Publications by authors named "Banafsheh Moradmand Badie"

17 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

A Patient with COVID-19 Pneumonia Presenting with Plural Effusion: A Case Report.

Infect Disord Drug Targets 2020 Nov 15. Epub 2020 Nov 15.

Black Dog Institute, University of New South Wales. Australia.

In February 2020, coronavirus disease (COVID-19) emerged in Tehran, Iran. Herein, we reported clinical features, laboratory tests, unusual radiological characteristics and therapeutic course of a patient with initial mild clinical symptoms at presentation with progression to pneumonia and pleural effusion in emergency unit of a referral hospital.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1871526520666201116095440DOI Listing
November 2020

Predictors of mortality in patients with COVID-19-a systematic review.

Eur J Integr Med 2020 Dec 17;40:101226. Epub 2020 Oct 17.

School of Public Health, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, MI, 48859, United States.

Introduction: In the current COVID-19 pandemic, disease diagnosis is essential for optimal management and timely isolation of infected cases in order to prevent further spread. The aim of this study was to systematically review the assessment of risk and model the predictors of mortality in COVID-19 patients.

Methods: A systematic search was conducted of PubMed, Scopus, Embase, Google Scholar, and Web of Science databases. Variables associated with hospital mortality using bivariate analysis were included as potential independent predictors associated with mortality at the  < 0.05 levels.

Results: We included 114 studies accounting for 310,494 patients from various parts of the world. For the purpose of this analysis, we set a cutoff point of 10% for the mortality percentages. High mortality rates were defined as higher than 10% of confirmed positive cases and were given a score of two, while low mortality (<10%) was assigned the score of one. We then analyzed the associations between 72 variables and the observed mortality rates. These variables included a large range of related variables such as demographics, signs and symptoms and related morbidities, vital signs, laboratory findings, imaging studies, underlying diseases, and the status of countries' income, based on the United Nation's classifications.

Conclusion: Findings suggest that older age, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus conferred a significant increased risk of mortality among patients with COVID-19. In the multivariate analysis, only diabetes mellitus demonstrated an independent relationship with increased mortality. Further studies are needed to ascertain the relationship between possible risk factors with COVID-19 mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eujim.2020.101226DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7568488PMC
December 2020

Feasibility and acceptability of take-home naloxone for people released from prison in New South Wales, Australia.

Drug Alcohol Rev 2021 Jan 17;40(1):98-108. Epub 2020 Aug 17.

National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, UNSW Sydney, Sydney, Australia.

Introduction And Aims: To assess the feasibility and acceptability of a take-home naloxone program for people with a history of opioid use released from prison in New South Wales, Australia.

Design And Methods: Cross-sectional interviews with people with a history of opioid use who were recently released from prison (n = 105), and semi-structured interviews with key clinical and operational staff of Justice Health and Forensic Mental Health Network and Corrective Services NSW (n = 9).

Results: Among people with a history of opioid use who had recently left prison, there was very high awareness of the elevated risk of overdose following release from prison (95%) and the potential for naloxone to reverse an opioid overdose (97%). Participants considered that their personal risk of overdose was low, despite ongoing opioid use being common. Participants were largely supportive of take-home naloxone, but the majority (83%) stated that proactively obtaining naloxone would be a low priority for them following release. Key informants were supportive of introducing naloxone training and supply and identified barriers to implementation, including adequate resourcing, identifying the population for training, and developing an appropriate model of training and implementation.

Discussion And Conclusion: There was widespread support for naloxone training in custody and distribution at release among people recently released from prison and key stakeholders in health-care provision and prisons administration. As proactively accessing naloxone is a low priority for patients, naloxone supply at release may be more effective than programs that refer releasees to local pharmacies, but developing a sustainable supply model requires consideration of several barriers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dar.13144DOI Listing
January 2021

Bone Marrow Aspiration/Biopsy in the Evaluation of Fever of Unknown Origin in Patients with AIDS.

Infect Disord Drug Targets 2020 Jul 5. Epub 2020 Jul 5.

Iranian Research Center for HIV/AIDS, Iranian Institute for Reduction of High-Risk Behaviors, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran. Iran.

Background: HIV can interrupt the normal development of bone marrow cell lines. Bone marrow aspiration/biopsy (BMA/B) has been described as a diagnostic tool in AIDS patients with fever of unknown origin (FUO). In this study, we aimed to study patients with AIDS who had undergone a BMA/B to investigate FUO and describe the pathologies diagnosed in the biopsy.

Methods: Thirty-four BMA/B samples were collected from AIDS patients admitted for workup of FUO to the infectious disease ward of a tertiary referral HIV center in Tehran, Iran, between September 2014 and September 2015. Data including age, sex, duration of disease, CD4 cell counts, hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) coinfection, the primary presentation of AIDS, and the treatment history were retrieved and analyzed. Patients underwent BMA/B. An expert pathologist reviewed the BMA/B specimens.

Results: The mean age of the patients was 37.5 years (range, 26-56), and 27 (79%) were men. Twenty-seven (79%) patients contracted HIV from injection drug use, and 7 (21%) via sexual transmission. Only 3 (9%) of the BMA/B examinations were normal. Hypocellular bone marrow was diagnosed in 22 (65%) patients. Other pathologies included granulomas in 6 (18%), hematologic malignancies in 2 (6%), and leishmaniasis Aspergillosis, each in 1 (3%) patient. Six (17%) of the specimens were found to have tuberculosis infections.

Conclusion: Hypocellular bone marrow was the most common pathology on BMA/B examinations, followed by the presence of granulomas. Tuberculosis, Aspergillosis, and Leishmaniasis were the opportunistic infections diagnosed on BMA/B specimens. Our results support BMA/B as an appropriate diagnostic tool for early diagnosis of opportunistic infections and malignancies in AIDS. BMA/B is indispensable in the armament of diagnostic tools of the physicians managing AIDS patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1871526520666200705212903DOI Listing
July 2020

The Effect of Psycho-Social Problems on Risky Behaviors in People Living With HIV in Tehran, Iran.

J Family Reprod Health 2018 Jun;12(2):89-95

Department of Public Health, Faculty of Public Health, Flinders University, Flinders, Australia.

Over the past years, the prevalence and the progression rate of HIV infection in Iran especially through high-risk sexual relationships have regrettably been reported at very high levels. This cross-sectional study tries to analyze stigma, mental health, and coping skills on risky behaviors in HIV-positive adults in Tehran- Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 450 HIV-positive adults. Participants completed a socio-demographic questionnaire, the General HealthQuestionnaire-28, the Berger HIV Stigma Scale as well as the Lazarus Ways of Coping Questionnaire (WOCQ). To analyze the data, the independent-samples t-test and Pearson Correlation were used. The findings of this study revealed that mental health, stigma, and avoidance-escape coping mechanisms were correlated with risky behaviors (p ˂ 0.05).Furthermore, the amount of stigma among female individuals compared to men was reported at higher levels and mental health status in the given group was lower than among male individuals. It seems that psychological treatment techniques could be effective in improving mental health and reducing risky behaviors.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6391305PMC
June 2018

Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Hyperglycemia and Diabetes Mellitus Among HIV Positive Patients in Tehran, Iran.

Infect Disord Drug Targets 2019 ;19(3):304-309

Iranian Research Center for HIV/AIDS, Iranian Institute for Reduction of High-Risk Behaviors, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: The introduction of Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) has resulted in the emergence of some metabolic complications including hyperglycemia and diabetes mellitus among HIV positive patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of hyperglycemia, diabetes mellitus and their associated risk factors in HIV positive patients.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on HIV positive patients who visited Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) center of Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran, Iran (2004-2013). Medical records of patients were reviewed retrospectively. A logistic regression model was applied for analysis of the association between glycemic status and relevant risk factors.

Results: Out of 480 patients who were included in this study, 267 (55.6%) had hyperglycemia, including 28 (5.8%) with diabetes mellitus and 239 (49.8%) with pre-diabetes. The higher frequency of hyperglycemia, was found to be significantly associated with older age (OR for patients ˃40 years old, 2.260; 95% CI, 1.491, 3.247), male gender (OR, 1.555; 95% CI, 1.047, 2.311), higher Body Mass Index (OR for patients with BMI˃25 Kg/m², 1.706; 95% CI, 1.149, 2.531) and prolonged duration of HIV infection (OR for patients with duration of HIV infection ≥60 months, 2.027; 95% CI, 1.372, 2.992).

Conclusion: Hyperglycemia, especially pre-diabetes, is highly frequent among Iranian people living with HIV. Male gender, older age, prolonged duration of HIV infection, and higher BMI were associated with a higher prevalence of hyperglycemia. Hence, it is important to screen all HIV infected patients at the time of diagnosis and then periodically for hyperglycemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1871526518666180723152715DOI Listing
February 2020

Relationship Among HIV-Related Stigma, Mental Health and Quality of life for HIV-Positive Patients in Tehran.

AIDS Behav 2018 Dec;22(12):3773-3782

Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran.

People living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) face several challenges in terms of the medical management of their disease. Alongside this are stigma, discrimination and psychosocial issues associated with HIV infection. In this study, the relationships associated with HIV-related stigma, mental health and quality of life for HIV-positive patients were investigated. This cross-sectional study examined a sample of 450 HIV positive patients from the Infectious Diseases and Behavioral Health Clinic of Imam Khomeini Hospital in the city of Tehran, Iran. PLWHA completed Socio-Demographic Characteristics, Berger Scale Stigma (BSS), General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), WHO Quality of life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF) and Philips Social Support Appraisals (SSA). Stigma was significantly correlated with psychological variables, social support, and quality of life. A prevalence of psychiatric disorders was reported by 78.8%. Findings suggested that psychosocial interventions reduce HIV related stigma, address psychological disorders and build social support to improve quality of life for people living with HIV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10461-017-2023-zDOI Listing
December 2018

Assessing the Efficacy of Second-Line Antiretroviral Treatment for HIV Patients Failing First-Line Antiretroviral Therapy in Iran: A Cohort Study.

Acta Med Iran 2017 Apr;55(4):233-240

Academic Member of Academic Center for Education, Culture and Research, Tehran, Iran.

There are limited documents about HIV patients switched to second-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-limited countries. We aimed to assess the efficacy of second-line ART for HIV patients following first-line ART failure. This was a cohort study of HIV/AIDS patients with first-line ART treatment failure switched to second-line ART between January 2004 and March 2014, who followed for at least 12 months after switching. Fifty of studied patients (85%) were treated with regimens containing lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra) and nine of them (15%) treated with other regimes. Seven patients were experienced opportunistic infections in accordance with stage III and IV WHO classification. In this way, 11.8% of patients had aclinicalfailure, and 37 of them (62%) had immunological responses. Weight gain was evident in these patients, and there was a significant correlation between theincrease in CD4 and weight gain (P=0.007). Only 13 patients achieved HIV viral load testing that 6 of them had avirological response after 12 months on second-line ART. No significant associations were found between virological or immunological response and gender, age, and lopinavir/ritonavir regimens (P>0.05).With counselling and supporting in those failing first-line ART, inessential switching to more costly second-line ART can be prevented in the majority of patients. However, patients' need to second-line ART drugs has increased, for which national ART programmes and regular follow-up should be organized. The high cost of these drugs and limited access to viral load testing are main barriers to proper management of patients switched to second-line ART regimens.
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April 2017

Echocardiographic assessment of systolic pulmonary arterial pressure in HIV-positive patients.

Acta Med Iran 2014 ;52(11):827-30

Department of Public Health, School of Public Health, Flinders University, Flinders, South Australia.

Pulmonary hypertension is rare but is one of the complications that occur due to HIV infection. Symptoms of HIV-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension are often non-specific but the main symptom of the disease is dyspnea. In this cross-sectional study, we measured systolic pulmonary arterial pressure (SPAP) by echocardiographic methods among HIV-positive patients who received ART. This research is a descriptive, cross-sectional study of 170 HIV-positive patients that was conducted in Imam-Khomeini hospital, Tehran, Iran during 2011-2013. All patients regularly received antiretroviral therapy at least for recent 2 years. There were not any cardiopulmonary symptoms (cough, dyspnea, exertional fatigue and chest discomfort) in these patients. All participants underwent echocardiography to estimate SPAP. The participants comprised 108 males (63.5%) and 62 females (46.5%). The mean age of patients was 41 years old, and the mean duration of HIV infection was 5.5 years. The mean CD4 cell count was 401 cell/µl. The principal regimen of antiretroviral therapy included two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) and one non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) in the hospital. The mean of systolic pulmonary arterial pressure was 25 mmHg in the participants; 156 (93.4%) of them had SPAP ≤ 30 mmHg (normal), six (3.6%) had SPAP: 31-35 mmHg (borderline) and five (3%) had SPAP > 35 mmHg (pulmonary hypertension). Our results indicated a significant increase of pulmonary hypertension in asymptomatic HIV-positive patients that had no association with any other risk factor. Also, antiretroviral therapy was not a risk factor for pulmonary hypertension in this study.
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July 2015

Early loss to follow-up and mortality of HIV-infected patients diagnosed after the era of antiretroviral treatment scale up: a call for re-invigorating the response in Iran.

Int J STD AIDS 2013 Dec 6;24(12):926-30. Epub 2013 Aug 6.

Iranian Research Center for HIV/AIDS, Iran.

In Iran, the HIV/AIDS epidemic is growing during an era of scaling up the national surveillance system and antiretroviral therapy programs. We examined the early loss to follow-up and mortality rates in a retrospective cohort of 1495 HIV-infected patients by survival proportional hazard Cox model. We also conducted a data abstraction sub-study in a systematic random sample of 147 patients to assess the association between mortality and predictor factors. Overall, 17.3% patients were not seen after their first visit and 17.4% more were lost by 6 months. The overall mortality rate was 7.0 (95% CI 6.1-8.1) per 100 person-years. Moreover, crude mortality rate was higher in men (8.6) than in women (1.7), with an age-adjusted hazard ratio for men compared to women of 4.55 (95% CI 2.31-8.93). Lastly, history of tuberculosis and not being on antiretroviral therapy were significantly associated with higher mortality in the patient sub-sample.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956462413491733DOI Listing
December 2013

Antibody responses to trivalent influenza vaccine in Iranian adults infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

Acta Med Iran 2013 Apr 6;51(3):148-52. Epub 2013 Apr 6.

Department of Infectious Disease, Imam Khomeini Medical Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The serious influenza-associated complications among immunodeficient individuals such as those who are infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), highlights the importance of influenza vaccination in these people. Therefore, the current study aimed to investigate the antibody responses to influenza vaccine in this group. Two hundred subjects were recruited, during autumn 2010 and 2011, to receive, trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine consisting of A (H1N1), A (H3N2), and B strains. Hemagglutination inhibition assay was used to measure the antibody titer against all strains of the vaccine prior and one month post vaccination. Seroconversion rate for A (H1N1), A (H3N2), and B were found to be 58.5%, 67% and 64.5%, respectively. No correlation was found between antibody titer and demographics factors such as age and gender; however, we found a significant correlation between antibody titer and CD4 cell count. Checking the local and systemic reactions after vaccination, the pain on the injection site and myalgia were the most common local and systemic reactions with 20% and 6.5%, respectively. As vaccination with influenza mount considerable antibody responses in HIV-infected patients, annual influenza vaccination seems to be rational in order to prevent or reduce the severe clinical complications induced by influenza virus.
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April 2013

Evaluation of bone mineral density in Iranian HIV/AIDS patients.

Acta Med Iran 2011 ;49(7):460-7

Iranian Research Center for HIV/AIDS, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran.

Bone disorders have emerged as a worrisome complication in HIV-infected patients in recent years. It is not clear that HIV infection itself or antiretroviral treatment or both are causes of bone loss. However, most studies have found a high prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis in HIV/AIDS patients. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis in HIV-infected patients either untreated or receiving Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy as compared with HIV negative persons. We also assessed the factors associated with these conditions. Bone Mineral Density was assessed by Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry scans at the hip and lumbar spine in 36 AIDS patients receiving antiretroviral therapy and 44 HIV infected patients not receiving antiretroviral therapy (naïve patients) and 40 HIV negative individuals as control. Factors that affect BMD were also determined. Prevalence of osteopenia or osteoporosis in different regions was significantly higher in HIV/AIDS patients compared with HIV negative subjects (77.3% in HIV positive naïve patients, 86.1% in HAART-treated patients and 60% in the control group, P=0.002). Mean serum alkaline phosphatase was higher in HIV/AIDS patients than the control group (P=0.003). Osteopenia and osteoporosis in HIV-infected patients were associated with duration of HIV infection (P<0.0001) and antiretroviral treatment (P=0.012). Prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis in HIV/AIDS patients was higher than HIV negative individuals. Osteopenia and osteoporosis in HIV/AIDS patients was associated with duration of HIV infection and antiretroviral treatment.
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January 2012

FNA diagnostic value in patients with neck masses in two teaching hospitals in Iran.

Acta Med Iran 2011 ;49(2):85-8

Department of Pathology, Bu-Ali Hospital, School of Medicine, Azad University of Tehran, Iran.

The FNA (fine needle aspiration) procedure is simple, inexpensive, available and a safe method for the diagnosis of a neck mass. FNA has numerous advantages over open surgical biopsies as an initial diagnostic tool; therefore we decided to compare the accuracy of this method with open biopsy. This retrospective as well as descriptive study comparing preoperative FNA results with existing data in the Pathology Department in Bu-Ali and Amir Alam Hospitals. Our study included 100 patients with neck masses of which 22 were thyroid masses, 31 were salivary gland masses, and 47 were other masses. Age ranged from 3 years to 80 years with the mean age of 42.6 years. There were 59 men and 41 women. The Sensitivity was 72%, Specificity 87%, PPV 85%, NPV 75% and diagnostic Accuracy 79%. In this study we had also 26% false negative and 15% false positive. FNA is a valuable diagnostic tool in the management of neck masses; also it has been used for staging and planning of treatment for the wide and metastatic malignancy. This technique reduces the need for more invasive and costly procedures. According to the high sensitivity and high accuracy in this study, FNA can be used as the first step of diagnoses test in neck masses.
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September 2011

Respiratory Complications in Iranian Hospitalized Patients with HIV/AIDS.

Tanaffos 2011 ;10(3):49-54

CAPS and the Institute for Global Health, University of California, San Francisco, USA.

Background: The respiratory tract has been the most commonly affected site of illness in HIV-infected patients. The current study was done to identify the frequency of respiratory complications in a consecutive case series of HIV-positive patients in Iran.

Materials And Methods: This study was a retrospective analysis at the national academic reference medical center of Imam-Khomeini Hospital, in Tehran, Iran. The study included 199 new admissions for 177 HIV-infected patients between 2000 and 2005. Demographic characteristics, risk factors for HIV infection, respiratory complications, and CD4+ lymphocyte counts were evaluated in these patients.

Results: All patients were males. The mean age was 35 years (age range: 15 to 63 years). Among 34 cases with available CD4+ lymphocyte count results, 70.6% had results <200 cells/mm(3). Nearly half the patients (47.7%) had respiratory symptoms. The most common pulmonary complications were cough (86.3%), sputum (71.6%), dyspnea (54.7%), and hemoptysis (10.5%). The most common diagnosis was pulmonary tuberculosis (27.1%), followed by other bacterial pneumonias (16.6%) and pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (4.5%). Intravenous drug users who had history of incarceration had the highest risk factors for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (59%), and other bacterial pneumonias (52%).

Conclusion: Our study demonstrates that respiratory complications are highly frequent in HIV patients in Iran and that pulmonary tuberculosis is still a common complication in HIV infected patients, despite the availability of effective treatment. Results suggest the need for more effective preventive and prophylactic measures, wider use of antiretroviral treatment and effective chemotherapy for Iranian patients with HIV/AIDS.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4153161PMC
September 2014

Brucella endocarditis: a report from Iran.

Trop Doct 2010 Jan 22;40(1):47-9. Epub 2009 Oct 22.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Tehran University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran.

Endocarditis is a rare focal complication of brucellosis but the most common cause of mortality. The diagnosis of the complications of endemic diseases is therefore important. We evaluated Brucella endocarditis cases in a teaching hospital in Iran between April 1998 and March 2006. Nine patients with a median age of 38.11 years were recorded, of whom seven (77.7%) were male. Underlying cardiopathy was present in three patients (33.3%). The median duration of the symptoms prior to diagnosis was 5.33 months. Endocarditis involved the aortic valve in six cases (66.6%), the mitral valve in two cases (22.2%) and the aortic valve plus the mitral valve in one case (11.1%). Serologic tests were positive in eight (88.8%) and blood culture was positive in two (22.2%). Aortic valve replacement surgery was undertaken for five patients (55.5%). One patient died due to arrhythmia. A high degree of suspicion is therefore necessary in order to ameliorate the course of Brucella endocarditis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1258/td.2009.090039DOI Listing
January 2010

A cross-sectional study of anemia in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients in iran.

Arch Iran Med 2009 Mar;12(2):145-50

Iranian Research Center for HIV/AIDS (IRCHA), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Anemia is a frequent complication of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The causes of HIV-related anemia are multifactorial. This study was conducted to evaluate the factors associated with anemia in HIV-infected patients.

Methods: A total of 642 patients with HIV/AIDS attending the HIV Clinic at Imam Khomeini Hospital in Tehran, Iran enrolled in this study. A detailed history and physical examination was done for all the patients. Investigations included CD4+ count, hemoglobin concentration, and red blood cells morphology.

Results: Among HIV-infected patients, 87% were males. The mean duration of antiretroviral therapy was 17.9+/-9.2 months. The mean (+/-SD) hemoglobin level was 12.9+/-2.31 mg/dL. Evaluation of red blood cell morphology showed macrocytosis in 11%, normocytosis plus normochromia in 41.1%, and microcytosis plus hypochromia in 47.9% of the patients. The prevalence of anemia (defined as hemoglobin<10 mg/dL) was 10.3%. Anemia was positively associated with female sex (OR=3.01), CD4 level (CD4 count of <200) (OR=3.49), and antituberculous drug administration (OR=4.57).

Conclusion: Female sex, stage of HIV infection, and antituberculous drug use were the most important factors associated with anemia in HIV-infected patients in our study.
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March 2009

Occult hepatitis B virus infection in HIV-infected patients with isolated hepatitis B core antibody.

Intervirology 2008 7;51(4):270-4. Epub 2008 Oct 7.

Virology Department, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.

Objective: Detection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA without detectable hepatitis B surfaceantigen (HBsAg) is defined as occult HBV infection. In patients co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and HBV, HIV interferes with the natural history of HBV infection by enhancing HBV replication, leading to more severe liver disease. The aim of this study was to assess occult HBV infection in Iranian HIV-positive patients with isolated hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc).

Methods: The presence of HBV-DNA was determined quantitatively in plasma samples of HIV-infected patients with isolated anti-HBc by real-time PCR using the artus HBV RG PCR kit on the Rotor-Gene 3000 real-time thermal cycler. Hepatitis C antibody (anti-HCV), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), HIV viral load and CD4+ count were also tested in all subjects.

Results: Of 106 patients enrolled in this study, 22 subjects (20.75%, 95% CI 13-28) had isolated anti-HBc. HBV-DNA was detectable in 3 of the 22 patients (13.6%, 95% CI 0.0-28) who had isolated anti-HBc.

Conclusion: A serological profile of isolated anti-HBc could be associated with occult HBV infection in Iranian HIV-infected patients. Therefore the risk of transmission of HBV is probable in these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000160217DOI Listing
December 2008