KO mice.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfaa076DOI Listing
August 2020

Combined cSLO-OCT imaging as a tool in preclinical ocular toxicity testing: A comparison to standard in-vivo and pathology methods.

J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods 2020 Jul - Aug;104:106873. Epub 2020 May 12.

Ophthalmology Section, Equine Department, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 260, Zurich 8057, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Introduction: Confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and optical coherence tomography (cSLO-OCT) became available for human and animal ophthalmic examinations in recent years. The purpose of this study was to evaluate lesion detection and localization with cSLO-OCT imaging in an experimental outer retinal toxicity model and to compare cSLO-OCT to standard examination methods (indirect ophthalmoscopy (IO), fundus photography (FP) and central section histopathology).

Methods: A test compound was orally administered to albino rats (n = 4) for four weeks (part A) and to albino (n = 2) and pigmented (n = 2) rats for eight weeks (part B). Control animals received vehicle only. Retinal changes were documented using cSLO-OCT, IO, FP, angiography and histopathology. Retinal thicknesses were compared between groups using a mixed effects model.

Results: All compound-treated animals developed progressive multifocal hyperreflective spot changes mostly confined to the retinal pigment epithelium. In study parts A and B, cSLO identified fundus lesions earlier than IO/FP in albino rats. In study part B, cSLO quantified fundus lesions more accurately than IO/FP in albino rats but no difference was seen in pigmented rats. Central section histopathology revealed no abnormalities in three out of four compound-treated animals in part B. Altogether, without cSLO-OCT, present fundus changes would have remained undetected in one of four compound-treated animals in both parts A and B.

Discussion: Integration of combined cSLO-OCT imaging into toxicology study design can improve toxicity study readouts and facilitate longitudinal examination of single animals at multiple time points, leading to a reduction of experimental animal numbers.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vascn.2020.106873DOI Listing
May 2021

Drug-induced Obstructive and Retrograde Nephropathy Associated with α2u-globulin in Male Rats.

Toxicol Pathol 2019 02 26;47(2):138-149. Epub 2018 Dec 26.

1 Roche Pharma Research and Early Development, Pharmaceutical Sciences, Roche Innovation Center Basel, Switzerland.

The chemically induced accumulation of α2u-globulin protein in male rats causes specific renal lesions and subsequent nephropathy. Herein, we report additional parallel findings in the kidney of male rats consistent with obstructive and retrograde nephropathy. Kidney and urinary bladder samples were evaluated from Wistar rats treated with RG7129 for 2 week and 8 week and from an 8-week mechanistic study using females, intact and castrated males. Histopathological findings were present in intact males in all studies, including hyaline droplet accumulation and granular casts consistent with α2u-globulin nephropathy. In addition, tubular degeneration and regeneration, tubular changes extending from papilla to cortex, tubular dilation, and interstitial and luminal inflammation were observed consistent with retrograde and obstructive nephropathy. Renal and urinary lesions and their severity increased in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Urinalysis findings, including increases in leukocytes, protein, and in kidney biomarkers, kidney injury molecule 1 and clusterin, were present only in intact males. No treatment-related changes were observed in female rats or in castrated males. These results indicate that RG7129 induces α2u-globulin nephropathy, associated with retrograde and obstructive nephropathy secondary to precipitation in intact male rats only, constituting a species- and sex-specific syndrome that is not expected to occur in humans or other species.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0192623318816039DOI Listing
February 2019

Nonproliferative and Proliferative Lesions of the Rat and Mouse Endocrine System.

J Toxicol Pathol 2018 28;31(3 Suppl):1S-95S. Epub 2018 Jul 28.

Ohio University, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Athens, Ohio, USA.

The INHAND (International Harmonization of Nomenclature and Diagnostic Criteria for Lesions in Rats and Mice) Project (www.toxpath.org/inhand.asp) is a joint initiative among the Societies of Toxicological Pathology from Europe (ESTP), Great Britain (BSTP), Japan (JSTP) and North America (STP) to develop an internationally accepted nomenclature for proliferative and nonproliferative lesions in laboratory animals. The purpose of this publication is to provide a standardized nomenclature for classifying microscopic lesions observed in the endocrine organs (pituitary gland, pineal gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, adrenal glands and pancreatic islets) of laboratory rats and mice, with color photomicrographs illustrating examples of the lesions. The standardized nomenclature presented in this document is also available electronically on the internet (http://www.goreni.org/). Sources of material included histopathology databases from government, academia, and industrial laboratories throughout the world. Content includes spontaneous and aging lesions as well as lesions induced by exposure to test materials. A widely accepted and utilized international harmonization of nomenclature for endocrine lesions in laboratory animals will decrease confusion among regulatory and scientific research organizations in different countries and provide a common language to increase and enrich international exchanges of information among toxicologists and pathologists.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1293/tox.31.1SDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6108091PMC
July 2018

Assessment of Preclinical Liver and Skeletal Muscle Biomarkers Following Clofibrate Administration in Wistar Rats.

Toxicol Pathol 2017 06 9;45(4):506-525. Epub 2017 May 9.

1 Pharmaceutical Sciences, Roche Pharmaceutical Research and Early Development, Roche Innovation Center, F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd., Basel, Switzerland.

Clofibrate is a known rodent hepatotoxicant classically associated with hepatocellular hypertrophy and increased serum activities of cellular alanine aminotransferase/aspartate aminotransferase (ALT/AST) in the absence of microscopic hepatocellular degeneration. At toxic dose, clofibrate induces liver and skeletal muscle injury. The objective of this study was to assess novel liver and skeletal muscle biomarkers following clofibrate administration in Wistar rats at different dose levels for 7 days. In addition to classical biomarkers, liver injury was assessed by cytokeratin 18 (CK18) cleaved form, high-mobility group box 1, arginase 1 (ARG1), microRNA 122 (miR-122), and glutamate dehydrogenase. Skeletal muscle injury was evaluated with fatty acid binding protein 3 (Fabp3) and myosin light chain 3 (Myl3). Clofibrate-induced hepatocellular hypertrophy and skeletal muscle degeneration (type I rich muscles) were noted microscopically. CK, Fabp3, and Myl3 elevations correlated to myofiber degeneration. Fabp3 and Myl3 outperformed CK for detection of myofiber degeneration of minimal severity. miR-122 and ARG1 results were significantly correlated and indicated the absence of liver toxicity at low doses of clofibrate, despite increased ALT/AST activities. Moreover, combining classical and novel biomarkers (Fabp3, Myl3, ARG1, and miR-122) can be considered a valuable strategy for differentiating increased transaminases due to liver toxicity from skeletal muscle toxicity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0192623317707271DOI Listing
June 2017

Application of Imaging Techniques to Cases of Drug-Induced Crystal Nephropathy in Preclinical Studies.

Toxicol Sci 2018 06;163(2):409-419

Roche Pharmaceutical Research and Early Development, Pharmaceutical Sciences, Roche Innovation Center Basel, 4070 Basel, Switzerland.

A number of drugs can cause precipitates within renal tubules leading to crystal nephropathy. Crystal nephropathy is usually an exposure-related finding and is not uncommon in preclinical studies, where high doses are tested. An understanding of the nature of precipitates is important for human risk assessment and further development. Our aim was to investigate the ability of various imaging techniques to detect the presence of drugs or metabolites in renal crystals. We applied matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (MALDI-FTICR MS) imaging, Raman and infrared microspectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray (SEM/EDX) spectroscopy and standard histopathology to cases of drug-induced crystal nephropathy, induced in rodents and primates by 4 compounds. MALDI-FTICR MS imaging enabled the identification of the drug-related crystal content in all 4 cases of nephropathy, without reference material and with high accuracy. Crystals were composed of unchanged parent drug and/or metabolites. Similar results were obtained using Raman and infrared microspectroscopy for 2 compounds. In the absence of reference standards of metabolites, Raman and infrared microspectroscopy showed that the crystals consisted of components similar, but not identical, to the administered drug for the other compounds, a limitation for these techniques. SEM/EDX showed which counter ions were colocalized with the identified drug-related material, complementing the MALDI-FTICR MS findings. Therefore, we recommend MALDI-FTICR MS as a first-line methodology to characterize crystal nephropathies. Raman and infrared microspectroscopy may be useful when MALDI-FTICR MS imaging cannot be applied. SEM/EDX could be considered as a complementary technology.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfx044DOI Listing
June 2018

Use of early phenotypic in vivo markers to assess human relevance of an unusual rodent non-genotoxic carcinogen in vitro.

Toxicology 2017 03 5;379:48-61. Epub 2017 Feb 5.

Roche Pharmaceutical Research and Early Development, Pharmaceutical Sciences, Roche Innovation Center Basel, F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd., Basel, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Foci of altered hepatocytes (FAH) are considered putative, pre-neoplastic lesions that can occur spontaneously in aging rodents, but can also be induced by chemicals or drugs. Progression of FAH to hepatocellular neoplasms has been reported repeatedly but increases in foci in rodents do not necessarily lead to tumors in carcinogenicity studies and the relevance for humans often remains unclear. Here we present the case of RG3487, a molecule which induced FAH and, later on, tumors in rats. Because the molecule was negative in genotoxicity assays it was classified as a non-genotoxic carcinogen. In order to assess the potential for liver tumor formation in humans, we analyzed treatment-induced changes in vivo to establish a possible mode of action (MoA). In vivo and in vitro gene expression analysis revealed that nuclear receptor signaling was unlikely to be the relevant MoA and no other known mechanism could be established. We therefore took an approach comparing phenotypic markers, including mRNA changes, proliferation and glycogen accumulation, in vitro using cells of different species to assess the human relevance of this finding. Since the alterations observed in rats were not seen in the liver of mice or dogs in vivo, we could validate the relevance of the cell models chosen by use of hepatocytes from these species in vitro. This ultimately allowed for a cross-species comparison, which suggested that the formation of FAH and liver tumors was rat specific and unlikely to translate to human. Our work showed that phenotypic species comparison in vitro is a useful approach for assessment of the human relevance of pre-clinical findings where no known mechanism can be established.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tox.2017.01.018DOI Listing
March 2017

From the Cover: The Minipig is a Suitable Non-Rodent Model in the Safety Assessment of Single Stranded Oligonucleotides.

Toxicol Sci 2017 05;157(1):112-128

Roche Pharmaceutical Research and Early Development, Pharmaceutical Sciences, Roche Innovation Center Copenhagen, Hørsholm, Denmark.

Non-human primates (NHPs) are currently considered to be the non-rodent species of choice for the preclinical safety assessment of single-stranded oligonucleotide (SSO) drugs. We evaluated minipigs as a potential alternative to NHPs to test the safety of this class of compounds. Four different phosphorothioated locked nucleic acid-based SSOs (3 antisense and 1 anti-miR), all with known safety profiles, were administered to minipigs using similar study designs and read-outs as in earlier NHP studies with the same compounds. The studies included toxicokinetic investigations, in-life monitoring, clinical and anatomic pathology. In the minipig, we demonstrated target engagement by the SSOs where relevant, and a similar toxicokinetic behavior in plasma, kidney, and liver when compared with NHPs. Clinical tolerability was similar between minipig and NHPs. For the first time, we showed similar and dose-dependent effects on the coagulation and complement cascade after intravenous dosing similar to those observed in NHPs. Similar to NHPs, morphological changes were seen in proximal tubular epithelial cells of the kidney, Kupffer cells, hepatocytes, and lymph nodes. Minipigs appeared more sensitive to the high-dose kidney toxicity of most of the selected SSOs than NHPs. No new target organ or off-target toxicities were identified in the minipig. The minipig did not predict the clinical features of human injection site reactions better than the NHPs, but histopathological similarities were observed between minipigs and NHPs. We conclude that there is no impediment, as default, to the use of minipigs as the non-rodent species in SSO candidate non-clinical safety packages.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfx025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5414856PMC
May 2017

Characterizing "Adversity" of Pathology Findings in Nonclinical Toxicity Studies: Results from the 4th ESTP International Expert Workshop.

Toxicol Pathol 2016 08 21;44(6):810-24. Epub 2016 Apr 21.

Food Safety Commission, Cabinet Office, Tokyo, Japan.

The identification of adverse health effects has a central role in the development and risk/safety assessment of chemical entities and pharmaceuticals. There is currently a need for better alignment regarding how nonclinical adversity is determined and characterized. The European Society of Toxicologic Pathology (ESTP) therefore coordinated a workshop to review available definitions of adversity, weigh determining and qualifying factors of adversity based on case examples, and recommend a practical approach to define and characterize adversity in toxicology reports, to serve as a valuable prerequisite for future organ- or lesion-specific workshops planned by the ESTP.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0192623316642527DOI Listing
August 2016

Increased levels of urinary phenylacetylglycine associated with mitochondrial toxicity in a model of drug-induced phospholipidosis.

Ther Adv Drug Saf 2013 Jun;4(3):101-14

Non-Clinical Safety, F. Hoffmann-La Roche AG, Basel, Switzerland.

Background: Phospholipidosis (PLD) is a lysosomal storage disorder induced by a class of cationic amphiphilic drugs. However, drug-induced PLD is reversible. Evidence of PLD from animal studies with some compounds has led to discontinuation of development. Regulatory authorities are likely to request additional studies when PLD is linked to toxicity.

Objective: We conducted a trial to investigate urinary phenylacetylglycine (uPAG) as a biomarker for PLD.

Materials And Methods: Five groups of 12 male Wistar rats were dosed once with vehicle, 300 mg/kg or 1500 mg/kg of compound A (known to induce PLD), or 300 mg/kg or 1000 mg/kg of compound B (similar structure, but does not induce PLD) to achieve similar plasma exposures. Following dosing, urine and blood samples underwent nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), proteomic, and biochemical analyses. Necropsies were performed at 48 and 168 h, organ histopathology evaluated, and gene expression in liver analyzed by microarray. Electron microscopic examination of peripheral lymphocytes was performed.

Results: For compound A, uPAG increased with dose, correlating with lamellar inclusion bodies formation in peripheral lymphocytes. NMR analysis showed decreased tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, inferring mitochondrial toxicity. Mitochondrial dysfunction was suggested by uPAG increase, resulting from a switch to anaerobic metabolism or disruption of the urea cycle.

Discussion And Conclusion: uPAG shows utility as a noninvasive biomarker for mitochondrial toxicity associated with drug-induced PLD, providing a mechanistic hypothesis for toxicity associated with PLD likely resulting from combined direct and indirect mitochondrial toxicity via impairment of the proton motor force and alteration of fatty acid catabolism.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2042098613479393DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4110864PMC
June 2013

In silico assay for assessing phospholipidosis potential of small druglike molecules: training, validation, and refinement using several data sets.

J Med Chem 2012 Jan 4;55(1):126-39. Epub 2012 Jan 4.

Clinical Safety/Licensing and Early Development, F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd., CH-4070 Basel, Switzerland.

Phospholipidosis (PLD) is a lysosomal storage disorder induced by compounds, notably cationic amphiphilic drugs, which although reversible interferes with cellular phospholipids.The in silico method described utilizes the amphiphilic moment ΔΔG(AM) (kJ/mol) together with basic pK(a) values to assign PLD inducing potential to a compound. The new model was accurate and sensitive (85% and 82%, respectively) when compared to other data sets. Therefore, the parallel in vitro assay for PLD was discontinued. The data reinforce our view that the amphiphilic moment is far more informative for determining a compound's potential to induce PLD than the combined use of basic pK(a) and ClogP values.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jm201082aDOI Listing
January 2012

beta-carotene-induced changes in RARbeta isoform mRNA expression patterns do not influence lung adenoma multiplicity in the NNK-initiated A/J mouse model.

Nutr Cancer 2006 ;54(2):252-62

DSM Nutritional Products Ltd, Research and Development, Human Nutrition and Health, Basel, Switzerland.

A number of epidemiological studies have reported associations of beta-carotene plasma levels or intake with decreased lung cancer risk. However, intervention studies in smokers reported increased lung tumor rates after high long-term beta-carotene supplementation. For insight into these conflicting results, we studied the influence of beta-carotene on tobacco smoke carcinogen-induced lung cancer development in the A/J-mouse using 4-(N-Methyl-N-nitro samino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) as the initiator and lung adenoma multiplicity as the functional endpoint. Gene regulation of the putative tumor suppressor RARbeta in mouse lung was analyzed by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for its relevance in predicting the endpoint of lung cancer. A/J-mice achieved plasma beta-carotene levels of up to 3 micromol/L within 4 wk and up to 6 micromol/L after 6 mo of supplementation on a diet modified to enhance beta-carotene absorption. Despite high lung beta-carotene concentrations of up to 6 micromol/kg, tumor multiplicity was not significantly affected by the beta-carotene treatment, either in carcinogen-initiated or non-initiated mice, and was unrelated to beta-carotene dose and the time point of treatment during cancer formation. Tumor multiplicity did not correlate with beta-carotene plasma levels in NNK-treated animals. All RARbeta isoforms were significantly suppressed in the lungs of NNK- and NNK plus high dose beta-carotene-treated animals. However, the number of tumors per mouse did not correlate with the RARbeta-isoform expression levels. beta-carotene alone after 3 mo of supplementation mildly but significantly increased levels of RARbeta1, beta2, and beta4. This increase persisted for 6 mo for RARbeta2 and beta4. In summary, we found no effect of beta-carotene on tumor formation in the NNK-initiated A/J-mouse lung cancer model with respect to dose or time point of treatment. beta-Carotene-induced changes in RARbeta isoform gene expression levels were not predictive for the number of lung tumors but were indicative of intact beta-carotene metabolism and persistent sensitivity to retinoic acid in the mice. Down-regulation of RARbeta in NNK-induced adenoma-bearing lungs was similar to that observed in human lung cancer and further confirms the A/J-mouse as a valuable model for lung carcinogenesis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327914nc5402_12DOI Listing
December 2006

Beta-carotene interaction with NNK in the AJ-mouse model: effects on cell proliferation, tumor formation and retinoic acid responsive genes.

Biochim Biophys Acta 2005 May 27;1740(2):179-88. Epub 2005 Jan 27.

Build. 221/106, DSM Nutritional Products Ltd., R and D, Human Nutrition and Health P.O. Box 3255, CH-4002 Basel, Switzerland.

We studied the influence of beta-carotene on the tobacco smoke carcinogen 4-(N-Methyl-N-nitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK)-induced lung tumor development in the A/J-mouse model. The normally low beta-carotene absorption was facilitated with a diet enriched in fat and bile salt, resulting in plasma and lung tissue levels similar to humans. beta-Carotene enhanced NNK-induced early bronchial cell proliferation, however, this effect was not predictive for later tumor development. Tumor multiplicity was not significantly affected by beta-carotene, neither in carcinogen-initiated nor in uninitiated mice, and regardless of dose and time point of supplementation during tumor development. RARbeta isoform and CYP26 gene expression levels analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR were weakly, but significantly, inversely correlated and showed evidence for altered retinoid signaling and catabolism in the lungs of NNK-initiated, beta-carotene supplemented mice. However, this interaction did not translate into enhanced tumor multiplicity. These results indicate that impaired retinoid signaling is not likely a key factor in lung tumorigenesis in this mouse model.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbadis.2005.01.005DOI Listing
May 2005

Modulation of oral squamous cell carcinoma incidence in rats via diet and a novel calcium channel antagonist.

Toxicol Pathol 2005 ;33(3):356-64

Non-Clinical Development--Drug Safety, Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd. Basel Switzerland.

An unexpected dose related increase in oral squamous cell carcinomas was observed in a standard 2-year carcinogenicity study with a novel calcium channel blocker, in which Wistar rats received daily doses of 0, 1.5, 7, 20, or 40 mg/kg of the compound mixed with a standard diet containing fibers from barley. This finding was associated with an increased incidence of severe (destructive) periodontitis and the formation of oro-nasal fistulae at the 2 highest doses. Five assays of the compound for genotoxicity were negative indicating that a genotoxic effect was highly improbable. To investigate the underlying pathogenic mechanisms a second 2-year study in the same strain of rats was initiated and the influence of the diet and/or a possible local irritancy by the drug was assessed. In this second study the compound was administered by oral gavage at daily doses of 0, 7, or 40 mg/kg (later reduced to 20 mg/kg due to systemic intolerance) to rats maintained either on the standard diet or on a low fiber diet assumed to be less aggressive in terms of inducing periodontal lesions. Dose dependent gingival overgrowth (a class-related effect) was observed in the incisor and molar teeth area of all treated groups but was independent of the diet used. No oral tumors were found in the standard diet or low fiber diet controls and all treatment groups fed the low fiber diet, whereas in the high-dose group fed the standard diet a total of 8 oral squamous cell carcinomas were detected in association with an increased incidence of severe periodontitis. These results indicate that the increased incidence of squamous cell carcinomas observed upon chronic administration of the compound is not due to a direct tumorigenic effect of the drug. Tumor formation is attributable to severe periodontal disease favored by the diet and class related gingival overgrowth.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01926230590930119DOI Listing
July 2005

Revised guides for organ sampling and trimming in rats and mice--Part 2. A joint publication of the RITA and NACAD groups.

Exp Toxicol Pathol 2004 Jul;55(6):413-31

Department of Product Safety, Regulations, Toxicology and Ecology, BASF AG, Ludwigshafen, Germany.

This is the second part of a series of three articles on trimming instructions of rat and mouse protocol organs and tissues in regulatory type toxicity studies, covering the respiratory, male and female genital, and the endocrine systems. The article is based on the experience of the European RITA and American NACAD working groups and is an extended revision of trimming guides published in 1995 (Bahnemann et al.). The optimum localization for tissue preparation, the sample size, the direction of sectioning and the number of sections to be prepared is described organ by organ. These descriptions are illustrated for each organ by a schematic drawing and/or a macro-photograph showing the plane of section as well as a low magnification of the H&E stained slide demonstrating the optimum "end-product". The objectives of this work, as addressed in detail in the first part (Ruehl-Fehlert et al. 2003), are to standardize tissue sampling and trimming, to improve the comparability of historical data obtained from different studies and different laboratories, ensure the presence of all relevant target sites for histopathological evaluation and provide technical advice for preparatory techniques during necropsy, fixation and trimming. dardize tissue sampling and trimming, to improve the comparability of historical data obtained from different studies and different laboratories, ensure the presence of all relevant target sites for histopathological evaluation and provide technical advice for preparatory techniques during necropsy, fixation and trimming.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1078/0940-2993-00349DOI Listing
July 2004