Publications by authors named "Baoru Yang"

143 Publications

Effects of Weak Acids on the Microbiological, Nutritional and Sensory Quality of Baltic Herring ().

Foods 2022 Jun 12;11(12). Epub 2022 Jun 12.

Functional Foods Forum, Faculty of Medicine, University of Turku, 20014 Turku, Finland.

Baltic herring () pickled in vinegar is a common product in the Nordic countries. Other weak acids are used to cook and preserve fish in other food cultures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of weak acids to produce safe and nutritious pickled fish products with varying sensory properties. The influence of acetic, citric, lactic, malic, and tartaric acids on the preservability and quality of pickled and marinated Baltic herring was studied by measuring microbiological quality, pH, chemical composition, and lipid oxidation and by sensory profiling. Pickling with these acids with pH levels of 3.7-4.2 resulted in pickled Baltic herring products with high microbiological quality. The results of the chemical analysis of the samples indicated that pickling and storage on marinade influenced the chemical composition of fish. The most significant changes in chemical composition were the increase in moisture and decrease in protein content of the samples during storage. Fat content decreased during the storage period in acetic acid and malic acid samples. All tested acids inhibited lipid oxidation for one month, but at three and four month time points, the content of oxidation products increased except in the samples pickled with tartaric acid. The highest oxidation level was observed in the case of citric acid and the lowest with tartaric acid. The results indicate that replacing acetic acid with other weak acids frequently used in the food industry results in pickled and marinated fish products with novel and milder sensory profiles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods11121717DOI Listing
June 2022

Assessing the potential for sea-based macroalgae cultivation and its application for nutrient removal in the Baltic Sea.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Sep 26;839:156230. Epub 2022 May 26.

Food Chemistry and Food Development, Department of Life Technologies, University of Turku, Tykistökatu 6, FI-20014 Turku, Finland.

Marine eutrophication is a pervasive and growing threat to global sustainability. Macroalgal cultivation is a promising circular economy solution to achieve nutrient reduction and food security. However, the location of production hotspots is not well known. In this paper the production potential of macroalgae of high commercial value was predicted across the Baltic Sea region. In addition, the nutrient limitation within and adjacent to macroalgal farms was investigated to suggest optimal site-specific configuration of farms. The production potential of Saccharina latissima was largely driven by salinity and the highest production yields are expected in the westernmost Baltic Sea areas where salinity is >23. The direct and interactive effects of light availability, temperature, salinity and nutrient concentrations regulated the predicted changes in the production of Ulva intestinalis and Fucus vesiculosus. The western and southern Baltic Sea exhibited the highest farming potential for these species, with promising areas also in the eastern Baltic Sea. Macroalgal farming did not induce significant nutrient limitation. The expected spatial propagation of nutrient limitation caused by macroalgal farming was less than 100-250 m. Higher propagation distances were found in areas of low nutrient and low water exchange (e.g. offshore areas in the Baltic Proper) and smaller distances in areas of high nutrient and high water exchange (e.g. western Baltic Sea and Gulf of Riga). The generated maps provide the most sought-after input to support blue growth initiatives that foster the sustainable development of macroalgal cultivation and reduction of in situ nutrient loads in the Baltic Sea.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.156230DOI Listing
September 2022

A novel UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS method and automatic calculation software for regiospecific analysis of triacylglycerols in natural fats and oils.

Anal Chim Acta 2022 Jun 1;1210:339887. Epub 2022 May 1.

Food Chemistry and Food Development, Department of Life Technologies, FI-20500, University of Turku, Turku, Finland. Electronic address:

Regioisomeric analysis of triacylglycerols (TAGs) in natural oils and fats is a highly challenging task in analytical chemistry. Here we present a software (TAG Analyzer) for automatic calculation of regioisomeric composition of TAGs based on the mass spectral data from recently reported ultra-high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS) method for analyzing TAG regioisomers. The software enables fast and accurate processing of complex product ion spectra containing structurally informative diacylglycerol [M+NH-RCOH-NH] and fatty acid ketene [RCO] fragment ions. Compared to manual processing, the developed software offers higher throughput with faster calculation as well as more accurate interpretation of chromatographically overlapping isobaric TAGs. The software determines results by constructing a synthetic spectrum to match the measured fragment ion spectrum, and by reporting the optimal concentrations of TAGs used to create the synthetic spectrum. This type of calculation is often extremely challenging for manual interpretation of the fragment ion spectra of isobaric TAGs with shared fragments, hence the need for automated data processing. The developed software was validated by analyzing a wide range of mixtures of regiopure TAG reference compounds of known composition and a commercial olive oil sample. Additionally, the method was also applied for regiospecific analysis of TAGs in human milk as an example of natural fats and oils with a highly complex TAG profile. The results indicate that the software is capable of resolving regioisomeric composition of natural TAGs even of the most complex composition. This novel calculation software combined with our existing UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS method form a highly efficient tool for regioisomeric analysis of TAGs in natural fats and oils.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2022.339887DOI Listing
June 2022

Similarity Index for the Fat Fraction between Breast Milk and Infant Formulas.

J Agric Food Chem 2022 May 11;70(20):6191-6201. Epub 2022 May 11.

Food Chemistry and Food Development, Department of Life Technologies, University of Turku, 20500 Turku, Finland.

The similarity of the fat fraction in infant formulas rich in either bovine milk fat (MF) or vegetable oil (VO) to breast milk was evaluated by analyzing their lipid composition. Milk fat-rich formulas were highly similar (average similarity index 0.68) to breast milk compared to the VO-rich formulas (average similarity index 0.56). The highest difference in the indices was found in the contents of cholesterol (0.66 vs 0.28 in MF- and VO-rich formulas, respectively, on average) and polar lipids (0.84 vs 0.53), the positional distribution of fatty acids in the -2 position of triacylglycerols (0.53 vs 0.28), and fatty acid composition (0.72 vs 0.54). The VO-based formulas were superior in similarity in - 6 PUFA. Thus, the addition of bovine MF fractions is an effective way to increase the similarity between the lipid composition of infant formulas and human milk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.1c08029DOI Listing
May 2022

Impact of enzymatic pre-treatment on composition of nutrients and phytochemicals of canola (Brassica napus) oil press residues.

Food Chem 2022 Sep 6;387:132911. Epub 2022 Apr 6.

Food Chemistry and Food Development Unit, Department of Life Technologies, Faculty of Technology, University of Turku, 20014 Turku, Finland. Electronic address:

The study aimed to develop a biorefining process to recover proteins and dietary fibres from a food industry side-stream, canola (Brassica napus) oil pressing residues. The materials were treated with commercial protease, carbohydrase, and phytase to obtain protein-rich supernatants and fibre-rich precipitates. The compositions of these fractions were analyzed using LC-MS (glucosinolates and phenolics) and GC-MS (sugars, acids, and amino acids). Compared to raw material, the supernatants were richer in proteins, sugars, acids, amino acids, phenolic acids, and flavonols; the precipitates had higher levels of minerals and dietary fibres. The enzymatic treatment decreased the contents of phytic acid, glucosinolates, and phenolic alkaloids in all fractions. The applied enzymes effectively enhanced solubility of proteins, despite the lower yield of crude proteins compared to the alkaline extraction (40-82 vs 91 g/100 g dry matters). The impact of enzymes on other chemical components was also revealed by using principal component analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2022.132911DOI Listing
September 2022

Chemical Composition of Juices Made from Cultivars and Breeding Selections of European Pear ( L.).

J Agric Food Chem 2022 Apr 15;70(16):5137-5150. Epub 2022 Apr 15.

Food Chemistry and Food Development, Department of Life Technologies, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku, Finland.

The phenolic profiles and other major metabolites in juices made from fruits of 17 cultivars and selections of European pears were investigated using UHPLC-DAD-ESI-QTOF-MS and GC-FID, respectively. A total of 39 phenolic compounds were detected, including hydroxybenzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids, flavan-3-ols, procyanidins, flavonols, and arbutin. Among these compounds, 5--caffeoylquinic acid was the most predominant, accounting for 14-39% of total quantified phenolic contents (TPA) determined in this study. The variations were mainly cultivar dependent. The genetic background effect on the chemical compositions is complex, and breeding selections from the same parental cultivars varied dramatically in chemical compositions. Putative perry pears contained more 4--caffeoylquinic acid, 5--caffeoylquinic acid, caffeoyl -trytophan, caffeoylshikimic acid, coumaroylquinic acid isomer, syringic acid hexoside, procyanidin dimer B2, (+)-catechin, and malic acid, whereas putative dessert pears had higher esters, alcohols, and aldehydes. The results will be helpful in providing industry with phytochemical compositional information, assisting pear selections in commercial utilization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.2c00071DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9052750PMC
April 2022

Supercritical CO Extraction of Triterpenoids from Chaga Sterile Conk of .

Molecules 2022 Mar 14;27(6). Epub 2022 Mar 14.

Food Chemistry and Food Development, Department of Biochemistry, University of Turku, Itäinen Pitkäkatu 4, 20520 Turku, Finland.

Triterpenoids are among the bioactive components of Chaga, the sterile conk of the medicinal fungus . Supercritical fluid extraction of Chaga triterpenoids was carried out with supercritical CO, while a modified Folch method was used as a comparison. Three temperature-pressure combinations were tested varying between 314-324 K (40-50 °C) and 281-350 bars, using time- and volume-limited extractions. Six triterpenoids were identified with GC-MS and quantified with GC-FID: ergosterol, lanosterol, β-sitosterol, stigmastanol, betulin, and inotodiol. The Folch extraction resulted in recovery of trametenolic acid, which was not extracted by supercritical CO. Inotodiol was the major triterpenoid of all the extracts, with a yield of 87-101 mg/100 g and 139 mg/100 g, for SFEs and the Folch method, respectively. The contents of other major triterpenoids, lanosterol and ergosterol, varied in the ranges 59-63 mg/100 g and 17-18 mg/100 g by SFE, respectively. With the Folch method, the yields were 81 mg/100 g and 40 mg/100 g, respectively. The highest recovery of triterpenoids with SFE in relation to Folch was 56% and it was obtained at 324 K (50 °C) and 350 bar, regardless of extraction time or volume of CO. The recoveries of lanosterol and stigmastanol were unaffected by SFE conditions. Despite the lower yield, SFE showed several advantages including shorter extraction time and less impact on the environment. This work could be a starting point for further studies on green extraction methods of bioactive triterpenoids from Chaga.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules27061880DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8955864PMC
March 2022

Effects of acylated and nonacylated anthocyanins extracts on gut metabolites and microbiota in diabetic Zucker rats: A metabolomic and metagenomic study.

Food Res Int 2022 03 7;153:110978. Epub 2022 Feb 7.

Food Chemistry and Food Development, Department of Life Technologies, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turun yliopisto, Finland. Electronic address:

Anthocyanins have been shown to have prebiotic properties. This study investigated the impact of nonacylated anthocyanins and acylated anthocyanins on fecal and cecal metabolites and colonic gut microbiota in diabetic state using H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolomics and metagenomic sequencing. Zucker diabetic fatty rats fed with high-fat diet were gavaged with nonacylated anthocyanins extracted from bilberries (NAAB) or acylated anthocyanins extracted from purple potatoes (AAPP) at daily doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg body weight for 8 weeks. Lean Zucker rats fed with normal diet (ND) and high-fat diet (Con) were used as healthy controls groups. Binned NMR spectra and sequenced gene abundance were used for data analysis. Dysbiosis of colonic microbiota and gut metabolites in the diabetic rats were observed compared to the lean Zucker rats. Both anthocyanin extracts increased cecal sugar levels and the abundance of Peptostreptococcaceae sp. and decreased the abundance of Parabacteroides spp. in colon. In addition to the increased fecal short-chain fatty acids, AAPP decreased colonic Ruminococcus torques and Lachnospiraceae bacterium 4_1_37FAA abundances and increased oxidative phosphorylation. The anthocyanin extracts modulated the gut metabolism and microbiota in diabetes, with AAPP showing more regulatory and beneficial effects on diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2022.110978DOI Listing
March 2022

Antimicrobial activity of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside-lauric acid ester against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.

Food Chem 2022 Jul 12;383:132410. Epub 2022 Feb 12.

Department of Food Science and Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, Guangdong, China; Zhongshan Hongli Health Food Industry Research Institute Co., Ltd, Zhongshan 528400, Guangdong, China. Electronic address:

Enzymatic acylation of anthocyanin with fatty acid improves its lipophilic solubility and application potential. Nevertheless, evaluation of functional properties of product is premise for application. This study investigated the antimicrobial potential and the underlying mechanisms of an acylated anthocyanin, namely, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside-lauric acid ester (C3G-LA), to provide guidelines for its application. C3G-LA exhibited outstanding antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) = 0.3125 mg/mL] and modest activity against Escherichia coli (MIC = 5 mg/mL). Moreover, C3G-LA manifested bactericide ability against S. aureus at 0.625 mg/mL. Decreases in membrane integrity (by 96% and 92% at MIC in S. aureus and E. coli, respectively), intracellular ATP concentration (by 96% and 92%) and intracellular pH (by 11% and 9%) and changes in cellular morphology altogether indicated the dysfunction of cell membrane under C3G-LA treatment. These findings demonstrated that C3G-LA could be adopted as an alternative food preservative against foodborne pathogens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2022.132410DOI Listing
July 2022

Quality of Protein Isolates and Hydrolysates from Baltic Herring () and Roach () Produced by pH-Shift Processes and Enzymatic Hydrolysis.

Foods 2022 Jan 15;11(2). Epub 2022 Jan 15.

Food Chemistry and Food Development, Department of Life Technologies, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku, Finland.

Fractionation is a potential way to valorize under-utilized fishes, but the quality of the resulting fractions is crucial in terms of their applicability. The aim of this work was to study the quality of protein isolates and hydrolysates extracted from roach () and Baltic herring () using either pH shift or enzymatic hydrolysis. The amino acid composition of protein isolates and hydrolysates mostly complied with the nutritional requirements for adults, but protein isolates produced using pH shift showed higher essential to non-essential amino acid ratios compared with enzymatically produced hydrolysates, 0.84-0.85 vs. 0.65-0.70, respectively. Enzymatically produced protein hydrolysates had a lower total lipid content, lower proportion of phospholipids, and exhibited lower degrees of protein and lipid oxidation compared with pH-shift-produced isolates. These findings suggest enzymatic hydrolysis to be more promising from a lipid oxidation perspective while the pH-shift method ranked higher from a nutrient perspective. However, due to the different applications of protein isolates and hydrolysates produced using pH shift or enzymatic hydrolysis, respectively, the further optimization of both studied methods is recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods11020230DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8775156PMC
January 2022

Tissue-Specific Content of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in (n-3) Deficiency State of Rats.

Foods 2022 Jan 12;11(2). Epub 2022 Jan 12.

Food Chemistry and Food Development, Department of Life Technologies, University of Turku, 20520 Turku, Finland.

The dietary intake of fatty acids (FAs) affects the composition and distribution of FAs in the body. Here, a first-generation (n-3)-deficiency study was conducted by keeping young (age 21 ± 2 days) Sprague-Dawley male rats on a peanut-oil-based diet for 33 days after weaning in order to compare the effect of mild (n-3)-deficiency on the lipid composition of different organs and feces. Soybean-oil-based diet was used as a control. The plasma FA levels corresponded to FAs levels in the organs. Lower docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) content was detected in the plasma, brain, testis, visceral fat, heart, and lungs of the (n-3)-deficient group, whereas the DHA content of the eye and feces did not differ between the experimental groups. The DHA content of the brains of the (n-3)-deficient group was 86% of the DHA content of the brains of the (n-3)-adequate group. The DHA level of the organs was affected in the order of visceral fat > liver triacylglycerols > lung > heart > liver phospholipids > testis > eye > brain, with brain being least affected. The low levels of (n-3) FAs in the liver, brain, eye, heart, and lung were offset by an increase in the (n-6) FAs, mainly arachidonic acid. These results indicate that, in rats, adequate maternal nutrition during pregnancy and weaning does not provide enough (n-3) FAs for 33 days of an (n-3)-deficient diet. Results of this study can be used also to evaluate the conditions needed to reach mild (n-3) deficiency in the first generation of rats and to evaluate the feasibility to collect data from a variety of organs or only selected ones.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods11020208DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8774705PMC
January 2022

Use of Non- Yeasts in Berry Wine Production: Inspiration from Their Applications in Winemaking.

J Agric Food Chem 2022 Jan 12;70(3):736-750. Epub 2022 Jan 12.

Food Chemistry and Food Development, Department of Biochemistry, University of Turku, FI-20014, Turku, Finland.

Although berries (nongrape) are rich in health-promoting bioactive compounds, and their consumption is associated with a lower risk of diverse chronic diseases, only a fraction of the annual yield of berries is exploited and consumed. Development of berry wines presents an approach to increase the utilization of berries. Alcoholic fermentation is a complex process driven by yeasts, which influence key properties of wine diversification and quality. In winemaking, non- yeasts were traditionally considered as undesired microorganisms because of their high production of metabolites with negative connotations. However, there has been a recent and growing interest in the application of non- yeast in many innovative wineries. Numerous studies have demonstrated the potential of these yeasts to improve properties of wine as an alternative or complement to . The broad use of non- yeasts in winemaking provides a promising picture of these unconventional yeasts in berry wine production, which can be considered as a novel biotechnological approach for creating value-added berry products for the global market. This review provides an overview of the current use of non- yeasts in winemaking and their applicative perspective in berry wine production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.1c07302DOI Listing
January 2022

Effects of Genetic Background and Altitude on Sugars, Malic Acid and Ascorbic Acid in Fruits of Wild and Cultivated Apples ( sp.).

Foods 2021 Nov 30;10(12). Epub 2021 Nov 30.

Shanxi Center for Testing of Functional Agro-Products, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taiyuan 030031, China.

Soluble sugars, malic acid, and ascorbic acid in 17 apple cultivars ( Borkh.) and three wild forms ( 'Saiwaihong', (Willd.) Borkh. and Makino) from three major apple cultivation regions in China were quantified using gas chromatography equipped with flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Fructose was the most abundant sugar, followed by sucrose, glucose, and sorbitol. Wild apples contain more sorbitol and less sucrose and were significantly more acidic than cultivated fruits. The total sugar content varied from 110 to 160 mg/g fresh fruits, total acid content from 2 to 6 mg/g, with a strong influence of genetic background and growth location. Overall, 'Gala', 'Xiali', 'Liuyuehong', 'Lihong', 'Starking Delicious', and 'Starkrimson' were characterized by higher sugar/acid ratio indicating sweeter taste compared to other cultivars. The wild apples had the highest content of ascorbic acid (0.6-0.96 mg/g). Compared to other cultivars, 'Zhongqiuwang', 'Qinguan', and 'Nagafu No. 2' were richer in ascorbic acid. The ascorbic acid content in the commercial cultivars was highly dependent on growth location. The content of malic acid and sucrose positively correlated to altitude, and that of glucose negatively. Malic acid positively correlated with ascorbic acid and sucrose, glucose content with ascorbic acid.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10122950DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8701241PMC
November 2021

Phenolic compound profiles in Finnish apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) juices and ciders fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe strains.

Food Chem 2022 Mar 20;373(Pt B):131437. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Food Chemistry and Food Development, Department of Life Technologies, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku, Finland; Shanxi Center for Testing of Functional Agro-Products, Shanxi Agricultural University, No. 79, Longcheng Street, Taiyuan 030031, China. Electronic address:

The phenolic compounds in juices and ciders made with Saccharomyces cerevisiae or Schizosaccharomyces pombe from eleven Finnish apple cultivars were analyzed using liquid chromatographic and mass spectrometric methods combined with multivariate data analysis. In general, the ciders contained less phenolic compounds than corresponding apple juices. In the studied apple juices and ciders, hydroxycinnamic acids were the most predominant, accounting for around 80% of total phenolic compounds. Apple juices contained more flavonol glycosides and dihydrochalcones whereas cider processing resulted in increased amount of free hydroxycinnamic acids. The contents of individual phenolic compounds were more dependent on the apple cultivars than the yeast species. Certain cultivars contained remarkably higher contents of dihydrochalcones and hydroxycinnamic acids when comparing with other cultivars. Ciders made using S. pombe remained higher contents of procyanidins and (+)-catechin while S. cerevisiae ciders contained higher individual hydroxycinnamic acids, such as 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 4-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 3-O-p-coumaroylquinic acid, and 4-O-p-coumaroylquinic acid.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.131437DOI Listing
March 2022

Acylated anthocyanins: A review on their bioavailability and effects on postprandial carbohydrate metabolism and inflammation.

Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 2021 11 5;20(6):5570-5615. Epub 2021 Oct 5.

Food Chemistry and Food Development, Department of Life Technologies, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.

Anthocyanins, the natural red and purple colorants of berries, fruits, vegetables, and tubers, improve carbohydrate metabolism and decrease the risk factors of metabolic disorders, but their industrial use is limited by their chemical instability. Acylation of the glycosyl moieties of anthocyanins, however, changes the chemical properties of anthocyanins and provides enhanced stability. Thus, acylated anthocyanins are more usable as natural colorants and bioactive components of innovative functional foods. Acylated anthocyanins are common in pigmented vegetables and tubers, the consumption of which has the potential to increase the intake of health-promoting anthocyanins as part of the daily diet. For the first time, this review presents the current findings on bioavailability, absorption, metabolism, and health effects of acylated anthocyanins with comparison to more extensively investigated nonacylated anthocyanins. The structural differences between nonacylated and acylated anthocyanins lead to enhanced color stability, altered absorption, bioavailability, in vivo stability, and colonic degradation. The impact of phenolic metabolites and their potential health effects regardless of the low bioavailability of the parent anthocyanins as such is discussed. Here, purple-fleshed potatoes are presented as a globally available, eco-friendly model food rich in acylated anthocyanins, which further highlights the industrial possibilities and nutritional relevance of acylated anthocyanins. This work supports the academic community and industry in food research and development by reviewing the current literature and highlighting gaps of knowledge.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1541-4337.12836DOI Listing
November 2021

Comparison of volatile compounds and sensory profiles of alcoholic black currant (Ribes nigrum) beverages produced with Saccharomyces, Torulaspora, and Metschnikowia yeasts.

Food Chem 2022 Feb 3;370:131049. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Food Chemistry and Food Development, Department of Biochemistry, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turun yliopisto, Finland.

Black currants (Ribes nigrum) were fermented with Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeasts without added sugar to yield low-ethanol-content beverages. The effects of yeasts on the volatile compounds and sensory characteristics were analysed by HS-SPME-GC-MS, GC-O, and generic descriptive analysis. Ninety-eight volatile compounds were identified from the black currant juice and fermented beverages. Significant increases in the contents of esters (131 %), higher alcohols (391 %), and fatty acids (not present in juice sample) compared to initial juice were observed depending on the yeasts used. GC-O analysis revealed the higher impact of esters on the sensory properties of Saccharomyces bayanus-fermented beverage compared to the Torulaspora delbrueckii-fermented beverage. In the sensory evaluation, non-Saccharomyces yeasts resulted in a higher 'black currant odour'. However, all beverages were intensely sour, which can be a significant challenge in the development of alcoholic berry beverages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.131049DOI Listing
February 2022

Enzyme-Assisted Extraction of Fish Oil from Whole Fish and by-Products of Baltic Herring ().

Foods 2021 Aug 5;10(8). Epub 2021 Aug 5.

Food Chemistry and Food Development, Department of Life Technologies, University of Turku, 20014 Turku, Finland.

Baltic herring () is one of the most abundant commercially caught fish species from the Baltic Sea. Despite the high content of fat and omega-3 fatty acids, the consumption of Baltic herring has decreased dramatically over the last four decades, mostly due to the small sizes and difficulty in processing. At the same time there is an increasing global demand for fish and fish oil rich in omega-3 fatty acids. This study aimed to investigate enzyme-assisted oil extraction as an environmentally friendly process for valorizing the underutilized fish species and by-products to high quality fish oil for human consumption. Three different commercially available proteolytic enzymes (Alcalase, Neutrase and Protamex) and two treatment times (35 and 70 min) were investigated in the extraction of fish oil from whole fish and by-products from filleting of Baltic herring. The oil quality and stability were studied with peroxide- and -anisidine value analyses, fatty acid analysis with GC-FID, and volatile compounds with HS-SPME-GC-MS. Overall, longer extraction times led to better oil yields but also increased oxidation of the oil. For whole fish, the highest oil yields were from the 70-min extractions with Neutrase and Protamex. Protamex extraction with 35 min resulted in the best fatty acid composition with the highest content of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) but also increased oxidation compared to treatment with other enzymes. For by-products, the highest oil yield was obtained from the 70-min extraction with Protamex without significant differences in EPA and DHA contents among the oils extracted with different enzymes. Oxidation was lowest in the oil produced with 35-min treatment using Neutrase and Protamex. This study showed the potential of using proteolytic enzymes in the extraction of crude oil from Baltic herring and its by-products. However, further research is needed to optimize enzymatic processing of Baltic herring and its by-products to improve yield and quality of crude oil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10081811DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8392381PMC
August 2021

Phenolic compounds in Nordic berry species and their application as potential natural food preservatives.

Authors:
Ye Tian Baoru Yang

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2021 Jul 12:1-33. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Food Chemistry and Food Development, Department of Life Technologies, Faculty of Technology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.

An increasing demand for natural food preservatives is raised by consumers. For Nordic berry species, abundance of phenolic compounds and potent activities of anti-oxidation and anti-bacteria enables a great potential as food preservatives. This review provides a systematic examination of current literature on phenolic profiles, anti-oxidative and anti-bacterial activities of various extracts of Nordic berry species, as well as the impact of various structure features of phenolics on the bioactivities. Special attention is placed on exploitation of leaves of berry species and pomaces after juice-pressing as side-streams of berry production and processing. The current progress and challenges in application of Nordic berry species as food preservatives are discussed. To fully explore the potential application of Nordic berry species in food industry and especially to valorize the side-streams of berry cultivation (leaves) and juice-pressing industry (pomaces), it is crucial to obtain extracts and fractions with targeted phenolic composition, which have high food preserving efficacy and minimal impact on sensory qualities of food products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2021.1946673DOI Listing
July 2021

Direct infusion and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry analysis of phospholipid regioisomers.

Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 2021 Sep;35(18):e9151

Food Chemistry and Food Development, Department of Biochemistry, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.

Rationale: Phospholipids are important components of cell membranes that are linked to several beneficial health effects such as increasing plasma HDL cholesterol levels, improving cognitive abilities and inhibiting growth of colon cancer. The role of phospholipid (PL) regioisomers in all these health effects is, however, largely not studied due to lack of analytical methods.

Methods: Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry in negative mode produces structurally informative fragment ions resulting from differential dissociation of fatty acids (FAs) from the sn-1 and sn-2 positions, primarily high-abundance [RCOO] ions. The fragment ion ratios obtained with different ratios of regiopure phospholipid reference compounds were used to construct calibration curves, which allow determination of regioisomeric ratios of an unknown sample. The method was developed using both direct infusion mass spectrometry (MS) and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HILIC-MS).

Results: The produced calibration curves have high coefficients of determination (R  >0.98) and the fragment ion ratios in replicate analyses were very consistent. A test mixture containing 60/40% ratios of all available regioisomer pairs was analyzed to test and validate the functionality of the calibration curves. The results were accurate and reproducible. However, regioisomeric quantification of certain chromatographically overlapping compounds is restricted by the relatively wide window in precursor ion selection of the MS instrument used.

Conclusions: This method establishes a framework for analysis of phospholipid regioisomers. Specific regioisomers can be quantified using the existing data, and method development will continue with improving chromatographic separation and exploring the fragmentation patterns and efficiencies of different PL classes and FA combinations, ultimately to refine this method for routine analysis of natural fats and oils.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rcm.9151DOI Listing
September 2021

Toxicological and bioactivity evaluation of blackcurrant press cake, sea buckthorn leaves and bark from Scots pine and Norway spruce extracts under a green integrated approach.

Food Chem Toxicol 2021 Jul 24;153:112284. Epub 2021 May 24.

Food Processing and Quality, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), FI-02150, Espoo, Finland. Electronic address:

Aqueous extracts from blackcurrant press cake (BC), Norway spruce bark (NS), Scots pine bark (SP), and sea buckthorn leaves (SB) were obtained using maceration and pressurized hot water and tested for their bioactivities. Maceration provided the extraction of higher dry matter contents, including total phenolics (TPC), anthocyanins, and condensed tannins, which also impacted higher antioxidant activity. NS and SB extracts presented the highest mean values of TPC and antioxidant activity. Individually, NS extract presented high contents of proanthocyanidins, resveratrol, and some phenolic acids. In contrast, SB contained a high concentration of ellagitannins, ellagic acid, and quercetin, explaining the antioxidant activity and antibacterial effects. SP and BC extracts had the lowest TPC and antioxidant activity. However, BC had strong antiviral efficacy, whereas SP can be considered a potential ingredient to inhibit α-amylase. Except for BC, the other extracts decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in HCT8 and A549 cells. Extracts did not inhibit the production of TNF-alpha in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated THP-1 macrophages but inhibited the ROS generation during the THP-1 cell respiratory burst. The recovery of antioxidant compounds from these by-products is incentivized for high value-added applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2021.112284DOI Listing
July 2021

Human milk metabolome is associated with symptoms of maternal psychological distress and milk cortisol.

Food Chem 2021 Sep 20;356:129628. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

FinnBrain Birth Cohort Study, Turku Brain and Mind Center, Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Turku, Finland.

The composition of human milk is subject to considerable variation, but the effects of maternal stress are largely unknown. We studied differences in human milk metabolome between Finnish mothers (n = 120, secretors) with symptoms of prenatal symptoms of psychological distress and milk cortisol concentrations. Human milk samples acquired at 2.5 months postpartum were analyzed using targeted H NMR metabolomics. Self-reported scores for depression (EPDS), overall anxiety (SCL-90), and pregnancy-related anxiety (PRAQ) were used to evaluate psychological distress. Prenatal psychological distress was positively associated with concentrations of short-chain fatty acids, caprate, and hypoxanthine (q < 0.0012). Milk cortisol was positively associated with lactate concentration (q < 0.05). Changes in the human milk metabolome were shown to be associated with maternal psychological distress and concentration of milk cortisol in a dissimilarly, suggesting alterations in bacterial and energy metabolism of the mother, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.129628DOI Listing
September 2021

H NMR Metabolomics and Full-Length RNA-Seq Reveal Effects of Acylated and Nonacylated Anthocyanins on Hepatic Metabolites and Gene Expression in Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rats.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Apr 9;69(15):4423-4437. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Food Chemistry and Food Development, Department of Life Technologies, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turun yliopisto, Finland.

Anthocyanins have been reported to possess antidiabetic effects. Recent studies indicate acylated anthocyanins have better stability and antioxidative activity compared to their nonacylated counterparts. This study compared the effects of nonacylated and acylated anthocyanins on hepatic gene expression and metabolic profile in diabetic rats, using full-length transcriptomics and H NMR metabolomics. Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats were fed with nonacylated anthocyanin extract from bilberries (NAAB) or acylated anthocyanin extract from purple potatoes (AAPP) at daily doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg body weight for 8 weeks. Both anthocyanin extracts restored the levels of multiple metabolites (glucose, lactate, alanine, and pyruvate) and expression of genes (, , , and ) involved in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. AAPP decreased the hepatic glutamine level. NAAB regulated the expression of , , and , whereas AAPP modified the expression of , , , and . This study indicated different effects of AAPP and NAAB on the hepatic transcriptomic and metabolic profiles of diabetic rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.1c00130DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8154569PMC
April 2021

Comparison of Polysaccharides Extracted from Cultivated Mycelium of with Polysaccharide Fractions Obtained from Sterile Conk (Chaga) and Birch Heart Rot.

J Fungi (Basel) 2021 Mar 8;7(3). Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Food Chemistry and Food Development, Department of Life Technologies, University of Turku, Itäinen Pitkäkatu 4, FI-20520 Turku, Finland.

The polysaccharides of the sterile conk of (Chaga) have demonstrated multiple bioactivities. The mycelium of this basidiomycete, obtained after submerged cultivation, has been considered a feasible alternative to the sterile conk for the production of polysaccharides. However, previous research has paid little attention to the differences in the structures of polymers obtained from the different resources. Moreover, the birch wood colonized by has never been investigated as a source of bioactive polysaccharides. In the present study, polysaccharide fractions produced from cultivated mycelium, sterile conks of different geographical origins, and birch heart rot were investigated. High amounts of phenolic compounds, possibly lignans, were bound to the sterile conk polysaccharides. Mycelial polysaccharides were rich in α- and β-glucans and had high (10 Da) and low (10 Da) molecular weight populations. On the other hand, sterile conk polysaccharides were mainly β-glucan of lower and monodispersed molecular weight (10 Da). Heart rot polysaccharides were comprised mainly of low molecular weight (10 Da) hemicelluloses. Nevertheless, fungal polysaccharides were identified in the extracts. The differences in structure and molecular properties among the polysaccharide fractions of mycelium, heart rot, and sterile conk are likely associated with differences in bioactivities and, therefore, in nutraceutical potential.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jof7030189DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8000984PMC
March 2021

Strategy for stereospecific characterization of natural triacylglycerols using multidimensional chromatography and mass spectrometry.

J Chromatogr A 2021 Mar 12;1641:461992. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Food Chemistry and Food Development, Department of Life Technologies, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku, Finland.

Stereoisomeric determination of individual triacylglycerols (TAGs) in natural oils and fats is a challenge due to similar physicochemical properties of TAGs with different fatty acid combinations. In this study, we present a strategy to resolve the enantiomeric composition of nutritionally important TAGs in sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides) as an example food matrix. The targeted strategy combines 1) fatty acid profiling with GC, 2) separation of TAGs with RP-HPLC, 3) stereospecific separation with chiral-phase HPLC and 4) structural characterization with MS. Three major asymmetric diacid- and triacid-TAG species were analyzed in sea buckthorn pulp oil. Off-line coupling of RP-HPLC and chiral-phase HPLC allowed separation of several TAG regioisomers and enantiomers, which could not be resolved using one-dimensional techniques. Enantiomeric ratios were determined and specific structural analysis of separated TAGs was performed using direct inlet ammonia negative ion chemical ionization method. Of the TAG 16:0/16:1/16:1 palmitic acid (C16:0) was located predominantly in a primary position and the enantiomeric ratio of TAG sn-16:1-16:1-16:0 to sn-16:0-16:1-16:1 was 70.5/29.5. Among the TAGs 16:0/16:0/18:2 and 16:0/16:0/16:1, only ca 5% had C16:0 in the sn-2 position, thus, ca 95% were symmetric sn-16:0-18:2-16:0 and sn-16:0-16:1-16:0. The enantiomeric ratio of triacid-TAGs containing C16:0 and two unsaturated fatty acids (palmitoleic C16:1, oleic C18:1 or linoleic acids C18:2) could not be resolved due to lack of commercial enantiopure reference compounds. However, it became clear that the targeted strategy presented offer unique and convenient method to study the enantiomeric structure of individual TAGs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2021.461992DOI Listing
March 2021

Phenolic Metabolites in the Urine and Plasma of Healthy Men After Acute Intake of Purple Potato Extract Rich in Methoxysubstituted Monoacylated Anthocyanins.

Mol Nutr Food Res 2021 05 30;65(9):e2000898. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Food Chemistry and Food Development, Department of Life Technologies, University of Turku, Turku, FIN-20014, Finland.

Scope: Structurally stable acylated anthocyanins have potential in various food applications but the effects of acylation and methoxysubstitution on anthocyanin metabolism are poorly understood. This is the first study thoroughly investigating phenolic metabolites, their time-wise changes, and pharmacokinetics following an acute intake of methoxysubstituted monoacylated anthocyanins.

Methods And Results: Healthy male volunteers (n = 17) consumed a yellow potato meal with and without purple potato extract rich in acylated anthocyanins (152 mg) and hydroxycinnamic acid conjugates (140 mg). Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) is used for identification and quantification of metabolites from serially collected urine and plasma. While the parent anthocyanins are not detected, 28 phenolic metabolites from urine and 14 from plasma are quantified, including hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids and protocatechuic acid sulfates and glucuronides; three (catechol, gallic acid-4-O-glucuronide, and 2-methoxybenzoic acid) are detected for the first time after anthocyanin-rich food. Urinary hippuric acid is the most abundant with an increase of 139 µM mM creatinine after the treatment. A large additional set of tentatively identified phenolic metabolites are detected. Late urinary peak time values suggest colonic degradation.

Conclusion: Acylated anthocyanins are more bioavailable than earlier reported after extensive degradation in human and/or colonial metabolism to phenolic metabolites, which may be further conjugated and demethylated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.202000898DOI Listing
May 2021

Red beet (Beta vulgaris) betalains and grape (Vitis vinifera) anthocyanins as colorants in white currant juice - Effect of storage on degradation kinetics, color stability and sensory properties.

Food Chem 2021 Jun 7;348:128995. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Food Chemistry and Food Development Department of Biochemistry, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turun yliopisto, Finland.

Red beet betalains, grape anthocyanins, and their mixtures were used as colorants in white currant juice. Storage stability of the compounds was evaluated using liquid chromatography and the degradation kinetic order and parameters were calculated. Degradation of betalains followed first-order kinetics, while the degradation of anthocyanins did not have any trend toward any order kinetics. The coexisting anthocyanins and their concentration affected the rate constant of betalains. Betalains degraded faster than anthocyanins, their mixtures promoted respective degradation. Pyruvate derivatives of anthocyanins showed better stability. During storage, all samples became more yellowish with CIELab method and lighter in color. In the projective mapping sensory test, samples were distinguished by the colorant type as the main criteria and the storage time as the second criteria. Anthocyanin (described as 'dark' and 'natural') was preferred by sensory panelists over betalain (described as 'pink' and 'unnatural'), as were the fresh samples over stored samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.128995DOI Listing
June 2021

Green technologies for production of oils rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids from aquatic sources.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2022 22;62(11):2942-2962. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Food Chemistry and Food Development, Department of Biochemistry, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.

Fish and algae are the major sources of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs). Globally, there is a rapid increase in demand for n-3 PUFA-rich oils. Conventional oil production processes use high temperature and chemicals, compromising the oil quality and the environment. Hence, alternative green technologies have been investigated for producing oils from aquatic sources. While most of the studies have focused on the oil extraction and enrichment of n-3 PUFAs, less effort has been directed toward green refining of oils from fish and algae. Enzymatic processing and ultrasound-assisted extraction with environment-friendly solvents are the most promising green technologies for extracting fish oil, whereas pressurized extractions are suitable for extracting microalgae oil. Lipase-catalysed ethanolysis of fish and algae oil is a promising green technology for enriching n-3 PUFAs. Green refining technologies such as phospholipase- and membrane-assisted degumming deserve investigation for application in fish and algal oils. In the current review, we critically examined the currently existing research on technologies applied at each of the steps involved in the production of oils rich in n-3 PUFAs from fish and algae species. Special attention was placed on assessment of green technologies in comparison with conventional processing methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2020.1861426DOI Listing
April 2022

Impact of lactic acid fermentation on sensory and chemical quality of dairy analogues prepared from lupine (Lupinus angustifolius L.) seeds.

Food Chem 2021 Jun 10;346:128852. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

Food Chemistry and Food Development, Department of Biochemistry, University of Turku, FI-20014, Finland. Electronic address:

Lupine (Lupinus sp.) is a valuable source of plant proteins. There is little knowledge on the impact of food processing on composition and sensory properties of lupine products. In this research, we investigated the impact of fermentation with five starters of lactic acid bacteria on the sensory quality and flavor-active compounds in dairy analogues prepared from sweet lupine (Lupinus angustifolius L.). The sensory qualities of unfermented and fermented products were studied with generic descriptive analysis and affective tests. Acids and sugars were analyzed with GC-FID and volatiles with HS-SPME-GC-MS and GC-O. Fermentation increased sourness and 'vinegar' odor and reduced the 'beany' odor and flavor as well as the unpleasantness of flavor. Formation of volatiles during the fermentation was dependent on the starters. However, all fermentations increased the contents of lactic, acetic, and hexanoic acids, while reducing the contents of hexanal, described as 'grassy' in the unfermented lupine sample.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.128852DOI Listing
June 2021

Health promoting properties and sensory characteristics of phytochemicals in berries and leaves of sea buckthorn ().

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2022 7;62(14):3798-3816. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Food Chemistry and Food Development, Department of Biochemistry, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.

Sea buckthorn ( L., SB), as a multi-functional plant, is widely grown in Asia, Europe and Canada. The berries and leaves of SB contain a diverse array of health-supporting phytochemicals, which are also related to the sensory qualities of berry and berry products. This review summarizes the biologically active key-compounds of the berries and leaves of SB, their health-promoting effects, as well as the contributions to the sensory quality of the berries. The target compounds consist of sugars, sugar derivatives, organic acids, phenolic compounds and lipophilic compounds (mainly carotenoids and tocopherols), which play an important role in anti-inflammatory and antioxidant functions, as well as in metabolic health. In addition, these compounds contribute to the orosensory qualities of SB berries, which are closely related to consumer acceptance and preference of the products. Studies regarding the bioavailability of the compounds and the influence of the processing conditions are also part of this review. Finally, the role of the sensory properties is emphasized in the development of SB products to increase utilization of the berry as a common meal component and to obtain value-added products to support human health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2020.1869921DOI Listing
May 2022

Effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe strains on chemical composition and sensory quality of ciders made from Finnish apple cultivars.

Food Chem 2021 May 8;345:128833. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Food Chemistry and Food Development, Department of Biochemistry, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku, Finland. Electronic address:

Composition of volatile compounds and concentrations of sugars and organic acids were studied in apple ciders produced with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe yeasts using eleven different Finnish apple cultivars. Moreover, sensory quality of selected ciders was studied using check-all-that-apply test with untrained panelists. Seventy-seven volatile compounds were detected in the samples using HS-SPME-GC-MS. In general, the ciders had higher concentrations of higher alcohols, aldehydes, and acetals whereas the juices contained higher contents of C6-alcohols. Simultaneously, fermentation using S. pombe resulted in lower concentrations of malic acid, ethyl pentanoate, ethyl hexanoate, and volatile acids and higher concentrations of residual sugars compared to S. cerevisiae. Ciders made using S. cerevisiae were characterized as 'alcoholic' and 'yeasty' while S. pombe ciders were more frequently described as 'sweet', 'honey-like', and less rated as sour. Besides the strong effect by the yeasts, apple cultivars had significant effects on the compositional and sensorial properties of apple ciders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.128833DOI Listing
May 2021
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