Publications by authors named "Barbara Enenkel"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Reformatting Rituximab into Human IgG2 and IgG4 Isotypes Dramatically Improves Apoptosis Induction In Vitro.

PLoS One 2015 29;10(12):e0145633. Epub 2015 Dec 29.

Boehringer Ingelheim, Bioprocess and Pharmaceutical Development Germany, Biberach/Riß, Germany.

The direct induction of cell death, or apoptosis, in target cells is one of the effector mechanisms for the anti CD20 antibody Rituximab. Here we provide evidence that Rituximab's apoptotic ability is linked to the antibody IgG isotype. Reformatting Rituximab from the standard human IgG1 heavy chain into IgG2 or IgG4 boosted in vitro apoptosis induction in the Burkitt's lymphoma B cell line Ramos five and four-fold respectively. The determinants for this behavior are located in the hinge region and CH1 domain of the heavy chain. By transplanting individual IgG2 or IgG4 specific amino acid residues onto otherwise IgG1 like backbones, thereby creating hybrid antibodies, the same enhancement of apoptosis induction could be achieved. The cysteines at position 131 of the CH1 domain and 219 in the hinge region, involved in IgG2 and IgG4 disulfide formation, were found to be of particular structural importance. Our data indicates that the hybrid antibodies possess a different CD20 binding mode than standard Rituximab, which appears to be key in enhancing apoptotic ability. The presented work opens up an interesting engineering route for enhancing the direct cytotoxic ability of therapeutic antibodies.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0145633PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4694715PMC
July 2016

A global RNA-seq-driven analysis of CHO host and production cell lines reveals distinct differential expression patterns of genes contributing to recombinant antibody glycosylation.

Biotechnol J 2015 Sep 26;10(9):1412-23. Epub 2015 Aug 26.

Biogen (Denmark) Manufacturing ApS, Hillerod, Denmark.

Boehringer Ingelheim uses two CHO-DG44 lines for manufacturing biotherapeutics, BI-HEX-1 and BI-HEX-2, which produce distinct cell type-specific antibody glycosylation patterns. A recently established CHO-K1 descended host, BI-HEX-K1, generates antibodies with glycosylation profiles differing from CHO-DG44. Manufacturing process development is significantly influenced by these unique profiles. To investigate the underlying glycosylation related gene expression, we leveraged our CHO host and production cell RNA-seqtranscriptomics and product quality database together with the CHO-K1 genome. We observed that each BI-HEX host and antibody producing cell line has a unique gene expression fingerprint. CHO-DG44 cells only transcribe Fut10, Gfpt2 and ST8Sia6 when expressing antibodies. BI-HEX-K1 cells express ST8Sia6 at host cell level. We detected a link between BI-HEX-1/BI-HEX-2 antibody galactosylation and mannosylation and the gene expression of the B4galt gene family and genes controlling mannose processing. Furthermore, we found major differences between the CHO-DG44 and CHO-K1 lineages in the expression of sialyl transferases and enzymes synthesizing sialic acid precursors, providing a rationale for the lack of immunogenic NeuGc/NGNA synthesis in CHO. Our study highlights the value of systems biotechnology to understand glycoprotein synthesis and product glycoprofiles. Such data improve future production clone selection and process development strategies for better steering of biotherapeutic product quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/biot.201400652DOI Listing
September 2015

Boosting antibody developability through rational sequence optimization.

MAbs 2015 ;7(3):505-15

a Division Research Germany; Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH & Co. KG ; Biberach/Riss , Germany.

The application of monoclonal antibodies as commercial therapeutics poses substantial demands on stability and properties of an antibody. Therapeutic molecules that exhibit favorable properties increase the success rate in development. However, it is not yet fully understood how the protein sequences of an antibody translates into favorable in vitro molecule properties. In this work, computational design strategies based on heuristic sequence analysis were used to systematically modify an antibody that exhibited a tendency to precipitation in vitro. The resulting series of closely related antibodies showed improved stability as assessed by biophysical methods and long-term stability experiments. As a notable observation, expression levels also improved in comparison with the wild-type candidate. The methods employed to optimize the protein sequences, as well as the biophysical data used to determine the effect on stability under conditions commonly used in the formulation of therapeutic proteins, are described. Together, the experimental and computational data led to consistent conclusions regarding the effect of the introduced mutations. Our approach exemplifies how computational methods can be used to guide antibody optimization for increased stability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19420862.2015.1017695DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4622947PMC
March 2016

Selection of high-producing CHO cells using NPT selection marker with reduced enzyme activity.

Biotechnol Bioeng 2005 Mar;89(5):530-8

Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH & Co. KG, Birkendorfer Str. 65, D-88397 Biberach/Riss, Germany.

We developed an expression system that aimed to increase the proportion of high producers in a transfected cell population in order to reduce the effort in clone screening. The principle is based on the impairment of the selection marker. Twelve single-point mutations in more or less conserved domains of the resistance marker gene neomycin-phosphotransferase (NPT) resulted in different degrees of reduced enzyme activity, depending on the amino acid conservation and the kind of amino acid exchange. In all transfected, mutant-NPT bearing CHO-DG44 cell pools surviving the selection with G418, the ratio of high-producing cells to total cell number was higher than in pools selected with wildtype-NPT. Furthermore, these pools showed, in comparison to wildtype-NPT selected pools, not only higher NPT-RNA levels but also increased specific productivities and higher titers of a coexpressed biopharmaceutically relevant product. Elevated productivity could be ascribed to higher gene copy numbers, integration into chromatin regions with higher transcriptional activity, or a combination of both effects. Thus, the use of NPT-mutants as selection markers is suitable for the enrichment of high producers in a transfected CHO-DG44 cell population, since cell survival is achieved only if the enzymatic impairment of the cointegrated resistance marker is compensated by a higher expression level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bit.20374DOI Listing
March 2005

Impact of coexpression and coamplification of sICAM and antiapoptosis determinants bcl-2/bcl-x(L) on productivity, cell survival, and mitochondria number in CHO-DG44 grown in suspension and serum-free media.

Biotechnol Bioeng 2002 Dec;80(6):706-16

Institute of Biotechnology, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland.

We have engineered dihydrofolate reductase-negative (dhfr-/-) Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) DG44 cells adapted for growth in serum-free suspension cultures for simultaneous expression of the common cold therapeutic, the soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM), and the antiapoptosis determinants bcl-2 or bcl-x(L). Detailed analyses of titer and antiapoptosis characteristics of these production cell lines included an independent (sICAM; bcl-2/bcl-x(L)) as well as a cocistronic (sICAM-(bcl-2/bcl-x(L))) expression set-up in which translation-initiation of the survival cistron is driven by an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) of the encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV). In transient transfections or stable mixed populations and in comparison to isogenic sICAM-only control vectors, both bcl-x(L)-encoding configurations achieved higher sICAM yields while bcl-2 over-expression resulted in decreased product levels. Overall, the death-protective impact of bcl-2 and bcl-x(L) in engineered CHO-DG44 was not significant under typical batch-mode operation, an observation that was confirmed by clonal analysis. bcl-2 and bcl-x(L) displayed their antiapoptosis potential only following dhfr-based amplification in sICAM-producing CHO-DG44 cell lines. In all cases, bcl-x(L) outperformed bcl-2 in its cell death-protective capacity. Amplification-dependent high-level expression of mitochondria-localized bcl-2 family members required for successful antiapoptosis engineering may be essential to compensate for increased mitochondria numbers found to be associated with production cell lines grown in serum-free medium.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bit.10449DOI Listing
December 2002

p27Kip1-mediated controlled proliferation technology increases constitutive sICAM production in CHO-DUKX adapted for growth in suspension and serum-free media.

Biotechnol Bioeng 2002 Sep;79(6):619-27

Institute of Biotechnology, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich.

We have engineered dihydrofolate reductase-deficient (dhfr(-)) Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-DUKX B11 cells adapted for growth in serum-free suspension cultures for unlinked muristerone-inducible expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27Kip1 and constitutive expression of the soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM), a potent common cold therapeutic. Conditional overexpression of p27Kip1 resulted in a sustained G1-specific growth arrest of transgenic CHO-DUKX associated with up to fivefold-increased specific sICAM productivity. Herein we exemplify the implementation of controlled proliferation technology in a major biopharmaceutical production cell line that is compatible with key requirements for large-scale production procedures, including constitutive transgene expression and anchorage-independent growth in serum-free media.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bit.10322DOI Listing
September 2002