Publications by authors named "Barbara C Hoopes"

2 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Derived variants at six genes explain nearly half of size reduction in dog breeds.

Genome Res 2013 Dec 11;23(12):1985-95. Epub 2013 Sep 11.

Cancer Genetics Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA;

Selective breeding of dogs by humans has generated extraordinary diversity in body size. A number of multibreed analyses have been undertaken to identify the genetic basis of this diversity. We analyzed four loci discovered in a previous genome-wide association study that used 60,968 SNPs to identify size-associated genomic intervals, which were too large to assign causative roles to genes. First, we performed fine-mapping to define critical intervals that included the candidate genes GHR, HMGA2, SMAD2, and STC2, identifying five highly associated markers at the four loci. We hypothesize that three of the variants are likely to be causative. We then genotyped each marker, together with previously reported size-associated variants in the IGF1 and IGF1R genes, on a panel of 500 domestic dogs from 93 breeds, and identified the ancestral allele by genotyping the same markers on 30 wild canids. We observed that the derived alleles at all markers correlated with reduced body size, and smaller dogs are more likely to carry derived alleles at multiple markers. However, breeds are not generally fixed at all markers; multiple combinations of genotypes are found within most breeds. Finally, we show that 46%-52.5% of the variance in body size of dog breeds can be explained by seven markers in proximity to exceptional candidate genes. Among breeds with standard weights <41 kg (90 lb), the genotypes accounted for 64.3% of variance in weight. This work advances our understanding of mammalian growth by describing genetic contributions to canine size determination in non-giant dog breeds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/gr.157339.113DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3847769PMC
December 2013

The insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) contributes to reduced size in dogs.

Mamm Genome 2012 Dec 18;23(11-12):780-90. Epub 2012 Aug 18.

Department of Biology, Colgate University, 13 Oak Drive, Hamilton, NY 13346, USA.

Domestic dog breeds have undergone intense selection for a variety of morphologic features, including size. Among small-dog breeds, defined as those averaging less than ~15 in. at the withers, there remains still considerable variation in body size. Yet essentially all such dogs are fixed for the same allele at the insulin-like growth factor 1 gene, which we and others previously found to be a size locus of large effect. In this study we sought to identify additional genes that contribute to tiny size in dogs using an association scan with the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) dataset CanMap, in which 915 purebred dogs were genotyped at 60,968 SNP markers. Our strongest association for tiny size (defined as breed-average height not more than 10 in. at the withers) was on canine chromosome 3 (p = 1.9 × 10(-70)). Fine mapping revealed a nonsynonymous SNP at chr3:44,706,389 that changes a highly conserved arginine at amino acid 204 to histidine in the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R). This mutation is predicted to prevent formation of several hydrogen bonds within the cysteine-rich domain of the receptor's ligand-binding extracellular subunit. Nine of 13 tiny dog breeds carry the mutation and many dogs are homozygous for it. This work underscores the central importance of the IGF1 pathway in controlling the tremendous size diversity of dogs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00335-012-9417-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3511640PMC
December 2012