Publications by authors named "Barbara Gamberi"

16 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Standardization of F-FDG-PET/CT According to Deauville Criteria for Metabolic Complete Response Definition in Newly Diagnosed Multiple Myeloma.

J Clin Oncol 2021 Jan 5;39(2):116-125. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

Nuclear Medicine Department, Nantes University Hospital, CRCINA INSERM, CNRS, Université d'Angers, Université de Nantes, Nantes, France.

Purpose: F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) is currently the standard technique to define minimal residual disease (MRD) status outside the bone marrow (BM) in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). This study aimed to define criteria for PET complete metabolic response after therapy, jointly analyzing a subgroup of newly diagnosed transplantation-eligible patients with MM enrolled in two independent European randomized phase III trials (IFM/DFCI2009 and EMN02/HO95).

Patients And Methods: Two hundred twenty-eight patients were observed for a median of 62.9 months. By study design, PET/CT scans were performed at baseline and before starting maintenance (premaintenance [PM]). The five-point Deauville scale (DS) was applied to describe BM (BM score [BMS]) and focal lesion (FL; FL score [FS]) uptake and tested a posteriori in uni- and multivariable analyses for their impact on clinical outcomes.

Results: At baseline, 78% of patients had FLs (11% extramedullary), 80% with an FS ≥ 4. All patients had BM diffuse uptake (35.5% with BMS ≥ 4). At PM, 31% of patients had visually detectable FLs (2% extramedullary), 24% and 67.7% of them with an FS of 3 and ≥ 4, respectively. At PM, 98% of patients retained residual BM diffuse uptake, which was significantly lower than at baseline (mainly between BMS 2 and 3, BMS was ≥ 4 in only 8.7% of patients). By both uni- and multivariable analysis, FS and BMS < 4 were associated with prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) at PM (OS: hazard ratio [HR], 0.6 and 0.47, respectively; PFS: HR, 0.36 and 0.24, respectively).

Conclusion: FL and BM FDG uptake lower than the liver background after therapy was an independent predictor for improved PFS and OS and can be proposed as the standardized criterion of PET complete metabolic response, confirming the value of the DS for patients with MM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.00386DOI Listing
January 2021

A Noninterventional, Observational, European Post-Authorization Safety Study of Patients With Relapsed/Refractory Multiple Myeloma Treated With Lenalidomide.

Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk 2020 10 13;20(10):e629-e644. Epub 2020 May 13.

Department of Internal Medicine III, Charité Campus Benjamin Franklin, Berlin, Germany.

Introduction: Lenalidomide plus dexamethasone is effective and well tolerated in relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM). In this observational, noninterventional European post-authorization safety study, the safety profile of lenalidomide plus dexamethasone was investigated and compared with that of other agents in the treatment of RRMM in a real-world setting.

Patients And Methods: Patients had received ≥ 1 prior antimyeloma therapy; prior lenalidomide was excluded. Treatment was per investigator's routine practice. Adverse events were analyzed by incidence rates per 100 person-years to account for differences in observation length and treatment duration.

Results: In total, 2150 patients initiated lenalidomide, and 1479 initiated any other antimyeloma therapy, predominately bortezomib (80.3%), which was primarily administered intravenously (74.3%). The incidence rate of neuropathy was lower with lenalidomide (10.5) than with bortezomib (78.9) or thalidomide (38.7). Lenalidomide also had a lower incidence rate of infections (68.7) versus bortezomib (95.9) and thalidomide (76.0). Conversely, the incidence rate of neutropenia was higher with lenalidomide (38.0) than with bortezomib (18.2) or thalidomide (25.7). The incidence rates of thrombocytopenia were 24.4, 40.4, and 14.4 with lenalidomide, bortezomib, and thalidomide, respectively.

Conclusion: No new safety signals for lenalidomide were identified in this study, which is the largest prospective real-world European study of lenalidomide in patients with RRMM to date. These results confirm that the safety profile of lenalidomide plus dexamethasone in RRMM in a real-world setting is comparable to that reported in clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clml.2020.05.006DOI Listing
October 2020

Autologous haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation versus bortezomib-melphalan-prednisone, with or without bortezomib-lenalidomide-dexamethasone consolidation therapy, and lenalidomide maintenance for newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (EMN02/HO95): a multicentre, randomised, open-label, phase 3 study.

Lancet Haematol 2020 Jun 30;7(6):e456-e468. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Department of Hematology, Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Rotterdam, Netherlands.

Background: The emergence of highly active novel agents has led some to question the role of autologous haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) and subsequent consolidation therapy in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. We therefore compared autologous HSCT with bortezomib-melphalan-prednisone (VMP) as intensification therapy, and bortezomib-lenalidomide-dexamethasone (VRD) consolidation therapy with no consolidation.

Methods: In this randomised, open-label, phase 3 study we recruited previously untreated patients with multiple myeloma at 172 academic and community practice centres of the European Myeloma Network. Eligible patients were aged 18-65 years, had symptomatic multiple myeloma stage 1-3 according to the International Staging System (ISS), measurable disease (serum M protein >10 g/L or urine M protein >200 mg in 24 h or abnormal free light chain [FLC] ratio with involved FLC >100 mg/L, or proven plasmacytoma by biopsy), and WHO performance status grade 0-2 (grade 3 was allowed if secondary to myeloma). Patients were first randomly assigned (1:1) to receive either four 42-day cycles of bortezomib (1·3 mg/m administered intravenously or subcutaneously on days 1, 4, 8, 11, 22, 25, 29, and 32) combined with melphalan (9 mg/m administered orally on days 1-4) and prednisone (60 mg/m administered orally on days 1-4) or autologous HSCT after high-dose melphalan (200 mg/m), stratified by site and ISS disease stage. In centres with a double HSCT policy, the first randomisation (1:1:1) was to VMP or single or double HSCT. Afterwards, a second randomisation assigned patients to receive two 28-day cycles of consolidation therapy with bortezomib (1·3 mg/m either intravenously or subcutaneously on days 1, 4, 8, and 11), lenalidomide (25 mg orally on days 1-21), and dexamethasone (20 mg orally on days 1, 2, 4, 5, 8, 9, 11, and 12) or no consolidation; both groups received lenalidomide maintenance therapy (10 mg orally on days 1-21 of a 28-day cycle). The primary outcomes were progression-free survival from the first and second randomisations, analysed in the intention-to-treat population, which included all patients who underwent each randomisation. All patients who received at least one dose of study drugs were included in the safety analyses. This study is registered with the EU Clinical Trials Register (EudraCT 2009-017903-28) and ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01208766), and has completed recruitment.

Findings: Between Feb 25, 2011, and April 3, 2014, 1503 patients were enrolled. 1197 patients were eligible for the first randomisation, of whom 702 were assigned to autologous HSCT and 495 to VMP; 877 patients who were eligible for the first randomisation underwent the second randomisation to VRD consolidation (n=449) or no consolidation (n=428). The data cutoff date for the current analysis was Nov 26, 2018. At a median follow-up of 60·3 months (IQR 52·2-67·6), median progression-free survival was significantly improved with autologous HSCT compared with VMP (56·7 months [95% CI 49·3-64·5] vs 41·9 months [37·5-46·9]; hazard ratio [HR] 0·73, 0·62-0·85; p=0·0001). For the second randomisation, the number of events of progression or death at data cutoff was lower than that preplanned for the final analysis; therefore, the results from the second protocol-specified interim analysis, when 66% of events were reached, are reported (data cutoff Jan 18, 2018). At a median follow-up of 42·1 months (IQR 32·3-49·2), consolidation therapy with VRD significantly improved median progression-free survival compared with no consolidation (58·9 months [54·0-not estimable] vs 45·5 months [39·5-58·4]; HR 0·77, 0·63-0·95; p=0·014). The most common grade ≥3 adverse events in the autologous HSCT group compared to the VMP group included neutropenia (513 [79%] of 652 patients vs 137 [29%] of 472 patients), thrombocytopenia (541 [83%] vs 74 [16%]), gastrointestinal disorders (80 [12%] vs 25 [5%]), and infections (192 [30%] vs 18 [4%]). 239 (34%) of 702 patients in the autologous HSCT group and 135 (27%) of 495 in the VMP group had at least one serious adverse event. Infection was the most common serious adverse event in each of the treatment groups (206 [56%] of 368 and 70 [37%] of 189). 38 (12%) of 311 deaths from first randomisation were likely to be treatment related: 26 (68%) in the autologous HSCT group and 12 (32%) in the VMP group, most frequently due to infections (eight [21%]), cardiac events (six [16%]), and second primary malignancies (20 [53%]).

Interpretation: This study supports the use of autologous HSCT as intensification therapy and the use of consolidation therapy in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma, even in the era of novel agents. The role of high-dose chemotherapy needs to be reassessed in future studies, in particular in patients with undetectable minimal residual disease after four-drug induction regimens including a monoclonal antiboby combined with an immunomodulatory agent and a proteasome inhibitor plus dexamethasone.

Funding: Janssen and Celgene.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3026(20)30099-5DOI Listing
June 2020

Minimal residual disease by flow cytometry and allelic-specific oligonucleotide real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction in patients with myeloma receiving lenalidomide maintenance: A pooled analysis.

Cancer 2019 03 18;125(5):750-760. Epub 2018 Dec 18.

Myeloma Unit, Division of Hematology, University of Torino, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Città della Salute e della Scienza di Torino, Turin, Italy.

Background: Minimal residual disease (MRD) is one of the most relevant prognostic factors in patients with multiple myeloma (MM); however, the impact of maintenance therapy on MRD levels remains unclear. Among patients with newly diagnosed MM (NDMM) who received lenalidomide maintenance until they developed disease progression, the role of MRD status as a predictor of progression-free survival (PFS) was evaluated by multiparameter flow cytometry (MFC) and allelic-specific oligonucleotide real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (ASO-RQ-PCR) analysis.

Methods: Seventy-three patients with NDMM enrolled in the RV-MM-EMN-441 (clinical trials.gov identifier, NCT01091831) and RV-MM-COOP-0556 (clinicaltrials.gov identifier, NCT01208766; European Myeloma Network EMN02/HO95 MM Trial) phase 3 trials who achieved at least a very good partial response after intensification/consolidation were included. The median patient age was 57 years (interquartile range, 53-61 years), and all patients received lenalidomide maintenance until they developed progression. MRD was evaluated on bone marrow after intensification/consolidation, after 6 courses of maintenance, and every 6 months thereafter until clinical relapse using both ASO-RQ-PCR (sensitivity, 10 ) and MFC (sensitivity, from 10 to 10 ).

Results: After intensification/consolidation, 33 of 72 patients (46%) achieved a molecular complete response (m-CR), and 44 of 70 (63%) achieved a flow complete response (flow-CR). Almost 27% of patients who were MRD-positive after consolidation became MRD-negative during maintenance. After a median follow-up of 38 months, PFS was prolonged in patients who achieved negative MRD status during maintenance according to results from both ASO-RQ-PCR analysis (hazard ratio, 0.29; 95% confidence interval, 0.14-0.62; P = .0013) and MFC (hazard ratio, 0.19; 95% confidence interval, 0.09-0.41; P < .001). The impact of negative MRD status on PFS was similar in all subgroups (ASCT and no-ASCT; International Staging System stages I, II, and III; high-risk and standard-risk cytogenetics), and the two techniques were highly correlated.

Conclusions: MRD status is a stronger predictor of PFS than standard risk factors, and lenalidomide maintenance further increases the rate of negative MRD results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.31854DOI Listing
March 2019

Continuous therapy in standard- and high-risk newly-diagnosed multiple myeloma: A pooled analysis of 2 phase III trials.

Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 2018 Dec 14;132:9-16. Epub 2018 Sep 14.

Myeloma Unit, Division of Hematology, University of Torino, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Città della Salute e della Scienza di Torino, Torino, Italy. Electronic address:

Background: Risk-adapted therapy is a common strategy in curable hematologic malignancies: standard-risk patients receive less intensive treatment, whereas high-risk patients require a more intensive approach. This model cannot be applied in multiple myeloma (MM), which is still incurable. Continuous treatment (CT) is a key strategy for MM treatment, since it improves duration of remission. However, the role of CT according to standard- or high-risk baseline prognosis remains an open question.

Patients And Methods: We performed a pooled analysis of 2 phase III trials (GIMEMA-MM-03-05 and RV-MM-PI-209) that randomized patients to CT vs fixed-duration therapy (FDT).

Results: In the overall patient population (n = 550), CT improved progression-free survival1 (PFS1) (HR 0.54), PFS2 (HR 0.61) and overall survival (OS) (HR 0.71) vs FDT. CT improved PFS1 both in R-ISS I (HR 0.49) and R-ISS II/III patients (HR 0.55). Four-year PFS1 was 38% in R-ISS II/III patients receiving CT and 25% in R-ISS I patients receiving FDT, with similar trends for PFS2 and OS. High-risk patients benefited more from proteasome-inhibitor plus immunomodulatory-based CT than immunomodulatory alone.

Conclusion: Good prognosis patients receiving FDT lose their prognostic advantage over high-risk patients receiving CT and high-risk patients may benefit from more intensive maintenance including proteasome inhibitors and immunomodulators.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.critrevonc.2018.09.008DOI Listing
December 2018

Treatment Intensification With Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation and Lenalidomide Maintenance Improves Survival Outcomes of Patients With Newly Diagnosed Multiple Myeloma in Complete Response.

Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk 2018 08 28;18(8):533-540. Epub 2018 May 28.

Myeloma Unit, Division of Hematology, University of Torino, Azienda-Ospedaliero Universitaria Città della Salute e della Scienza di Torino, Torino, Italy. Electronic address:

Background: High-dose therapy with autologous stem cell transplantation (HDT-ASCT) and maintenance treatment with novel agents are the best options for patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma, increasing the rate of complete response (CR) and prolonging progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Indeed, the achievement of a CR is a predictor of long-term survival among transplant-eligible patients. However, it is unclear whether patients reaching a CR after induction treatment could receive less intense consolidation or avoid maintenance therapy.

Patients And Methods: We analyzed CR patients treated in 2 phase III trials, GIMEMA-RV-MM-PI-209 and RV-MM-EMN-441, to compare HDT-ASCT with an R-Alk (lenalidomide, alkylator) regimen as consolidation, and lenalidomide (R) maintenance with no maintenance. The primary endpoints were PFS, second PFS (PFS2), and OS from consolidation and maintenance (_m).

Results: Overall, the data from 166 patients in CR were analyzed, 95 in the HDT-ASCT group and 71 in the R-Alk group. The CR patients who received HDT-ASCT had a better PFS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.55; P = .01), PFS2 (HR, 0.46; P = .02), and OS (HR, 0.42; P = .03) compared with patients randomized to R-Alk. The survival benefit with HDT-ASCT was confirmed among all the subgroups, according to age, International Staging System (ISS stage, cytogenetic profile, and receipt of maintenance therapy. CR patients who received lenalidomide maintenance had a better PFS_m (4 years: 54% vs. 19%; HR, 0.43; P = .02) compared with those who received no maintenance. However, no difference was observed in terms of PFS2_m (4 years: 72% vs. 58%; HR, 0.83; P = .67) and OS_m (4 years: 79% vs. 72%; HR, 0.82; P = .73) with maintenance therapy.

Conclusion: Even in CR patients, outcomes were improved by an intensified approach with HDT-ASCT consolidation and lenalidomide-based maintenance therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clml.2018.05.019DOI Listing
August 2018

Pomalidomide Plus Low-Dose Dexamethasone in Patients With Relapsed/Refractory Multiple Myeloma and Renal Impairment: Results From a Phase II Trial.

J Clin Oncol 2018 07 2;36(20):2035-2043. Epub 2018 Feb 2.

Meletios Dimopoulos, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece; Katja Weisel, University Hospital of Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany; Niels W.C.J. van de Donk, VU Universiteit Medical Center, Amsterdam; Pieter Sonneveld, Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; Karthik Ramasamy, Oxford University Hospital and NIHR BRC Blood Theme, Oxford; Matthew Streetly, Guy's and St Thomas' National Health Service Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom; Barbara Gamberi, Arcispedale S. Maria Nuova, Reggio Emilia; Massimo Offidani, Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Ospedali Riuniti di Ancona, Ancona; Antonio Ardizzoia, Oncology Department, ASST Lecco, Lecco, Italy; Frank Bridoux, University Hospital and University of Poitiers, Poitiers, France; Javier de la Rubia, Hematology Service University Hospital Doctor Peset and Universidad Católica de Valencia "San Vicente Mártir," Valencia; Maria-Victoria Mateos, Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de Salamanca and University of Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain; Elisabeth Kueenburg, Shona Collins, Antonia Di Micco, Barbara Rosettani, and Pamela Bacon, Celgene International, Boudry, Switzerland; and Yan Li, Translational Development and Clinical Pharmacology, Celgene Corporation, Summit, NJ.

Purpose Renal impairment (RI) limits treatment options in patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM). Here, we prospectively studied pomalidomide plus low-dose dexamethasone (LoDEX) in patients with RRMM and moderate or severe RI, including those receiving hemodialysis. Patients and Methods MM-013, a noncomparative, European phase II trial, enrolled three patient cohorts: moderate RI (cohort A; estimated glomerular filtration rate, 30 to < 45 mL/min/1.73 m); severe RI (cohort B; estimated glomerular filtration rate, < 30 mL/min/1.73 m); and severe RI that requires hemodialysis (cohort C). Patients received pomalidomide 4 mg/d on days 1 to 21 and LoDEX 20 or 40 mg once per week in 28-day cycles. The primary end point was overall response rate. Results Of 81 enrolled patients (33, 34, and 14 patients in cohorts A, B, and C, respectively), 13 were still receiving treatment at data cutoff (January 28, 2017). Overall response rates were 39.4%, 32.4%, and 14.3%, with a median duration of response of 14.7 months, 4.6 months, and not estimable, respectively. Of importance, 100%, 79.4%, and 78.6% of patients, respectively, achieved disease control. With a median follow-up of 8.6 months, median overall survival was 16.4 months, 11.8 months, and 5.2 months, respectively. Complete renal responses were observed only in cohort A (18.2%), and no patients in cohort C became hemodialysis independent. Grade 3 and 4 hematologic treatment-emergent adverse events and pomalidomide discontinuations as a result of treatment-emergent adverse events occurred more frequently in cohort C. Pomalidomide pharmacokinetics were comparable among the three renal cohorts. Conclusion Pomalidomide 4 mg/d plus LoDEX is efficacious in patients with RRMM with moderate or severe RI, including those who had more advanced disease and required hemodialysis. The safety profile was acceptable among the three groups, and no new safety signals were observed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2017.76.1742DOI Listing
July 2018

Interpretation criteria for FDG PET/CT in multiple myeloma (IMPeTUs): final results. IMPeTUs (Italian myeloma criteria for PET USe).

Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2018 05 21;45(5):712-719. Epub 2017 Dec 21.

Hematology, AOU Policlinico S. Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna, Italy.

ᅟ: FDG PET/CT (F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography) is a useful tool to image multiple myeloma (MM). However, simple and reproducible reporting criteria are still lacking and there is the need for harmonization. Recently, a group of Italian nuclear medicine experts defined new visual descriptive criteria (Italian Myeloma criteria for Pet Use: IMPeTUs) to standardize FDG PET/CT evaluation in MM patients. The aim of this study was to assess IMPeTUs reproducibility on a large prospective cohort of MM patients.

Materials And Methods: Patients affected by symptomatic MM who had performed an FDG PET/CT at baseline (PET0), after induction (PET-AI), and the end of treatment (PET-EoT) were prospectively enrolled in a multicenter trial (EMN02)(NCT01910987; MMY3033). After anonymization, PET images were uploaded in the web platform WIDEN® and hence distributed to five expert nuclear medicine reviewers for a blinded independent central review according to the IMPeTUs criteria. Consensus among reviewers was measured by the percentage of agreement and the Krippendorff's alpha. Furthermore, on a patient-based analysis, the concordance among all the reviewers in terms of positivity or negativity of the FDG PET/CT scan was tested for different thresholds of positivity (Deauville score (DS 2, 3, 4, 5) for the main parameters (bone marrow, focal score, extra-medullary disease).

Results: Eighty-six patients (211 FDG PET/CT scans) were included in this analysis. Median patient age was 58 years (range, 35-66 years), 45% were male, 15% of them were in stage ISS (International Staging System) III, and 42% had high-risk cytogenetics. The percentage agreement was superior to 75% for all the time points, reaching 100% of agreement in assessing the presence skull lesions after therapy. Comparable results were obtained when the agreement analysis was performed using the Krippendorff's alpha coefficient, either in every single time point of scanning (PET0, PET-AI or PET-EoT) or overall for all the scans together. DS proved highly reproducible with the highest reproducibility for score 4.

Conclusions: IMPeTUs criteria proved highly reproducible and could therefore be considered as a base for harmonizing PET interpretation in multiple myeloma. A prospective clinical validation of IMPeTUs criteria is underway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00259-017-3909-8DOI Listing
May 2018

Novel agent-based salvage autologous stem cell transplantation for relapsed multiple myeloma.

Ann Hematol 2017 Dec 24;96(12):2071-2078. Epub 2017 Oct 24.

"Seràgnoli" Institute of Hematology, Sant'Orsola-Malpighi University Hospital, Bologna, Italy.

High-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is a standard frontline therapy for multiple myeloma (MM). Therapeutic options for patients with relapsed MM after ASCT include novel agents in different combos, salvage ASCT (sASCT), and allogeneic transplant, with no unique standard of care. We retrospectively analyzed 66 MM patients who relapsed after up-front single or double ASCT(s) and received novel agent-based sASCT at five Italian centers. Median event-free survival from up-front ASCT(s) to first relapse (EFS1) was 44 months. Seventy-three percent of patients received sASCT at first disease progression. Re-induction regimens were bortezomib based in 87% of patients. Response to re-induction therapy included complete response (CR) 18%, ≥ very good partial response (VGPR) 48%, and overall response rate (ORR) 83%. Response to sASCT included CR 44%, ≥ VGPR 77%, and ORR 94%. With a median follow-up of 24 months after sASCT, 39 patients experienced disease progression. Median EFS from sASCT (EFS2) was 17 months. Median overall survival from ASCT (OS1) and sASCT (OS2) was 166 and 43 months, respectively. EFS2 and OS2 were significantly shorter in patients with EFS1 ≤ 24 months, in patients who did not receive sASCT at first disease progression and in patients with extramedullary disease (EMD). In multivariate analysis, EFS1 ≤ 24 months was associated with shorter EFS2 and OS2, EMD was associated with shorter EFS2, and < CR after sASCT was associated with shorter OS2. Novel agent-based sASCT is a safe and effective procedure for relapsed MM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-017-3140-5DOI Listing
December 2017

expressing CD14CD16 monocytes expand in multiple myeloma patients leading to increased osteoclasts.

Haematologica 2017 04 5;102(4):773-784. Epub 2017 Jan 5.

Myeloma Unit, Dept. of Medicine and Surgery, University of Parma, Italy

Bone marrow monocytes are primarily committed to osteoclast formation. It is, however, unknown whether potential primary alterations are specifically present in bone marrow monocytes from patients with multiple myeloma, smoldering myeloma or monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. We analyzed the immunophenotypic and transcriptional profiles of bone marrow CD14 monocytes in a cohort of patients with different types of monoclonal gammopathies to identify alterations involved in myeloma-enhanced osteoclastogenesis. The number of bone marrow CD14CD16 cells was higher in patients with active myeloma than in those with smoldering myeloma or monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. Interestingly, sorted bone marrow CD14CD16 cells from myeloma patients were more pro-osteoclastogenic than CD14CD16-cells in cultures Moreover, transcriptional analysis demonstrated that bone marrow CD14 cells from patients with multiple myeloma (but neither monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance nor smoldering myeloma) significantly upregulated genes involved in osteoclast formation, including mRNA over-expression by bone marrow CD14 cells was independent of the presence of interleukin-21. Consistently, interleukin-21 production by T cells as well as levels of interleukin-21 in the bone marrow were not significantly different among monoclonal gammopathies. Thereafter, we showed that over-expression in CD14 cells increased osteoclast formation. Consistently, interleukin-21 receptor signaling inhibition by Janex 1 suppressed osteoclast differentiation from bone marrow CD14 cells of myeloma patients. Our results indicate that bone marrow monocytes from multiple myeloma patients show distinct features compared to those from patients with indolent monoclonal gammopathies, supporting the role of over-expression by bone marrow CD14 cells in enhanced osteoclast formation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2016.153841DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5395118PMC
April 2017

Impact of renal impairment on outcomes with lenalidomide and dexamethasone treatment in the FIRST trial, a randomized, open-label phase 3 trial in transplant-ineligible patients with multiple myeloma.

Haematologica 2016 Mar 11;101(3):363-70. Epub 2015 Dec 11.

Service des Maladies du Sang, Hôpital Claude Huriez, CHRU Lille, France.

Renal impairment is associated with poor prognosis in myeloma. This analysis of the pivotal phase 3 FIRST trial examined the impact of renally adapted dosing of lenalidomide and dexamethasone on outcomes of patients with different degrees of renal impairment. Transplant-ineligible patients not requiring dialysis were randomized 1:1:1 to receive continuous lenalidomide and dexamethasone until disease progression (n=535) or for 18 cycles (72 weeks; n=541), or melphalan, prednisone, and thalidomide for 12 cycles (72 weeks; n=547). Follow-up is ongoing. Patients were grouped by baseline creatinine clearance into no (≥ 80 mL/min [n=389]), mild (≥ 50 to < 80 mL/min [n=715]), moderate (≥ 30 to < 50 mL/min [n=372]), and severe impairment (< 30 mL/min [n=147]) subgroups. Continuous lenalidomide and dexamethasone therapy reduced the risk of progression or death in no, mild, and moderate renal impairment subgroups vs. melphalan, prednisone, and thalidomide therapy (HR = 0.67, 0.70, and 0.65, respectively). Overall survival benefits were observed with continuous lenalidomide and dexamethasone treatment vs. melphalan, prednisone, and thalidomide treatment in no or mild renal impairment subgroups. Renal function improved from baseline in 52.6% of lenalidomide and dexamethasone-treated patients. The safety profile of continuous lenalidomide and dexamethasone was consistent across renal subgroups, except for grade 3/4 anemia and rash, which increased with increasing severity of renal impairment. Continuous lenalidomide and dexamethasone treatment, with renally adapted lenalidomide dosing, was effective for most transplant-ineligible patients with myeloma and renal impairment. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00689936); EudraCT (2007-004823-39). Funding: Intergroupe Francophone du Myélome and the Celgene Corporation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2015.133629DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4815728PMC
March 2016

Image interpretation criteria for FDG PET/CT in multiple myeloma: a new proposal from an Italian expert panel. IMPeTUs (Italian Myeloma criteria for PET USe).

Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2016 Mar 16;43(3):414-21. Epub 2015 Oct 16.

Nuclear Medicine, AOU Policlinico S.Orsola-Malpighi, Bld 30, Via Massarenti, 9, 40138, Bologna, Italy.

Purpose: FDG PET/CT is able to detect active disease in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) and can be helpful for staging and assessing therapy response, but no standard interpretation criteria have been proposed for the evaluation of FDG PET/CT in MM.

Methods: A group of Italian nuclear medicine physicians and haematologists met to propose new visual interpretation criteria to standardize FDG PET/CT evaluation in MM patients (Italian Myeloma criteria for PET USe; IMPeTUs) and the reproducibility of these criteria was tested. This Italian multicentre protocol was set up as a subprotocol of EMN02, an international prospective multicentre trial of the European Myeloma Network. The criteria were agreed at multidisciplinary consensus meetings. They include a description of the metabolic state of the bone marrow (BM), number and site of focal PET-positive lesions, the number of osteolytic lesions, and the presence and site of extramedullary disease, paramedullary disease and fractures. A visual degree of uptake was defined for the target lesion and extramedullary lesions according to modified Deauville criteria. MM patients who had undergone FDG PET/CT at baseline (PET-0), after induction (PET-AI) and at the end of treatment (PET-EoT) were enrolled. The patients had been prospectively enrolled in EMN02 and their PET scans were a posteriori reinterpreted in a blinded independent central review process managed by WIDEN®. Five expert nuclear medicine physicians scored the scans according to the new criteria. A case was considered read when four out of the five reviewers completed the report. Concordance among reviewers on different metrics was calculated using Krippendorff's alpha coefficient.

Results: A total of 17 consecutive patients were enrolled. On PET-0, the alpha coefficients for the BM score, the score for the hottest focal lesion, the number of focal lesions and the number of lytic lesions were 0.33 and 0.47, 0.40 and 0.32, respectively. On PET-AI, the alpha coefficients were 0.09 and 0.43, 0.22 and 0.21, respectively, and on PET-EoT, the alpha coefficients were 0.07, 0.28, 0.25 and 0.21, respectively. BM was generally difficult to score since grades 2 and 3 are difficult to discriminate. However, since neither of the two grades is related to BM myelomatous involvement, the difference was not clinically relevant. Agreement on focal lesion scores and on the number of focal lesions was good.

Conclusion: The new visual criteria for interpreting FDG PET/CT imaging in MM patients, IMPeTUs, were found to be feasible in clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00259-015-3200-9DOI Listing
March 2016

Lenalidomide in combination with dexamethasone in elderly patients with advanced, relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma and renal failure.

Mediterr J Hematol Infect Dis 2013 3;5(1):e2013037. Epub 2013 Jun 3.

Hematology Unit, Infermi Hospital, Rimini Italy.

Salvage therapy of elderly patients with advanced, relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma (MM) is often limited by poor marrow reserve and multi-organ impairment. In particular, renal failure occurs in up to 50% of such patients, and this can potentially limit the therapeutic options. Both thalidomide and bortezomib have proven effective in these patients, with an acceptable toxicity, while, in clinical practice, lenalidomide is generally not considered a first-choice drug for MM patients with renal failure as early reports showed an increased hematological toxicity unless appropriate dose reduction is applied. Aim of this study was a retrospective evaluation of the efficacy of the combination Lenalidomide + Dexamethasone in a population of elderly MM patients treated in 5 Italian Centers. The study included 20 consecutive MM patients (9 M, 11 F, median age 76.5 years) with relapsed (N= 6) or refractory (N=13) MM and moderate to severe renal failure, defined as creatinine clearance (Cr Cl) < 50ml/min. Four patients were undergoing hemodyalisis at study entry. 85 % of the patients had been previously treated with bortezomib-containing regimens. Lenalidomide dose was adjusted according to renal function and patients clinical conditions Median treatment duration was 16 months (1-22), therapy was interrupted after 1 21-day cycle in 2 patients. Grade III-IV neutropenia was observed in 7 patients (35%); grade III-IV non hematological toxicity was recorded in 3 cases (28%). A > partial response was observed in 8 patients (40%), 1 of whom obtained a VGPR; 4 additional patients achieved a minor response. Median response duration was 16 months (range 2-19+ months). A complete and partial renal response was obtained in 4 and 3 patients, respectively, all of them were responsive to Lenalidomide-dexamethasone According to our data, LEN+DEX has shown efficacy and acceptable toxicity in this population of elderly patients with advanced MM and renal failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4084/MJHID.2013.037DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3684317PMC
June 2013

Biology and treatment of multiple myeloma.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2006 Jan;12(1 Suppl 1):81-6

Seràgnoli Institute of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Bologna University, Italy.

Multiple myeloma (MM) is a B cell malignancy that accounts for 10% of all hematologic cancers. In recent years much has been learned regarding the biology of the myeloma clone; specifically on the chromosomal alterations that can be more frequently found and on the involved oncogenes. It has been also demonstrated that, in MM, bone marrow microenvironment, both in its cellular (stromal cells, osteoblasts, osteoclasts, endothelia) and protein (extracellular matrix) components, plays an important role in promoting growth and survival of malignant plasma cells. Much of this knowledge will be translated into a better patients treatment; although high-dose therapy programs can be considered the treatment of choice for patients aged 70 or younger, novel drugs, targeting MM clone in its microenvironment can be incorporated into these therapeutic programs improving response rate and patients survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2005.09.008DOI Listing
January 2006

Consecutive regression of concurrent laryngeal and gastric MALT lymphoma after anti-Helicobacter pylori therapy.

Gastroenterology 2003 Feb;124(2):537-43

Department of Internal Medicine and Gastroenterology, University of Bologna, Italy.

The most common primary lymphoma of the gastrointestinal tract is B-cell lymphoma arising from mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue known as MALT lymphoma. Although the majority of these lesions affect the stomach and are associated with Helicobacter pylori organisms, sites other than the gastrointestinal tract may be affected. This case report describes a patient with concomitant laryngeal MALT lymphoma and Helicobacter pylori-related gastric MALT lymphoma derived from the same clone as confirmed by PCR. Treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection in this patient using antibiotics led to regression of both lesions. This patient remains in remission at 46-month follow-up. This is the first case report on the regression of a laryngeal MALT lymphoma after Helicobacter pylori eradication. We suggest that all patients presenting with extragastric MALT lymphoma should undergo upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with gastric biopsies for the determination of Helicobacter pylori status and presence of concomitant gastric MALT lymphoma, followed by a course of anti-Helicobacter pylori antibiotic therapy. Nonresponders may subsequently be considered for surgery and/or chemo/radiation therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/gast.2003.50043DOI Listing
February 2003