Publications by authors named "Baohua Kong"

102 Publications

Characterisation of flavour profile of beef jerky inoculated with different autochthonous lactic acid bacteria using electronic nose and gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry.

Meat Sci 2021 Aug 19;183:108658. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

College of Food Science, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150030, China. Electronic address:

The flavour profiles of beef jerky separately inoculated with different autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains (Lactobacillus sakei BL6, Pediococcus acidilactici BP2, and Lactobacillus fermentum BL11) and a non-inoculated control were analysed using electronic nose (E-nose) and gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry (GC-IMS). GC-IMS results revealed a total of 42 volatile compounds in beef jerky. Inoculation of the three LAB strains decreased the levels of lipid autoxidation-derived aldehydes (e.g., hexanal, heptanal, octanal, and nonanal). In addition, inoculation of P. acidilactici BP2 increased the levels of esters. Principal component analysis of the E-nose and GC-IMS results could effectively differentiate non-inoculated beef jerky and beef jerky separately inoculated with different LAB strains. Furthermore, there was a high correlation between the E-nose and GC-IMS results, providing a theoretical basis for the identification of different beef jerky formulations and selection of autochthonous starter cultures for beef jerky fermentation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2021.108658DOI Listing
August 2021

Combination of high-intensity ultrasound and hydrogen peroxide treatment suppresses thermal aggregation behaviour of myofibrillar protein in water.

Food Chem 2021 Aug 4;367:130756. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

College of Food Science, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150030, China. Electronic address:

This study was aimed at evaluating the potential of high-intensity ultrasound (HIU, 450 W for 10 min) combined with hydrogen peroxide (HO) having various concentrations (0, 50, 100, 200, 400, 800 μmol/g protein) to inhibit the thermal aggregation behavior of myofibrillar proteins (MPs) in water. The results indicated that the addition of HO interfered with the intermolecular sulfhydryl-disulfide interchange and inhibited the disulfide bond cross-linking. The HO-mediated conversion of cysteine to thiol derivatives appeared to be the primary mechanism of this effect. The HIU combined with HO, especially at the HO concentration of 200 μmol/g, corresponded to a more significant inhibitory effect than that of only HO, which attributed to the dissociation of the filamentous myosin structure that led to an enhanced accessibility of the buried sulfhydryl groups. In conclusion, these findings provide direct evidence for the role of HIU combined with HO in improving the thermal stability of MPs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.130756DOI Listing
August 2021

Future trends of processed meat products concerning perceived healthiness: A review.

Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 2021 Aug 10. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

College of Food Science, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, China.

The 21st-century consumer is highly demanding when it comes to the health benefits of food and food products. In the pursuit of attracting these consumers and easing the rise in demand for high-quality meat products, the processed meat sector is intensely focused on developing reformulated, low-fat, healthy meat products. Meat and meat products are considered the primary sources of saturated fatty acids in the human diet. Therefore, these reformulation strategies aim to improve the fatty acid profile and reduce total fat and cholesterol, which can be achieved by replacing animal fat with plant-based oils; it could be performed as direct inclusion of these oils or pre-emulsified oils. However, emulsions offer a viable option for incorporating vegetable oils while avoiding the multiple issues of direct inclusion of these oils in meat products. Processed meat products are popular worldwide and showing a gradually increasing trend of consumption. Various types of plant-based oils have been studied as fat replacers in meat products. This review will focus on possible methods to reduce the saturated fatty acid content in meat products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1541-4337.12813DOI Listing
August 2021

Effect of different types of smoking materials on the flavor, heterocyclic aromatic amines, and sensory property of smoked chicken drumsticks.

Food Chem 2021 Jul 23;367:130680. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

College of Food Science, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150030, China. Electronic address:

This study investigated the effect of different types of smoking materials on the flavor, heterocyclic aromatic amine (HAA) content, and sensory attributes of smoked chicken drumsticks. All smoked samples showed lower pH and L*-value and higher a*-value and b*-value than the control sample (P < 0.05), but no significant differences in water content and water activity (P > 0.05). The samples smoked with sucrose combined with pear-tree woodchips (SP) or green tea leaves (ST) had higher overall acceptability than other samples (P < 0.05). Smoking increased the total HAA content, and the ST sample exhibited the highest total HAA content (P < 0.05). A total of 54 volatile compounds was identified. Overall, SP and ST are suitable for smoked chicken considering the sensory properties, while S and SA are proper for smoked chicken considering the minimization of HAAs, which may provide a theory basis for the production of smoked chicken.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.130680DOI Listing
July 2021

Dynamics of heat transfer and moisture in beef jerky during hot air drying.

Meat Sci 2021 Dec 24;182:108638. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

College of Food Science, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150030, China. Electronic address:

The aim of this study was to investigate the surface temperature, moisture migration, muscle shrinkage and microstructure of beef jerky during hot air multi-stage drying. Temperatures were sequentially increased from 40 to 50 to 60 °C, and corresponding times were 0.5 h - 1 h - 2.5 h, 0.5 h - 2 h - 1.5 h, 1 h - 1 h - 2 h and 1 h - 2 h - 1 h in 4 groups. With increasing temperature, moisture content and diffusivity of the sample decreased, the surface temperature, moisture migration, muscle shrinkage and the gaps (spacing) between muscle fibres increased. The jerky in groups 3 and 4 attained high overall acceptability. The jerky dried at 40 °C for 1 h, 50 °C for 1 h and 60 °C for 2 h had highest quality. The results cover the range of temperature and time used in beef drying and can be used to optimize the drying process of beef.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2021.108638DOI Listing
December 2021

Evaluation of flavor characteristics of bacon smoked with different woodchips by HS-SPME-GC-MS combined with an electronic tongue and electronic nose.

Meat Sci 2021 Dec 14;182:108626. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

College of Food Science, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150030, China. Electronic address:

This study investigated the effects of different woodchip types (beech, oak, pear, and apple) on the volatile compounds and sensory characteristics of smoked bacon. The volatile compounds were influenced by woodchip types and the total content of ketones and phenols in pear-smoked bacon were higher than in bacon smoked with other woodchips (P < 0.05). The E-tongue combined with E-nose can effectively distinguish the difference in the flavor of bacon smoked with different woodchip types by the signal intensities. Sensory analysis showed that smoking increased bacon's redness, saltiness, and smoky flavor compared with the control (unsmoked bacon) (P < 0.05) and it had little impact on off-odor (P > 0.05). Correlation analysis showed that the E-nose and E-tongue data were highly correlated with contents of alcohols, aldehydes, and ketones. This study revealed that the different smoked materials greatly influenced the flavor and sensory properties of bacon.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2021.108626DOI Listing
December 2021

High hydrostatic pressure combined with moisture regulators improves the tenderness and quality of beef jerky.

Meat Sci 2021 Nov 30;181:108617. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

College of Food Science, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150030, China. Electronic address:

The influence of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) at different pressure levels (0.1, 100, 200, and 300 MPa) combined with moisture regulators (MR) on the tenderness, water content, and quality of beef jerky was investigated. HHP treatment reduced the shear force (SF) of beef jerky (P < 0.05). The beef jerky treated with MR+HHP exhibited higher tenderness than the beef jerky treated only with HHP (P < 0.05). The MR+HHP samples had significantly higher moisture content than the HHP samples (P > 0.05) when the water activity was maintained at approximately 0.7. MR+HHP contributed to a shorter T value and a higher P value, which indicated an improvement in the water-binding ability of the beef muscle. Analysis of the microstructure showed that MR+HHP led to the fracture of the Z-line and destruction of the sarcomere structure. Sensory analysis showed that MR+HHP-200 samples had significantly higher tenderness and overall acceptable scores than other samples (P < 0.05).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2021.108617DOI Listing
November 2021

Composite Gel Fabricated with Konjac Glucomannan and Carrageenan Could Be Used as a Cube Fat Substitute to Partially Replace Pork Fat in Harbin Dry Sausages.

Foods 2021 Jun 24;10(7). Epub 2021 Jun 24.

College of Food Science, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, China.

The effect of the partial replacement of pork back-fat with a cube fat substitute (CFS) fabricated from konjac glucomannan and carrageenan on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of Harbin dry sausages during 7 days of fermentation was investigated. There were the following five treatments: control (100% back-fat), FS1 (80% back-fat, 20% CFS), FS2 (60% back-fat, 40% CFS), FS3 (40% back-fat, 60% CFS) and FS4 (20% back-fat, 80% CFS). The results showed no significant differences ( > 0.05) in the physicochemical and sensory characteristics among the control, FS1 and FS2 treatments. However, higher replacement levels (60% and 80%) rendered higher degrees of change in the characteristics of the sausages, lowering the moisture content and and increasing the pH, hardness, chewiness and atypical appearance at the end of fermentation. Moreover, electronic nose analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis demonstrated that the FS3 and FS4 treatments destroyed the characteristic quality of the sausage. Overall, our results indicated that, to ensure the traditional characteristics of Harbin dry sausages, the upper limit of the fat replacement level with CFS should be set at 40%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10071460DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8303530PMC
June 2021

Changes in moisture, colour, residual nitrites and N-nitrosamine accumulation of bacon induced by nitrite levels and dry-frying temperatures.

Meat Sci 2021 Nov 12;181:108604. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

College of Food Science, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150030, China. Electronic address:

The effects of different nitrite levels (50, 100, and 150 mg/kg meat) and dry-frying temperatures (100, 150, 200 and 250 °C) on the moisture movement, colour, sensory variables and residual nitrite and N-nitrosamine levels in smoked bacon were investigated. Increasing the dry-frying temperatures significantly increased the cooking loss and decreased the moisture content (P < 0.05). The bacon L*-values showed an increasing trend at first and then decreased, with the highest value of the bacon with 150 mg/kg nitrite was obtained at 100 °C and 150 °C. In addition, a*-values were significantly affected by the nitrite level and dry-frying temperature (P < 0.05), with the highest value of the bacon samples with 100 and 150 mg/kg nitrite observed at 250 °C. The residual nitrite content level initially increased (from unheated control to 150 °C) and then decreased (from 150 to 250 °C) sharply with increasing dry-frying temperatures in the bacon samples with the same sodium nitrite levels. N-methyl-N-nitrosoaniline (NMPhA) and N-nitrosomorpholine (NMOR) were measured in a number of smoked bacon samples, and a significant positive correlation (R = 0.772) was found for N-nitrosamines (NA) contents and nitrite levels (P < 0.05). The maximum levels of NMPhA and NMOR were detected when the bacon with 150 mg/kg sodium nitrite was pan-fried at 200 °C and 150 °C, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2021.108604DOI Listing
November 2021

Fungal community succession and volatile compound dynamics in Harbin dry sausage during fermentation.

Food Microbiol 2021 Oct 12;99:103764. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

College of Food Science, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, Heilongjiang, 150030, China. Electronic address:

This study investigated the fungal community succession and volatile compound dynamics of Harbin dry sausage during a twelve-day fermentation using high-throughput internal transcribed spacer amplicon sequencing and headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Aspergillus pseudoglaucus was found to be the primary species in the sausages during fermentation, whereas Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus caesiellus, and Trichosporon asahii were also prevalent. Additionally, a total of 72 volatile compounds were identified in the dry sausages, of which 24 key compounds (odor activity value > 1) dominated flavor development, including 3 aldehydes, 1 ketone, 4 alcohols, 9 esters, 4 alkenes, and 3 other compounds. Furthermore, correlation analysis suggested that most of the core fungi were positively correlated with the key volatile compounds, particularly A. pseudoglaucus, Aspergillus gracilis, Trichosporon caseorum, Debaryomyces hansenii, and T. asahii. Our findings provide novel insights into the fungal ecology and flavor development of Harbin dry sausages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fm.2021.103764DOI Listing
October 2021

Improving the taste profile of reduced-salt dry sausage by inoculating different lactic acid bacteria.

Food Res Int 2021 07 24;145:110391. Epub 2021 May 24.

College of Food Science, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150030, China. Electronic address:

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) including Lactobacillus curvatus, Lactobacillus sakei, Weissella hellenica, and Lactobacillus plantarum on the taste profiles of reduced-salt dry sausage. The results showed that the inoculation of LAB increased the moisture content and water activity and decreased the pH values of the sausages. Higher contents of total free amino acids (FAAs) were observed in the inoculated sausages (P < 0.05), especially for the sausages inoculated with L. curvatus, W. hellenica, and L. plantarum. The sausage inoculated with W. hellenica also had higher contents of organic acids than the other sausages (P < 0.05). In addition, partial least squares regression analysis demonstrated that the taste properties characterized by electronic tongue were consistent with the sensory evaluation results, and FAAs and organic acids contributed to the taste properties of the reduced-salt dry sausage. These results highlight the potential of W. hellenica and L. plantarum for the production of reduced-salt dry sausage with improved taste profiles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2021.110391DOI Listing
July 2021

Influences of Smoking in Traditional and Industrial Conditions on Flavour Profile of Harbin Red Sausages by Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry.

Foods 2021 May 24;10(6). Epub 2021 May 24.

College of Food Science, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, China.

Smoking is mainly used to impart desirable flavour, colour and texture to the products. Various food smoking methods can be divided into traditional and industrial methods. The influences of three different smoking methods, including traditional smouldering smoke (TSS), industrial smouldering smoke (ISS) and industrial liquid smoke (ILS), on quality characteristics, sensory attributes and flavour profiles of Harbin red sausages were studied. The smoking methods had significant effects on the moisture content (55.74-61.72 g/100 g), -value (53.85-57.61), -value (11.97-13.15), -value (12.19-12.92), hardness (24.25-29.17 N) and chewiness (13.42-17.32). A total of 86 volatile compounds were identified by headspace solid phase microextraction combined with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC × GC-qMS). Among them, phenolic compounds were the most abundant compounds in the all sausages. Compared with sausages smoked with smouldering smoke, the ILS sausages showed the highest content of volatile compounds, especially phenols, alcohols, aldehydes and ketones. Principal component analysis showed that the sausages smoked with different methods had a good separation based on the quality characteristics and GC × GC-qMS data. These results will facilitate optimising the smoking methods in the industrial production of smoked meat products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10061180DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8225118PMC
May 2021

Physiological, Morphological and Antioxidant Responses of R1 and R6 Isolated from Harbin Dry Sausages to Oxidative Stress.

Foods 2021 May 26;10(6). Epub 2021 May 26.

College of Food Science, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, China.

As functional starter cultures and potential probiotics, the ability of lactic acid bacteria to resist oxidative stress is essential to maintain viability and functional properties. This study investigates the effects of HO at different concentrations (0, 1, 2, and 3 mM) on the physiological, morphological, and antioxidant properties of R1 and R6 isolated from Harbin dry sausages. The increase in HO concentration induced a significant increase in reactive oxygen species and a decrease in intracellular ATP levels ( < 0.05). Based on scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and electric conductivity analysis, HO stress caused cell deformation, the destruction of cell membrane integrity, partial loss of the cytoplasm, and an increase in the cell conductivity of both strains. HO stress with 1 mM or 2 mM concentrations could effectively improve the scavenging rates of free radicals, the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxide, and the total antioxidant capacity of both strains ( < 0.05). In conclusion, an appropriate oxidative stress contributed to the activation of the antioxidant defense system of both strains, conferred strains a better effect in inhibiting the oxidation of fermented foods, and improved the health of the host.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10061203DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8229211PMC
May 2021

Effects of Sodium Chloride on the Physical and Oxidative Stability of Filled Hydrogel Particles Fabricated with Phase Separation Behavior.

Foods 2021 May 9;10(5). Epub 2021 May 9.

College of Food Science, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, China.

The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration (0-500 mM) on the physical and oxidative stabilities of filled hydrogel that were stabilized using heat-denatured whey protein concentrate and high methoxy pectin. Our results showed that with an increase in NaCl concentration, the particle sizes, zeta-potentials, and interfacial layer thickness of filled hydrogels significantly increased and the lightness and whiteness gradually decreased ( < 0.05). Moreover, rheological characterization revealed that the apparent viscosity and viscoelastic behavior gradually decreased at higher NaCl concentration, which was mainly ascribed to the influence of NaCl on the electrostatic repulsion between droplets, thereby adversely impacting the physical stability of filled hydrogels. Furthermore, the result of cryo-scanning electron microscopy also verified the abovementioned results. Notably, higher NaCl concentration significantly promoted the oxidation of lipids and proteins ( < 0.05), thereby decreasing the oxidative stabilities of filled hydrogels. Our results indicated that filled hydrogels prepared under different ionic strength conditions can provide the theoretical basis for their future application in emulsion-based foods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10051027DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8151785PMC
May 2021

Effects of acetylated cassava starch on the physical and rheological properties of multicomponent protein emulsions.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Jul 21;183:1459-1474. Epub 2021 May 21.

College of Food Science, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150030, China; Heilongjiang Green Food Science & Research Institute, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150028, China. Electronic address:

The present study investigates the effect of different acetylated cassava starch (ACS) concentrations on the physical and rheological properties of multicomponent emulsion-based products at specific pH values. The emulsion-based products were made by mixing 2% (w/v) prepared lipid droplets that were stabilized by either native or heated whey proteins, 0.01% (w/v) flaxseed gum and 0-6.0% (w/v) ACS. The results indicated that particle size, apparent viscosity and rheological moduli of multicomponent emulsion-based products were significantly enhanced with increasing addition amounts of ACS (P < 0.05). Moreover, the microscopic morphology showed that the addition of ACS contributed to the formation of a more compact, uniform, and continuous comb-like network. However, higher ACS concentration was prone to induce visibly larger aggregations and coarser textures, lending to some negative impact on visual appearance and overall acceptability. Moreover, acidic conditions could obviously promote droplet aggregation via electrostatic interactions, whereas neutral conditions had no effect on droplet aggregation. Additionally, when compared with native whey proteins, lipid droplets stabilized by their heated protein forms induced significantly higher apparent viscosities and rheological moduli of multicomponent emulsion-based products (P < 0.05). Our results potentially provide some information for the creation of multicomponent emulsion-based products with various desirable quality attributes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.05.134DOI Listing
July 2021

Biochemical properties of extracellular protease from Staphylococcus carnosus RT6 isolated from Harbin dry sausages, and its hydrolysis of meat proteins.

J Food Sci 2021 May 29;86(5):1642-1655. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

College of Food Science, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, Heilongjiang, China.

The characteristics of the extracellular protease, produced by Staphylococcus carnosus RT6 isolated from Harbin dry sausages, and its hydrolysis of meat proteins were investigated. The protease was purified by ammonium sulfate, ion exchange, and gel filtration chromatography to obtain a 20.0 kDa extracellular protease. The protease reached maximal activity at pH 9.0 and 50 °C and was stable at pH 7.0 to 11.0 and 20 to 40 °C. Its protease activity was easily inhibited in the presence of Zn , Fe , and Fe . The enzymatic characterization of the protease revealed a V 49.50 U/ml·min, K 8.19 mg/ml, and the half-life = 28.06 min, ΔH  = 114.11 kJ/mol, ΔG  = 89.24 kJ/mol, and ΔS  = 77.00 J/mol·K at 50 °C. In addition, the protease hydrolyzed meat protein into small particles and produced soluble peptides. This study provides a basis for understanding the biochemical characteristics of the S. carnosus RT6 protease and its future application for fermented meat products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.15726DOI Listing
May 2021

High-intensity ultrasound improves the physical stability of myofibrillar protein emulsion at low ionic strength by destroying and suppressing myosin molecular assembly.

Ultrason Sonochem 2021 Jun 20;74:105554. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

College of Food Science, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150030, China. Electronic address:

The specific molecular behavior of myofibrillar proteins (MPs) in low-salt media limits the development of muscle protein-based emulsions. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of high-intensity ultrasound (HIU; 150, 300, 450, and 600 W) to improve the physical stability of MP emulsion at low ionic strength and decipher the underlying mechanism. According to the physical stability analysis, HIU pretreatment, especially at 450 W power, significantly improved the physical stability of MP emulsions, as evidenced by the reduced particle size, enhanced inter-droplet interactions, and increased uniformity of the droplet size distribution (p < 0.05). The results of interfacial protein composition, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis, and microscopic morphology observation of the aqueous MP suspension suggested that HIU induced the depolymerization of filamentous myosin polymers and inhibited the subsequent self-assembly behavior. These effects may facilitate protein adsorption and molecular rearrangement at the oil-water interface, forming a complete interfacial layer and, thus, droplet stabilization. Confocal laser scanning microscopy observations further confirmed these results. In conclusion, these findings provide direct evidence for the role of HIU in improving the physical stability of MP emulsions at low ionic strength.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ultsonch.2021.105554DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8091063PMC
June 2021

Effectiveness of ultrasound-assisted immersion thawing on the thawing rate and physicochemical properties of chicken breast muscle.

J Food Sci 2021 May 21;86(5):1692-1703. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

College of Food Science, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, Heilongjiang, China.

This study evaluated the effect of air thawing (AT), water thawing (WT), and ultrasound-assisted immersion thawing (UT) at different power levels (200, 300, 400, and 500 W) on the thawing rate, physicochemical properties, and protein structure of chicken breast muscle (pectoralis), and the weight of each sample was approximately 106 ± 3 g. UT shortened the total thawing time and decreased the cutting force with increasing ultrasound power. Additionally, UT at 300 W (UT-300) remarkably reduced the thawing and cooking losses of the samples compared to AT, WT, and other UT powers (p < 0.05). Low-field nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed that the T and T of the UT-300 samples were shorter than those of the AT and WT samples (p < 0.05), which revealed that UT-300 reduced the mobility and losses of both immobilized and free water. Moreover, UT-300 remarkably reduced the damage to the myofibrillar protein (MP) structure. Overall, with appropriate ultrasonic power, the thawing rate increased and changes in the MP structure were reduced. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This study found that compared to that of AT samples, the thawing time of the UT-300 samples markedly decreased by 57%. In addition, UT-300 could reduce the damage to the myofibrillar protein structure, which was very beneficial for further processing of frozen foods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.15699DOI Listing
May 2021

The potential correlations between the fungal communities and volatile compounds of traditional dry sausages from Northeast China.

Food Microbiol 2021 Sep 17;98:103787. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

College of Food Science, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, Heilongjiang, 150030, China. Electronic address:

The fungal communities and volatile compounds of traditional dry sausages collected from five different regions in Northeast China, including Harbin (HRB), Daqing (DQ), Suihua (SH), Hegang (HG) and Mudanjiang (MDJ) were investigated in this study. The results revealed clear differences among the fungal community structures of the sausages. Aspergillus pseudoglaucus, Debaryomyces hansenii, and Trichosporon asahii were found to be the predominant species in the sausages from HRB, HG, and MDJ, respectively. Candida zeylanoides was the predominant species in the sausage from DQ and SH. Additionally, 88 volatile compounds were identified in all sausages, of which 31 volatile compounds were the most important flavor contributors (odor activity value > 1). Potential correlation analysis revealed that 8 fungi (D. hansenii, C. zeylanoides, T. asahii, A. pseudoglaucus, Aspergillus sydowii, Penicillium expansum, A. alternata, and Alternaria tenuissima) showed significant positive correlations with ≥3 key volatile compounds. Among these fungi, D. hansenii was regarded as a core functional fungus responsible for the formation of the volatile compounds, given its strong connection with the highest number of key volatile compounds. These results provide detailed insight into the fungal communities of traditional dry sausages and a deeper understanding of the contribution of these fungi to sausage flavor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fm.2021.103787DOI Listing
September 2021

Ultrasonic Freezing Reduces Protein Oxidation and Myofibrillar Gel Quality Loss of Common Carp () during Long-Time Frozen Storage.

Foods 2021 Mar 16;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 16.

College of Food Science, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, China.

Ultrasonic freezing (UF) is an effective method to increase the freezing speed and improve the quality of frozen food. The effect of UF on myofibrillar protein oxidation and gel properties of common carp () during frozen storage were investigated with air freezing (AF) and immersion freezing (IF) as controls. The results showed that the carbonyl and dityrosine content of UF samples were lower and the free amine content was higher than those of AF and IF samples during frozen storage indicating that UF inhibited protein oxidation caused by frozen storage. The particle size of UF myofibrillar protein was the smallest among all the groups indicating that UF inhibited the protein aggregation. The UF sample had higher ', " value, gel strength and gel water holding capacity than AF and IF groups showing that UF reduced the loss of protein gel properties. The gel microstructure showed that UF protein gel was characterized by smaller and finer pores than other samples, which further proves that UF inhibited loss of gel properties during frozen storage. The UF sample had shorter transition time than other samples demonstrating that UF decreased the mobility of water. In general, UF is an effective method to reduce protein oxidation and gel properties loss caused by frozen storage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10030629DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8002306PMC
March 2021

Comparative Study of Oxidative Structural Modifications of Unadsorbed and Adsorbed Proteins in Whey Protein Isolate-Stabilized Oil-in-Water Emulsions under the Stress of Primary and Secondary Lipid Oxidation Products.

Foods 2021 Mar 11;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Sharable Platform of Large-Scale Instruments & Equipments, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, China.

The impact of typical primary or secondary lipid oxidation (LPO) products, selected as linoleic acid 13-hydroperoxide (13-HPODE) and malondialdehyde (MDA), on the structural modification of unadsorbed or adsorbed proteins in whey protein isolate (WPI)-stabilized oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions during storage up to 48 h at 37 °C in the dark was investigated. The results showed that either 13-HPODE and MDA could lead to structural modifications of unadsorbed or adsorbed proteins with a concentration-dependent manner and time relationship, respectively. Moreover, higher levels of MDA rendered a higher degree of oxidative modifications of WPI than 13-HPODE, indicated by the higher protein carbonyl contents and N'-formyl-L-kynurenine (NFK) and lower fluorescence intensity. Additionally, adsorbed proteins were more easily oxidized by LPO products than unadsorbed proteins. Overall, our results indicated that the formation of secondary LPO products and the protein position were crucial factors to increase the degree of oxidative modifications of WPI in O/W emulsion systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10030593DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7999650PMC
March 2021

Textural and gel properties of frankfurters as influenced by various κ-carrageenan incorporation methods.

Meat Sci 2021 Jun 26;176:108483. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

College of Food Science, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150030, China; Heilongjiang Green Food Science & Research Institute, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150028, China. Electronic address:

The influence of different addition forms of κ-carrageenan, including powder, pre-suspended in water, and pre-suspended in brine, on the textural and gel properties of frankfurters were investigated. Compared with the control group, each addition form of κ-carrageenan led to a lower cooking loss, as well as higher emulsion stability with more trapped water within frankfurters (P < 0.05). Moreover, κ-carrageenan powder or κ-carrageenan water suspension addition could render higher hardness, adhesiveness, springiness, chewiness, fracturability, and resilience of frankfurters than control group (P < 0.05), which was verified by dynamic rheology analysis. However, κ-carrageenan brine suspension addition had negative effects on the above characteristics. Microstructural images indicated that κ-carrageenan could help form finer and denser protein matrices. However, the interaction modes between the meat protein matrix and each addition form of κ-carrageenan were distinct. Additionally, the addition of κ-carrageenan water suspension had the best effect on the improvement of the textural and gel properties of frankfurters with an enhanced overall acceptability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2021.108483DOI Listing
June 2021

Impact of ice structuring protein on myofibrillar protein aggregation behaviour and structural property of quick-frozen patty during frozen storage.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 May 23;178:136-142. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

College of Forestry, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150040, China. Electronic address:

The goal of this study was to explore the cryoprotective effect of ice structuring protein (ISP) on the aggregation behaviour and structural changes of myofibrillar protein (MP) from quick-frozen pork patties during frozen storage. Frozen storage causes the formation of large protein aggregates and weakens MP structures. After adding ISP into patties, MP had a more stable aggregation system, which was manifested by a uniform particle size distribution and significantly higher absolute zeta potential (11.71 mV) than the control (9.56 mV) (P < 0.05). Atomic force microscopy results showed that the surface roughness of MP aggregation decreased by 9.78% with ISP after freezing for 180 d. Additionally, compared to patties without ISP, the MP carbonyl content from the ISP-treated patty decreased by 32%, and the free amino content increased by 14.99% during frozen storage. Results from circular dichroism spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy showed that MP secondary and tertiary structure stability in patties improved with ISP. Overall, ISP has the potential to improve MP aggregation and structural stability during frozen storage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.02.158DOI Listing
May 2021

Dynamic changes in the qualities and heterocyclic aromatic amines of roasted pork induced by frying temperature and time.

Meat Sci 2021 Jun 16;176:108457. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

College of Food Science, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, Heilongjiang, 150030, China. Electronic address:

The effects of different frying temperatures (150, 175, 200, 225 and 250 °C) and times (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 min) on yield, shear force, color and sensory characteristics, and heterocyclic aromatic amine (HAA) contents of roasted pork were investigated. The results showed significant decreases in yield, shear force and L* and increases in a*, b* and the amounts of HAA of roasted pork with increased frying temperature and time (P < 0.05). The highest score of overall acceptability in crispy and darker roast pork fried at 225 °C for 1 min was obtained. However, the principal component analysis demonstrated that higher HAA contents of roasted pork under high frying temperature (225-250 °C) and long frying time (2-2.5 min) occurred. Considering the various qualities and the amounts of HAA, frying roasted pork at 175 °C for 1.5-2 min was the most suitable condition for preparing roasted pork.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2021.108457DOI Listing
June 2021

Effects of temperature and pH on the structure of a metalloprotease from Lactobacillus fermentum R6 isolated from Harbin dry sausages and molecular docking between protease and meat protein.

J Sci Food Agric 2021 Sep 13;101(12):5016-5027. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

College of Food Science, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, China.

Background: Microbial protease can interact with meat protein in fermented meat products at a certain pH and temperature. To investigate the effects of various pH values and temperatures on the structural characteristics of Lactobacillus fermentum R6 protease, which was isolated from Harbin dry sausages, spectroscopy techniques and molecular dynamics were utilized to evaluate structural changes.

Results: The protease exhibited a stable spatial structure at pH 7 and 40 °C, and the extension of the protease structure was also promoted. Although the structure of the protease could be changed or destroyed by pH 8 and 70 °C, it was mainly determined by the changes of secondary and tertiary structures such as α-helix, β-sheet, β-turn and random coil. In addition, carbonyl vibration, -NH vibration, C-H stretching vibration and disulphide bonds were present in L. fermentum R6 protease under various pH and temperature conditions. Molecular docking showed that the protease can interact with myosin light chain, myosin heavy chain, actin and myoglobin.

Conclusion: The protease can maintain stable structure and interact with meat protein, which reflected certain application prospects in the fermentation of Harbin dry sausages. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.11146DOI Listing
September 2021

Changes in the thermal stability and structure of myofibrillar protein from quick-frozen pork patties with different fat addition under freeze-thaw cycles.

Meat Sci 2021 May 31;175:108420. Epub 2020 Dec 31.

College of Food Science, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150030, China. Electronic address:

Changes in thermal stability and structure of myofibrillar protein from pork patties with different fat addition (0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%) under freeze-thaw (F-T) cycles were discussed. The results showed that the total sulfhydryl, reactive sulfhydryl, free amino group, α-helix and β-sheet contents, fluorescence intensity (FI), and protein thermal stability (T, ∆H) of samples with the same fat content were significantly decreased, while the β-turn and random-coil content and the maximum fluorescence emission wavelength (λ) were significantly increased with increasing F-T cycles (P < 0.05). These changes in samples with 20% fat at the 5th F-T cycle were obvious and were verified by the decreases in ∆H (26.1%), reactive sulfhydryl (16.1%), and FI (16.8%) compared with the patties without fat. Therefore, repeated F-T cycles could decline the thermal stability of protein, destroy the protein structure of patty, and the changes were positively correlated with fat content of patty.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2020.108420DOI Listing
May 2021

Transglutaminase crosslinking promotes physical and oxidative stability of filled hydrogel particles based on biopolymer phase separation.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Mar 14;172:429-438. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

College of Food Science, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150030, China; Heilongjiang Green Food Science & Research Institute, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150028, China. Electronic address:

In the present study, the effect of transglutaminase (TGase) concentration on the physical and oxidative stabilities of filled hydrogel particles created by biopolymer phase separation was investigated. The results showed that filled hydrogels had relatively smaller particle sizes, higher absolute zeta-potentials, higher interfacial layer thicknesses and lightness values with the increasing of TGase concentration (P < 0.05), as evidenced by the apparent viscosity and viscoelasticity behavior. However, the relatively higher TGase concentration promoted the protein aggregation, which weakens the protection of the surface protein layer, having the negatively impacted the physical stability of filled hydrogels. Microstructural images which obtained via cryo-scanning electron microscopy also verified the above results. In particular, it is noted that filled hydrogels displayed the lowest degrees of lipid and protein oxidation during 10 days of storage (P < 0.05) at TGase concentration of 10 U/g. Prevention against oxidation was attributed mainly to TGase crosslinking of protein molecules on the surface of droplets, which likely provided a denser interface around lipid droplets. Our results indicated that TGase was a favourable agent to crosslink protein on the surface of lipid and improve the physical and oxidative stability of filled hydrogel particles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.01.073DOI Listing
March 2021

Role of lactic acid bacteria in flavor development in traditional Chinese fermented foods: A review.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2020 Dec 30:1-15. Epub 2020 Dec 30.

College of Food Science, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, Heilongjiang, China.

Traditional Chinese fermented foods are favored by consumers due to their unique flavor, texture and nutritional values. A large number of microorganisms participate in the process of fermentation, especially lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which are present in almost all fermented foods and contribute to flavor development. The formation process of flavor is complex and involves the biochemical conversion of various food components. It is very important to fully understand the conversion process to direct the flavor formation in foods. A comprehensive link between the LAB community and the flavor formation in traditional Chinese fermented foods is reviewed. The main mechanisms involved in the flavor formation dominated by LAB are carbohydrate metabolism, proteolysis and amino acid catabolism, and lipolysis and fatty acid metabolism. This review highlights some useful novel approaches for flavor enhancement, including the application of functional starter cultures and metabolic engineering, which may provide significant advances toward improving the flavor of fermented foods for a promising market.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2020.1858269DOI Listing
December 2020

In vitro digestion of emulsified lard-based diacylglycerols.

J Sci Food Agric 2021 Jun 25;101(8):3386-3393. Epub 2020 Dec 25.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, China.

Background: Diacylglycerols as a fat substitute in meat products is a growing area of interest. This study was conducted to analyze the digestion rate, digestion extent, and changes in interfacial properties of lard, glycerolized lard (GL), and purified GL (PGL) in an emulsions system by pH-stat in vitro digestion.

Results: PGL had significantly higher hydrolysis rate and final digestion extent than lard (P ≤ 0.05) during in vitro digestion. The analysis on diameter variations of lard, GL, and PGL during digestion indicated that the surface- and volume-weighted mean particle diameters of all samples had the same variation trend, but variation degree was different. Concurrently, the ζ-potential analysis of the lard, GL, and PGL during the digestion process showed that the absolute values of the ζ-potentials of the three types of lipids increased at first and subsequently decreased. The microstructure changes results for lard, GL, and PGL showed there was no obvious flocculation, and the particle size of lard throughout the digestion process was larger than that of GL and PGL.

Conclusion: This study showed that lard-based diacylglycerols had high digestibility characteristics and could be applied as a functional lipid in meat products to improve human health. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.10968DOI Listing
June 2021

Heterocyclic aromatic amine level and quality characteristics of selected Harbin red sausages in the northern Chinese market.

Meat Sci 2021 Feb 22;172:108360. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

College of Food Science, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150030, China. Electronic address:

The heterocyclic aromatic amine (HAA) level and quality characteristics of selected Harbin red sausages in the northern Chinese market and the possible differences between traditional sausages and conventional sausages were evaluated in this study. Four varieties of traditional sausages and four varieties of conventional sausages were selected. Compared to conventional sausages, traditional sausages had lower moisture content and higher hardness (P < 0.05). Twelve HAAs were evaluated and eight HAAs were detected. The total HAA content was as high as 360.73 ng/g. In particular, the contents of Norharman and Harman were much higher than those of the other HAAs (P < 0.05). Additionally, the HAA contents were higher in the traditional sausages than those in the conventional sausages (P < 0.05). Principal component analysis showed that traditional and conventional sausages had a good separation based on the quality characteristics and total HAA level. The results of this study will provide useful information on the industrial production of smoked meat products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2020.108360DOI Listing
February 2021
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